Robotics is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and science
that includes mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, computer
science, and others.
Robotics deals with the design, construction,
operation, and use of robots, as well as computer systems for their
control, sensory feedback, and information processing.
These technologies are used to develop machines that can substitute
for humans and replicate human actions. Robots can be used in any
situation and for any purpose, but today many are used in dangerous
environments (including bomb detection and de-activation),
manufacturing processes, or where humans cannot survive. Robots can
take on any form but some are made to resemble humans in appearance.
This is said to help in the acceptance of a robot in certain
replicative behaviors usually performed by people. Such robots attempt
to replicate walking, lifting, speech, cognition, and basically
anything a human can do. Many of today's robots are inspired by
nature, contributing to the field of bio-inspired robotics.
The concept of creating machines that can operate autonomously dates
back to classical times, but research into the functionality and
potential uses of robots did not grow substantially until the 20th
century. Throughout history, it has been frequently assumed that
robots will one day be able to mimic human behavior and manage tasks
in a human-like fashion. Today, robotics is a rapidly growing field,
as technological advances continue; researching, designing, and
building new robots serve various practical purposes, whether
domestically, commercially, or militarily. Many robots are built to do
jobs that are hazardous to people such as defusing bombs, finding
survivors in unstable ruins, and exploring mines and shipwrecks.
Robotics is also used in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and
mathematics) as a teaching aid.
Robotics is a branch of engineering that involves the conception,
design, manufacture, and operation of robots. This field overlaps with
electronics, computer science, artificial intelligence, mechatronics,
nanotechnology and bioengineering.
Isaac Asimov is often given credit for being
the first person to use the term robotics in a short story composed in
the 1940s. In the story, Asimov suggested three principles to guide
the behavior of robots and smart machines. Asimov's Three Laws of
Robotics, as they are called, have survived to the present:
Robots must never harm human beings.
Robots must follow instructions from humans without violating rule 1.
Robots must protect themselves without violating the other rules.
3 Robotic aspects
5.1 Power source
5.2.1 Electric motors
5.2.2 Linear actuators
5.2.3 Series elastic actuators
5.2.4 Air muscles
5.2.6 Electroactive polymers
5.2.7 Piezo motors
5.2.8 Elastic nanotubes
5.4.1 Mechanical grippers
5.4.2 Vacuum grippers
5.4.3 General purpose effectors
5.5.1 Rolling robots
126.96.36.199 Two-wheeled balancing robots
188.8.131.52 One-wheeled balancing robots
184.108.40.206 Spherical orb robots
220.127.116.11 Six-wheeled robots
18.104.22.168 Tracked robots
5.5.2 Walking applied to robots
22.214.171.124 ZMP technique
126.96.36.199 Dynamic balancing (controlled falling)
188.8.131.52 Passive dynamics
5.5.3 Other methods of locomotion
184.108.40.206 Swimming (Piscine)
5.6 Environmental interaction and navigation
5.7 Human-robot interaction
5.7.2 Robotic voice
5.7.4 Facial expression
5.7.5 Artificial emotions
5.7.7 Social Intelligence
6.1 Autonomy levels
7.1 Dynamics and kinematics
Bionics and biomimetics
8 Education and training
8.1 Career training
8.3 Summer robotics camp
Robotics afterschool programs
10 Occupational safety and health implications
11 See also
13 Further reading
14 External links
The word robotics was derived from the word robot, which was
introduced to the public by Czech writer
Karel Čapek in his play
R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots), which was published in 1920.
The word robot comes from the Slavic word robota, which means labour.
The play begins in a factory that makes artificial people called
robots, creatures who can be mistaken for humans – very similar to
the modern ideas of androids.
Karel Čapek himself did not coin the
word. He wrote a short letter in reference to an etymology in the
Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary in which he named his brother Josef Čapek
as its actual originator.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word robotics was
first used in print by Isaac Asimov, in his science fiction short
story "Liar!", published in May 1941 in Astounding Science Fiction.
Asimov was unaware that he was coining the term; since the science and
technology of electrical devices is electronics, he assumed robotics
already referred to the science and technology of robots. In some of
Asimov's other works, he states that the first use of the word
robotics was in his short story Runaround (Astounding Science Fiction,
March 1942). However, the original publication of "Liar!"
predates that of "Runaround" by ten months, so the former is generally
cited as the word's origin.
See also: History of robots
In 1942, the science fiction writer
Isaac Asimov created his Three
Laws of Robotics.
Norbert Wiener formulated the principles of cybernetics, the
basis of practical robotics.
Fully autonomous only appeared in the second half of the 20th century.
The first digitally operated and programmable robot, the Unimate, was
installed in 1961 to lift hot pieces of metal from a die casting
machine and stack them. Commercial and industrial robots are
widespread today and used to perform jobs more cheaply, more
accurately and more reliably, than humans. They are also employed in
some jobs which are too dirty, dangerous, or dull to be suitable for
humans. Robots are widely used in manufacturing, assembly, packing and
packaging, mining, transport, earth and space exploration, surgery,
weaponry, laboratory research, safety, and the mass production of
consumer and industrial goods.
Third century B.C. and earlier
One of the earliest descriptions of automata appears in the Lie Zi
text, on a much earlier encounter between
King Mu of Zhou
King Mu of Zhou (1023–957
BC) and a mechanical engineer known as Yan Shi, an 'artificer'. The
latter allegedly presented the king with a life-size, human-shaped
figure of his mechanical handiwork.
Yan Shi (Chinese: 偃师)
First century A.D. and earlier
Descriptions of more than 100 machines and automata, including a fire
engine, a wind organ, a coin-operated machine, and a steam-powered
engine, in Pneumatica and Automata by Heron of Alexandria
Ctesibius, Philo of Byzantium, Heron of Alexandria, and others
c. 420 B.C.E
A wooden, steam propelled bird, which was able to fly
Archytas of Tarentum
Created early humanoid automata, programmable automaton band
Robot band, hand-washing automaton, automated moving peacocks
Designs for a humanoid robot
Leonardo da Vinci
Mechanical duck that was able to eat, flap its wings, and excrete
Jacques de Vaucanson
Nikola Tesla demonstrates first radio-controlled vessel.
First fictional automatons called "robots" appear in the play R.U.R.
Rossum's Universal Robots
Humanoid robot exhibited at the 1939 and 1940 World's Fairs
Westinghouse Electric Corporation
First general-purpose digital computer
Simple robots exhibiting biological behaviors
Elsie and Elmer
William Grey Walter
First commercial robot, from the Unimation company founded by George
Devol and Joseph Engelberger, based on Devol's patents
First installed industrial robot.
1967 to 1972
First full-scale humanoid intelligent robot, and first
android. Its limb control system allowed it to walk with the lower
limbs, and to grip and transport objects with hands, using tactile
sensors. Its vision system allowed it to measure distances and
directions to objects using external receptors, artificial eyes and
ears. And its conversation system allowed it to communicate with a
person in Japanese, with an artificial mouth. This made it
First industrial robot with six electromechanically driven
The world's first microcomputer controlled electric industrial robot,
IRB 6 from ASEA, was delivered to a small mechanical engineering
company in southern Sweden. The design of this robot had been patented
Programmable universal manipulation arm, a Unimation product
First object-level robot programming language, allowing robots to
handle variations in object position, shape, and sensor noise.
Freddy I and II, RAPT robot programming language
Patricia Ambler and Robin Popplestone
A level of programming
There are many types of robots; they are used in many different
environments and for many different uses, although being very diverse
in application and form they all share three basic similarities when
it comes to their construction:
Robots all have some kind of mechanical construction, a frame, form or
shape designed to achieve a particular task. For example, a robot
designed to travel across heavy dirt or mud, might use caterpillar
tracks. The mechanical aspect is mostly the creator's solution to
completing the assigned task and dealing with the physics of the
environment around it. Form follows function.
Robots have electrical components which power and control the
machinery. For example, the robot with caterpillar tracks would need
some kind of power to move the tracker treads. That power comes in the
form of electricity, which will have to travel through a wire and
originate from a battery, a basic electrical circuit. Even petrol
powered machines that get their power mainly from petrol still require
an electric current to start the combustion process which is why most
petrol powered machines like cars, have batteries. The electrical
aspect of robots is used for movement (through motors), sensing (where
electrical signals are used to measure things like heat, sound,
position, and energy status) and operation (robots need some level of
electrical energy supplied to their motors and sensors in order to
activate and perform basic operations)
All robots contain some level of computer programming code. A program
is how a robot decides when or how to do something. In the caterpillar
track example, a robot that needs to move across a muddy road may have
the correct mechanical construction and receive the correct amount of
power from its battery, but would not go anywhere without a program
telling it to move. Programs are the core essence of a robot, it could
have excellent mechanical and electrical construction, but if its
program is poorly constructed its performance will be very poor (or it
may not perform at all). There are three different types of robotic
programs: remote control, artificial intelligence and hybrid. A robot
with remote control programing has a preexisting set of commands that
it will only perform if and when it receives a signal from a control
source, typically a human being with a remote control. It is perhaps
more appropriate to view devices controlled primarily by human
commands as falling in the discipline of automation rather than
robotics. Robots that use artificial intelligence interact with their
environment on their own without a control source, and can determine
reactions to objects and problems they encounter using their
preexisting programming. Hybrid is a form of programming that
incorporates both AI and RC functions.
As more and more robots are designed for specific tasks this method of
classification becomes more relevant. For example, many robots are
designed for assembly work, which may not be readily adaptable for
other applications. They are termed as "assembly robots". For seam
welding, some suppliers provide complete welding systems with the
robot i.e. the welding equipment along with other material handling
facilities like turntables etc. as an integrated unit. Such an
integrated robotic system is called a "welding robot" even though its
discrete manipulator unit could be adapted to a variety of tasks. Some
robots are specifically designed for heavy load manipulation, and are
labelled as "heavy duty robots".
Current and potential applications include:
Caterpillar plans to develop remote controlled machines and expects to
develop fully autonomous heavy robots by 2021. Some cranes already
are remote controlled.
It was demonstrated that a robot can perform a herding task.
Robots are increasingly used in manufacturing (since the 1960s). In
the auto industry, they can amount for more than half of the "labor".
There are even "lights off" factories such as an IBM keyboard
manufacturing factory in Texas that is 100% automated.
Robots such as HOSPI are used as couriers in hospitals (hospital
robot). Other hospital tasks performed by robots are receptionists,
guides and porters helpers.
Robots can serve as waiters and cooks, also at home. Boris
is a robot that can load a dishwasher.
Rotimatic is a robotics
kitchen appliance that cooks flatbreads automatically.
Robot combat for sport – hobby or sport event where two or more
robots fight in an arena to disable each other. This has developed
from a hobby in the 1990s to several TV series worldwide.
Cleanup of contaminated areas, such as toxic waste or nuclear
Agricultural robots (AgRobots).
Domestic robots, cleaning and caring for the elderly
Medical robots performing low-invasive surgery
Household robots with full use.
Power supply and Energy storage
At present, mostly (lead–acid) batteries are used as a power source.
Many different types of batteries can be used as a power source for
robots. They range from lead–acid batteries, which are safe and have
relatively long shelf lives but are rather heavy compared to
silver–cadmium batteries that are much smaller in volume and are
currently much more expensive. Designing a battery-powered robot needs
to take into account factors such as safety, cycle lifetime and
weight. Generators, often some type of internal combustion engine, can
also be used. However, such designs are often mechanically complex and
need a fuel, require heat dissipation and are relatively heavy. A
tether connecting the robot to a power supply would remove the power
supply from the robot entirely. This has the advantage of saving
weight and space by moving all power generation and storage components
elsewhere. However, this design does come with the drawback of
constantly having a cable connected to the robot, which can be
difficult to manage. Potential power sources could be:
pneumatic (compressed gases)
Solar power (using the sun's energy and converting it into electrical
flywheel energy storage
organic garbage (through anaerobic digestion)
Main article: Actuator
A robotic leg powered by air muscles
Actuators are the "muscles" of a robot, the parts which convert stored
energy into movement. By far the most popular actuators are electric
motors that rotate a wheel or gear, and linear actuators that control
industrial robots in factories. There are some recent advances in
alternative types of actuators, powered by electricity, chemicals, or
Main article: Electric motor
The vast majority of robots use electric motors, often brushed and
brushless DC motors in portable robots or AC motors in industrial
robots and CNC machines. These motors are often preferred in systems
with lighter loads, and where the predominant form of motion is
Main article: Linear actuator
Various types of linear actuators move in and out instead of by
spinning, and often have quicker direction changes, particularly when
very large forces are needed such as with industrial robotics. They
are typically powered by compressed and oxidized air (pneumatic
actuator) or an oil (hydraulic actuator).
Series elastic actuators
A flexure is designed as part of the motor actuator, to improve safety
and provide robust force control, energy efficiency, shock absorption
(mechanical filtering) while reducing excessive wear on the
transmission and other mechanical components. The resultant lower
reflected inertia can improve safety when a robot is interacting with
humans or during collisions. It has been used in various robots,
particularly advanced manufacturing robots and walking humanoid
Main article: Pneumatic artificial muscles
Pneumatic artificial muscles, also known as air muscles, are special
tubes that expand(typically up to 40%) when air is forced inside them.
They are used in some robot applications.
Main article: Shape memory alloy
Muscle wire, also known as shape memory alloy, Nitinol® or Flexinol®
wire, is a material which contracts (under 5%) when electricity is
applied. They have been used for some small robot
Main article: Electroactive polymers
EAPs or EPAMs are a new[when?] plastic material that can contract
substantially (up to 380% activation strain) from electricity, and
have been used in facial muscles and arms of humanoid robots, and
to enable new robots to float, fly, swim or walk.
Main article: Piezoelectric motor
Recent alternatives to DC motors are piezo motors or ultrasonic
motors. These work on a fundamentally different principle, whereby
tiny piezoceramic elements, vibrating many thousands of times per
second, cause linear or rotary motion. There are different mechanisms
of operation; one type uses the vibration of the piezo elements to
step the motor in a circle or a straight line. Another type uses
the piezo elements to cause a nut to vibrate or to drive a screw. The
advantages of these motors are nanometer resolution, speed, and
available force for their size. These motors are already available
commercially, and being used on some robots.
Further information: Nanotube
Elastic nanotubes are a promising artificial muscle technology in
early-stage experimental development. The absence of defects in carbon
nanotubes enables these filaments to deform elastically by several
percent, with energy storage levels of perhaps 10 J/cm3 for metal
Human biceps could be replaced with an 8 mm diameter
wire of this material. Such compact "muscle" might allow future robots
to outrun and outjump humans.
Main article: Robotic sensing
Sensors allow robots to receive information about a certain
measurement of the environment, or internal components. This is
essential for robots to perform their tasks, and act upon any changes
in the environment to calculate the appropriate response. They are
used for various forms of measurements, to give the robots warnings
about safety or malfunctions, and to provide real-time information of
the task it is performing.
Main article: Tactile sensor
Current robotic and prosthetic hands receive far less tactile
information than the human hand. Recent research has developed a
tactile sensor array that mimics the mechanical properties and touch
receptors of human fingertips. The sensor array is constructed
as a rigid core surrounded by conductive fluid contained by an
elastomeric skin. Electrodes are mounted on the surface of the rigid
core and are connected to an impedance-measuring device within the
core. When the artificial skin touches an object the fluid path around
the electrodes is deformed, producing impedance changes that map the
forces received from the object. The researchers expect that an
important function of such artificial fingertips will be adjusting
robotic grip on held objects.
Scientists from several European countries and Israel developed a
prosthetic hand in 2009, called SmartHand, which functions like a real
one—allowing patients to write with it, type on a keyboard, play
piano and perform other fine movements. The prosthesis has sensors
which enable the patient to sense real feeling in its fingertips.
Main article: Computer vision
See also: Vision processing unit
Computer vision is the science and technology of machines that see. As
a scientific discipline, computer vision is concerned with the theory
behind artificial systems that extract information from images. The
image data can take many forms, such as video sequences and views from
In most practical computer vision applications, the computers are
pre-programmed to solve a particular task, but methods based on
learning are now becoming increasingly common.
Computer vision systems rely on image sensors which detect
electromagnetic radiation which is typically in the form of either
visible light or infra-red light. The sensors are designed using
solid-state physics. The process by which light propagates and
reflects off surfaces is explained using optics. Sophisticated image
sensors even require quantum mechanics to provide a complete
understanding of the image formation process. Robots can also be
equipped with multiple vision sensors to be better able to compute the
sense of depth in the environment. Like human eyes, robots' "eyes"
must also be able to focus on a particular area of interest, and also
adjust to variations in light intensities.
There is a subfield within computer vision where artificial systems
are designed to mimic the processing and behavior of biological
system, at different levels of complexity. Also, some of the
learning-based methods developed within computer vision have their
background in biology.
Other common forms of sensing in robotics use lidar, radar, and
KUKA industrial robot operating in a foundry
Puma, one of the first industrial robots
Baxter, a modern and versatile industrial robot developed by Rodney
Further information: Mobile manipulator
Robots need to manipulate objects; pick up, modify, destroy, or
otherwise have an effect. Thus the "hands" of a robot are often
referred to as end effectors, while the "arm" is referred to as a
manipulator. Most robot arms have replaceable effectors, each
allowing them to perform some small range of tasks. Some have a fixed
manipulator which cannot be replaced, while a few have one very
general purpose manipulator, for example, a humanoid hand.
Learning how to manipulate a robot often requires a close feedback
between human to the robot, although there are several methods for
remote manipulation of robots.
One of the most common effectors is the gripper. In its simplest
manifestation, it consists of just two fingers which can open and
close to pick up and let go of a range of small objects. Fingers can
for example, be made of a chain with a metal wire run through it.
Hands that resemble and work more like a human hand include the Shadow
Hand and the
Robonaut hand. Hands that are of a mid-level
complexity include the
Delft hand. Mechanical grippers can
come in various types, including friction and encompassing jaws.
Friction jaws use all the force of the gripper to hold the object in
place using friction. Encompassing jaws cradle the object in place,
using less friction.
Vacuum grippers are very simple astrictive devices that can hold
very large loads provided the prehension surface is smooth enough to
Pick and place robots for electronic components and for large objects
like car windscreens, often use very simple vacuum grippers.
General purpose effectors
Some advanced robots are beginning to use fully humanoid hands, like
the Shadow Hand, MANUS, and the
Schunk hand. These are highly
dexterous manipulators, with as many as 20 degrees of freedom and
hundreds of tactile sensors.
Robot locomotion and Mobile robot
Segway in the
Robot museum in Nagoya
For simplicity, most mobile robots have four wheels or a number of
continuous tracks. Some researchers have tried to create more complex
wheeled robots with only one or two wheels. These can have certain
advantages such as greater efficiency and reduced parts, as well as
allowing a robot to navigate in confined places that a four-wheeled
robot would not be able to.
Two-wheeled balancing robots
Balancing robots generally use a gyroscope to detect how much a robot
is falling and then drive the wheels proportionally in the same
direction, to counterbalance the fall at hundreds of times per second,
based on the dynamics of an inverted pendulum. Many different
balancing robots have been designed. While the Segway is not
commonly thought of as a robot, it can be thought of as a component of
a robot, when used as such Segway refer to them as RMP (Robotic
Mobility Platform). An example of this use has been as NASA's Robonaut
that has been mounted on a Segway.
One-wheeled balancing robots
Main article: Self-balancing unicycle
A one-wheeled balancing robot is an extension of a two-wheeled
balancing robot so that it can move in any 2D direction using a round
ball as its only wheel. Several one-wheeled balancing robots have been
designed recently, such as Carnegie Mellon University's "Ballbot" that
is the approximate height and width of a person, and Tohoku Gakuin
University's "BallIP". Because of the long, thin shape and ability
to maneuver in tight spaces, they have the potential to function
better than other robots in environments with people.
Spherical orb robots
Main article: Spherical robot
Several attempts have been made in robots that are completely inside a
spherical ball, either by spinning a weight inside the ball,
or by rotating the outer shells of the sphere. These have also
been referred to as an orb bot or a ball bot.
Using six wheels instead of four wheels can give better traction or
grip in outdoor terrain such as on rocky dirt or grass.
TALON military robots used by the United States Army
Tank tracks provide even more traction than a six-wheeled robot.
Tracked wheels behave as if they were made of hundreds of wheels,
therefore are very common for outdoor and military robots, where the
robot must drive on very rough terrain. However, they are difficult to
use indoors such as on carpets and smooth floors. Examples include
Walking applied to robots
Walking is a difficult and dynamic problem to solve. Several robots
have been made which can walk reliably on two legs, however, none have
yet been made which are as robust as a human. There has been much
study on human inspired walking, such as AMBER lab which was
established in 2008 by the Mechanical Engineering Department at Texas
A&M University. Many other robots have been built that walk on
more than two legs, due to these robots being significantly easier to
construct. Walking robots can be used for uneven terrains,
which would provide better mobility and energy efficiency than other
locomotion methods. Hybrids too have been proposed in movies such as
I, Robot, where they walk on two legs and switch to four (arms+legs)
when going to a sprint. Typically, robots on two legs can walk well on
flat floors and can occasionally walk up stairs. None can walk over
rocky, uneven terrain. Some of the methods which have been tried are:
Main article: Zero moment point
The zero moment point (ZMP) is the algorithm used by robots such as
Honda's ASIMO. The robot's onboard computer tries to keep the total
inertial forces (the combination of Earth's gravity and the
acceleration and deceleration of walking), exactly opposed by the
floor reaction force (the force of the floor pushing back on the
robot's foot). In this way, the two forces cancel out, leaving no
moment (force causing the robot to rotate and fall over). However,
this is not exactly how a human walks, and the difference is obvious
to human observers, some of whom have pointed out that
ASIMO walks as
if it needs the lavatory. ASIMO's walking algorithm is not
static, and some dynamic balancing is used (see below). However, it
still requires a smooth surface to walk on.
Several robots, built in the 1980s by
Marc Raibert at the MIT Leg
Laboratory, successfully demonstrated very dynamic walking. Initially,
a robot with only one leg, and a very small foot could stay upright
simply by hopping. The movement is the same as that of a person on a
pogo stick. As the robot falls to one side, it would jump slightly in
that direction, in order to catch itself. Soon, the algorithm was
generalised to two and four legs. A bipedal robot was demonstrated
running and even performing somersaults. A quadruped was also
demonstrated which could trot, run, pace, and bound. For a full
list of these robots, see the MIT Leg Lab Robots page.
Dynamic balancing (controlled falling)
A more advanced way for a robot to walk is by using a dynamic
balancing algorithm, which is potentially more robust than the Zero
Moment Point technique, as it constantly monitors the robot's motion,
and places the feet in order to maintain stability. This technique
was recently demonstrated by Anybots' Dexter Robot, which is so
stable, it can even jump. Another example is the TU
Main article: Passive dynamics
Perhaps the most promising approach utilizes passive dynamics where
the momentum of swinging limbs is used for greater efficiency. It has
been shown that totally unpowered humanoid mechanisms can walk down a
gentle slope, using only gravity to propel themselves. Using this
technique, a robot need only supply a small amount of motor power to
walk along a flat surface or a little more to walk up a hill. This
technique promises to make walking robots at least ten times more
efficient than ZMP walkers, like ASIMO.
Other methods of locomotion
Two robot snakes. Left one has 64 motors (with 2 degrees of freedom
per segment), the right one 10.
A modern passenger airliner is essentially a flying robot, with two
humans to manage it. The autopilot can control the plane for each
stage of the journey, including takeoff, normal flight, and even
landing. Other flying robots are uninhabited and are known as
unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). They can be smaller and lighter
without a human pilot on board, and fly into dangerous territory for
military surveillance missions. Some can even fire on targets under
command. UAVs are also being developed which can fire on targets
automatically, without the need for a command from a human. Other
flying robots include cruise missiles, the Entomopter, and the Epson
micro helicopter robot. Robots such as the Air Penguin, Air Ray, and
Air Jelly have lighter-than-air bodies, propelled by paddles, and
guided by sonar.
Several snake robots have been successfully developed. Mimicking the
way real snakes move, these robots can navigate very confined spaces,
meaning they may one day be used to search for people trapped in
collapsed buildings. The Japanese ACM-R5 snake robot can even
navigate both on land and in water.
A small number of skating robots have been developed, one of which is
a multi-mode walking and skating device. It has four legs, with
unpowered wheels, which can either step or roll. Another robot,
Plen, can use a miniature skateboard or roller-skates, and skate
across a desktop.
Capuchin, a climbing robot
Several different approaches have been used to develop robots that
have the ability to climb vertical surfaces. One approach mimics the
movements of a human climber on a wall with protrusions; adjusting the
center of mass and moving each limb in turn to gain leverage. An
example of this is Capuchin, built by Dr. Ruixiang Zhang at
Stanford University, California. Another approach uses the specialized
toe pad method of wall-climbing geckoes, which can run on smooth
surfaces such as vertical glass. Examples of this approach include
Wallbot and Stickybot. China's Technology Daily reported on
November 15, 2008, that Dr. Li Hiu Yeung and his research group of New
Concept Aircraft (Zhuhai) Co., Ltd. had successfully developed a
bionic gecko robot named "Speedy Freelander". According to Dr. Li, the
gecko robot could rapidly climb up and down a variety of building
walls, navigate through ground and wall fissures, and walk upside-down
on the ceiling. It was also able to adapt to the surfaces of smooth
glass, rough, sticky or dusty walls as well as various types of
metallic materials. It could also identify and circumvent obstacles
automatically. Its flexibility and speed were comparable to a natural
gecko. A third approach is to mimic the motion of a snake climbing a
It is calculated that when swimming some fish can achieve a propulsive
efficiency greater than 90%. Furthermore, they can accelerate and
maneuver far better than any man-made boat or submarine, and produce
less noise and water disturbance. Therefore, many researchers studying
underwater robots would like to copy this type of locomotion.
Notable examples are the Essex
University Computer Science Robotic
Fish G9, and the
Robot Tuna built by the Institute of Field
Robotics, to analyze and mathematically model thunniform motion.
The Aqua Penguin, designed and built by Festo of Germany, copies
the streamlined shape and propulsion by front "flippers" of penguins.
Festo have also built the Aqua Ray and Aqua Jelly, which emulate the
locomotion of manta ray, and jellyfish, respectively.
Robotic Fish: iSplash-II
In 2014 iSplash-II was developed by PhD student Richard James Clapham
and Prof. Huosheng Hu at Essex University. It was the first robotic
fish capable of outperforming real carangiform fish in terms of
average maximum velocity (measured in body lengths/ second) and
endurance, the duration that top speed is maintained. This build
attained swimming speeds of 11.6BL/s (i.e. 3.7 m/s). The
first build, iSplash-I (2014) was the first robotic platform to apply
a full-body length carangiform swimming motion which was found to
increase swimming speed by 27% over the traditional approach of a
posterior confined waveform.
The autonomous sailboat robot Vaimos
Sailboat robots have also been developed in order to make measurements
at the surface of the ocean. A typical sailboat robot is Vaimos
built by IFREMER and ENSTA-Bretagne. Since the propulsion of sailboat
robots uses the wind, the energy of the batteries is only used for the
computer, for the communication and for the actuators (to tune the
rudder and the sail). If the robot is equipped with solar panels, the
robot could theoretically navigate forever. The two main competitions
of sailboat robots are WRSC, which takes place every year in Europe,
Environmental interaction and navigation
Main article: Robotic mapping
Radar, GPS, and lidar, are all combined to provide proper navigation
and obstacle avoidance (vehicle developed for 2007 DARPA Urban
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this
section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material
may be challenged and removed. (July 2009) (Learn how and when to
remove this template message)
Though a significant percentage of robots in commission today are
either human controlled or operate in a static environment, there is
an increasing interest in robots that can operate autonomously in a
dynamic environment. These robots require some combination of
navigation hardware and software in order to traverse their
environment. In particular, unforeseen events (e.g. people and other
obstacles that are not stationary) can cause problems or collisions.
Some highly advanced robots such as
Meinü robot have
particularly good robot navigation hardware and software. Also,
self-controlled cars, Ernst Dickmanns' driverless car, and the entries
in the DARPA Grand Challenge, are capable of sensing the environment
well and subsequently making navigational decisions based on this
information. Most of these robots employ a
GPS navigation device with
waypoints, along with radar, sometimes combined with other sensory
data such as lidar, video cameras, and inertial guidance systems for
better navigation between waypoints.
Main article: Human-robot interaction
Kismet can produce a range of facial expressions.
The state of the art in sensory intelligence for robots will have to
progress through several orders of magnitude if we want the robots
working in our homes to go beyond vacuum-cleaning the floors. If
robots are to work effectively in homes and other non-industrial
environments, the way they are instructed to perform their jobs, and
especially how they will be told to stop will be of critical
importance. The people who interact with them may have little or no
training in robotics, and so any interface will need to be extremely
Science fiction authors also typically assume that robots
will eventually be capable of communicating with humans through
speech, gestures, and facial expressions, rather than a command-line
interface. Although speech would be the most natural way for the human
to communicate, it is unnatural for the robot. It will probably be a
long time before robots interact as naturally as the fictional C-3PO,
or Data of Star Trek, Next Generation.
Interpreting the continuous flow of sounds coming from a human, in
real time, is a difficult task for a computer, mostly because of the
great variability of speech. The same word, spoken by the same
person may sound different depending on local acoustics, volume, the
previous word, whether or not the speaker has a cold, etc.. It becomes
even harder when the speaker has a different accent.
Nevertheless, great strides have been made in the field since Davis,
Biddulph, and Balashek designed the first "voice input system" which
recognized "ten digits spoken by a single user with 100% accuracy" in
1952. Currently, the best systems can recognize continuous,
natural speech, up to 160 words per minute, with an accuracy of
Other hurdles exist when allowing the robot to use voice for
interacting with humans. For social reasons, synthetic voice proves
suboptimal as a communication medium, making it necessary to
develop the emotional component of robotic voice through various
One can imagine, in the future, explaining to a robot chef how to make
a pastry, or asking directions from a robot police officer. In both of
these cases, making hand gestures would aid the verbal descriptions.
In the first case, the robot would be recognizing gestures made by the
human, and perhaps repeating them for confirmation. In the second
case, the robot police officer would gesture to indicate "down the
road, then turn right". It is likely that gestures will make up a part
of the interaction between humans and robots. A great many
systems have been developed to recognize human hand gestures.
Further information: Facial expression
Facial expressions can provide rapid feedback on the progress of a
dialog between two humans, and soon may be able to do the same for
humans and robots. Robotic faces have been constructed by Hanson
Robotics using their elastic polymer called Frubber, allowing a large
number of facial expressions due to the elasticity of the rubber
facial coating and embedded subsurface motors (servos). The
coating and servos are built on a metal skull. A robot should know how
to approach a human, judging by their facial expression and body
language. Whether the person is happy, frightened, or crazy-looking
affects the type of interaction expected of the robot. Likewise,
robots like Kismet and the more recent addition, Nexi can produce
a range of facial expressions, allowing it to have meaningful social
exchanges with humans.
Artificial emotions can also be generated, composed of a sequence of
facial expressions and/or gestures. As can be seen from the movie
Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within, the programming of these artificial
emotions is complex and requires a large amount of human observation.
To simplify this programming in the movie, presets were created
together with a special software program. This decreased the amount of
time needed to make the film. These presets could possibly be
transferred for use in real-life robots.
Many of the robots of science fiction have a personality, something
which may or may not be desirable in the commercial robots of the
future. Nevertheless, researchers are trying to create robots
which appear to have a personality: i.e. they use sounds,
facial expressions, and body language to try to convey an internal
state, which may be joy, sadness, or fear. One commercial example is
Pleo, a toy robot dinosaur, which can exhibit several apparent
The Socially Intelligent
Machines Lab of the Georgia Institute of
Technology researches new concepts of guided teaching interaction with
robots. The aim of the projects is a social robot that learns task and
goals from human demonstrations without prior knowledge of high-level
concepts. These new concepts are grounded from low-level continuous
sensor data through unsupervised learning, and task goals are
subsequently learned using a Bayesian approach. These concepts can be
used to transfer knowledge to future tasks, resulting in faster
learning of those tasks. The results are demonstrated by the robot
Curi who can scoop some pasta from a pot onto a plate and serve the
sauce on top.
Puppet Magnus, a robot-manipulated marionette with complex control
RuBot II can resolve manually Rubik cubes
Further information: Control system
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this
section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material
may be challenged and removed. (July 2009) (Learn how and when to
remove this template message)
The mechanical structure of a robot must be controlled to perform
tasks. The control of a robot involves three distinct phases –
perception, processing, and action (robotic paradigms). Sensors give
information about the environment or the robot itself (e.g. the
position of its joints or its end effector). This information is then
processed to be stored or transmitted and to calculate the appropriate
signals to the actuators (motors) which move the mechanical.
The processing phase can range in complexity. At a reactive level, it
may translate raw sensor information directly into actuator commands.
Sensor fusion may first be used to estimate parameters of interest
(e.g. the position of the robot's gripper) from noisy sensor data. An
immediate task (such as moving the gripper in a certain direction) is
inferred from these estimates. Techniques from control theory convert
the task into commands that drive the actuators.
At longer time scales or with more sophisticated tasks, the robot may
need to build and reason with a "cognitive" model. Cognitive models
try to represent the robot, the world, and how they interact. Pattern
recognition and computer vision can be used to track objects. Mapping
techniques can be used to build maps of the world. Finally, motion
planning and other artificial intelligence techniques may be used to
figure out how to act. For example, a planner may figure out how to
achieve a task without hitting obstacles, falling over, etc.
TOPIO, a humanoid robot, played ping pong at Tokyo IREX 2009.
Control systems may also have varying levels of autonomy.
Direct interaction is used for haptic or teleoperated devices, and the
human has nearly complete control over the robot's motion.
Operator-assist modes have the operator commanding
medium-to-high-level tasks, with the robot automatically figuring out
how to achieve them.
An autonomous robot may go without human interaction for extended
periods of time . Higher levels of autonomy do not necessarily require
more complex cognitive capabilities. For example, robots in assembly
plants are completely autonomous but operate in a fixed pattern.
Another classification takes into account the interaction between
human control and the machine motions.
Teleoperation. A human controls each movement, each machine actuator
change is specified by the operator.
Supervisory. A human specifies general moves or position changes and
the machine decides specific movements of its actuators.
Task-level autonomy. The operator specifies only the task and the
robot manages itself to complete it.
Full autonomy. The machine will create and complete all its tasks
without human interaction.
Further information: Open-source robotics, Evolutionary robotics,
Areas of robotics, and
Much of the research in robotics focuses not on specific industrial
tasks, but on investigations into new types of robots, alternative
ways to think about or design robots, and new ways to manufacture
them. Other investigations, such as MIT's cyberflora project, are
almost wholly academic.
A first particular new innovation in robot design is the open sourcing
of robot-projects. To describe the level of advancement of a robot,
the term "Generation Robots" can be used. This term is coined by
Professor Hans Moravec, Principal Research Scientist at the Carnegie
Robotics Institute in describing the near future
evolution of robot technology. First generation robots, Moravec
predicted in 1997, should have an intellectual capacity comparable to
perhaps a lizard and should become available by 2010. Because the
first generation robot would be incapable of learning, however,
Moravec predicts that the second generation robot would be an
improvement over the first and become available by 2020, with the
intelligence maybe comparable to that of a mouse. The third generation
robot should have the intelligence comparable to that of a monkey.
Though fourth generation robots, robots with human intelligence,
professor Moravec predicts, would become possible, he does not predict
this happening before around 2040 or 2050.
The second is evolutionary robots. This is a methodology that uses
evolutionary computation to help design robots, especially the body
form, or motion and behavior controllers. In a similar way to natural
evolution, a large population of robots is allowed to compete in some
way, or their ability to perform a task is measured using a fitness
function. Those that perform worst are removed from the population and
replaced by a new set, which have new behaviors based on those of the
winners. Over time the population improves, and eventually a
satisfactory robot may appear. This happens without any direct
programming of the robots by the researchers. Researchers use this
method both to create better robots, and to explore the nature of
evolution. Because the process often requires many generations of
robots to be simulated, this technique may be run entirely or
mostly in simulation, then tested on real robots once the evolved
algorithms are good enough. Currently, there are about 10 million
industrial robots toiling around the world, and Japan is the top
country having high density of utilizing robots in its manufacturing
Dynamics and kinematics
Kinematics and Dynamics (mechanics)
How the BB-8 Sphero Toy Works
The study of motion can be divided into kinematics and dynamics.
Direct kinematics refers to the calculation of end effector position,
orientation, velocity, and acceleration when the corresponding joint
values are known.
Inverse kinematics refers to the opposite case in
which required joint values are calculated for given end effector
values, as done in path planning. Some special aspects of kinematics
include handling of redundancy (different possibilities of performing
the same movement), collision avoidance, and singularity avoidance.
Once all relevant positions, velocities, and accelerations have been
calculated using kinematics, methods from the field of dynamics are
used to study the effect of forces upon these movements. Direct
dynamics refers to the calculation of accelerations in the robot once
the applied forces are known. Direct dynamics is used in computer
simulations of the robot.
Inverse dynamics refers to the calculation
of the actuator forces necessary to create a prescribed end-effector
acceleration. This information can be used to improve the control
algorithms of a robot.
In each area mentioned above, researchers strive to develop new
concepts and strategies, improve existing ones, and improve the
interaction between these areas. To do this, criteria for "optimal"
performance and ways to optimize design, structure, and control of
robots must be developed and implemented.
Bionics and biomimetics
Bionics and biomimetics apply the physiology and methods of locomotion
of animals to the design of robots. For example, the design of
BionicKangaroo was based on the way kangaroos jump.
Education and training
Main article: Educational robotics
The SCORBOT-ER 4u educational robot
Robotics engineers design robots, maintain them, develop new
applications for them, and conduct research to expand the potential of
robotics. Robots have become a popular educational tool in some
middle and high schools, particularly in parts of the USA, as
well as in numerous youth summer camps, raising interest in
programming, artificial intelligence, and robotics among students.
First-year computer science courses at some universities now include
programming of a robot in addition to traditional software
Universities offer bachelors, masters, and doctoral degrees in the
field of robotics. Vocational schools offer robotics training
aimed at careers in robotics.
Robotics Certification Standards Alliance (RCSA) is an
international robotics certification authority that confers various
industry- and educational-related robotics certifications.
Summer robotics camp
Several national summer camp programs include robotics as part of
their core curriculum. In addition, youth summer robotics programs are
frequently offered by celebrated museums and institutions.
There are lots of competitions all around the globe. One of the most
important competitions is the FLL or FIRST Lego League. The idea of
this specific competition is that kids start developing knowledge and
getting into robotics while playing with Legos since they are 9 years
old. This competition is associated with Ni or National Instruments.
Robotics afterschool programs
Many schools across the country are beginning to add robotics programs
to their after school curriculum. Some major programs for afterschool
robotics include FIRST
Botball and B.E.S.T.
Robotics competitions often include aspects of business
and marketing as well as engineering and design.
The Lego company began a program for children to learn and get excited
about robotics at a young age.
A robot technician builds small all-terrain robots. (Courtesy:
Main article: Technological unemployment
Robotics is an essential component in many modern manufacturing
environments. As factories increase their use of robots, the number of
robotics–related jobs grow and have been observed to be steadily
rising. The employment of robots in industries has increased
productivity and efficiency savings and is typically seen as a long
term investment for benefactors. A paper by Michael Osborne
and Carl Benedikt Frey found that 47 per cent of US jobs are
at risk to automation "over some unspecified number of years".
These claims have been criticized on the ground that social policy,
not AI, causes unemployment.
Occupational safety and health implications
Main article: Workplace robotics safety
A discussion paper drawn up by EU-OSHA highlights how the spread of
robotics presents both opportunities and challenges for occupational
safety and health (OSH).
The greatest OSH benefits stemming from the wider use of robotics
should be substitution for people working in unhealthy or dangerous
environments. In space, defence, security, or the nuclear industry,
but also in logistics, maintenance, and inspection, autonomous robots
are particularly useful in replacing human workers performing dirty,
dull or unsafe tasks, thus avoiding workers' exposures to hazardous
agents and conditions and reducing physical, ergonomic and
psychosocial risks. For example, robots are already used to perform
repetitive and monotonous tasks, to handle radioactive material or to
work in explosive atmospheres. In the future, many other highly
repetitive, risky or unpleasant tasks will be performed by robots in a
variety of sectors like agriculture, construction, transport,
healthcare, firefighting or cleaning services.
Despite these advances, there are certain skills to which humans will
be better suited than machines for some time to come and the question
is how to achieve the best combination of human and robot skills. The
advantages of robotics include heavy-duty jobs with precision and
repeatability, whereas the advantages of humans include creativity,
decision-making, flexibility and adaptability. This need to combine
optimal skills has resulted in collaborative robots and humans sharing
a common workspace more closely and led to the development of new
approaches and standards to guarantee the safety of the "man-robot
merger". Some European countries are including robotics in their
national programmes and trying to promote a safe and flexible
co-operation between robots and operators to achieve better
productivity. For example, the German Federal Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA) organises annual workshops on
the topic "human-robot collaboration".
In future, co-operation between robots and humans will be diversified,
with robots increasing their autonomy and human-robot collaboration
reaching completely new forms. Current approaches and technical
standards aiming to protect employees from the risk of
working with collaborative robots will have to be revised.
Anderson Powerpole connector
Glossary of robotics
Index of robotics articles
Outline of robotics
^ Nocks, Lisa (2007). The robot : the life story of a technology.
Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group. access-date= requires
^ a b Zunt, Dominik. "Who did actually invent the word "robot" and
what does it mean?". The
Karel Čapek website. Archived from the
original on 2013-01-23. Retrieved 2017-02-05.
^ Asimov, Isaac (1996) . "The
Robot Chronicles". Gold. London:
Voyager. pp. 224–225. ISBN 0-00-648202-3.
^ Asimov, Isaac (1983). "4 The
Word I Invented". Counting the Eons.
Robotics has become a sufficiently well developed
technology to warrant articles and books on its history and I have
watched this in amazement, and in some disbelief, because I invented
… the word
^ "Robotics: About the Exhibition". The Tech Museum of Innovation.
Archived from the original on 2008-09-13. Retrieved 2008-09-15.
^ Needham, Joseph (1991). Science and Civilisation in China:
History of Scientific Thought. Cambridge
^ Fowler, Charles B. (October 1967). "The Museum of Music: A History
of Mechanical Instruments". Music Educators Journal. 54 (2): 45–49.
doi:10.2307/3391092. JSTOR 3391092.
^ Rosheim, Mark E. (1994).
Robot Evolution: The Development of
Anthrobotics. Wiley-IEEE. pp. 9–10.
^ al-Jazari (Islamic artist), Encyclopædia Britannica.
^ PhD, Renato M.E. Sabbatini,. "Sabbatini, RME: An Imitation of Life:
The First Robots".
^ Waurzyniak, Patrick (2006). "Masters of Manufacturing: Joseph F.
Engelberger". Society of
Manufacturing Engineers. 137 (1). Archived
from the original on 2011-11-09.
Humanoid History -WABOT-". www.humanoid.waseda.ac.jp.
^ Zeghloul, Saïd; Laribi, Med Amine; Gazeau, Jean-Pierre (21
September 2015). "
Robotics and Mechatronics: Proceedings of the 4th
IFToMM International Symposium on
Robotics and Mechatronics". Springer
– via Google Books.
^ "Historical Android Projects". androidworld.com.
^ Robots: From Science Fiction to Technological Revolution, page 130
^ Duffy, Vincent G. (19 April 2016). "Handbook of Digital Human
Modeling: Research for Applied Ergonomics and
Engineering". CRC Press – via Google Books.
Robot FAMULUS". Retrieved 2008-01-10.
^ "History of Industrial Robots" (PDF). Archived from the original
(PDF) on 2012-12-24. Retrieved 2012-10-27.
^ "Communist Robot ::".
Robot Sheepdog Project".
^ Pinto, Jim (October 1, 2003). "Fully automated factories approach
^ "パナソニック電工株式会社 –
^ [dead link]
^ "At Hong Kong High-Tech Cafe, Everything Is Served With
^ "Communist Robot ::".
^ "Robots may force chefs out of the kitchen".
^ "Meet Boris, the robot that can load a dishwasher". 3 October
^ "AI-driven robot makes 'perfect' flatbread". IoT Hub.
^ One database, developed by the United States Department of Energy
contains information on almost 500 existing robotic technologies and
can be found on the D&D Knowledge Management Information Tool.
^ "UIUC Agricultural Engineering - Faculty and Staff".
^ "service-robots.org – agriculture & harvesting".
^ Dowling, Kevin. "Power Sources for Small Robots" (PDF). Carnegie
Mellon University. Retrieved 11 May 2012.
^ Bi-directional series-parallel elastic actuator and overlap of the
actuation layers Raphaël Furnémont1, Glenn Mathijssen1,2, Tom
Verstraten1, Dirk Lefeber1 and Bram Vanderborght1 Published 26 January
2016 • © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd
^ "CiteSeerX — Series Elastic Actuators for legged robots".
Citeseerx.ist.psu.edu. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
^ www.imagesco.com, Images SI Inc -. "Air
Muscle actuators, going
further, page 6".
^ "Air Muscles". Shadow Robot. Archived from the original on
^ Tondu, Bertrand (2012). "Modelling of the McKibben artificial
muscle: A review". Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and
Structures. 23 (3): 225–253. doi:10.1177/1045389X11435435.
^ "TALKING ELECTRONICS Nitinol Page-1". Talkingelectronics.com.
^ "lf205, Hardware: Building a Linux-controlled walking robot".
Ibiblio.org. 2001-11-01. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
^ "WW-EAP and Artificial Muscles". Eap.jpl.nasa.gov. Retrieved
^ "Empa – a117-2-eap". Empa.ch. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
^ "Electroactive Polymers (EAP) as Artificial Muscles (EPAM) for Robot
Applications". Hizook. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
^ "Piezo LEGS – -09-26".
^ "Squiggle Motors: Overview". Retrieved 2007-10-08.
^ Nishibori; et al. (2003). "
Robot Hand with Fingers Using
Vibration-Type Ultrasonic Motors (Driving Characteristics)". Journal
Robotics and Mechatronics. Retrieved 2007-10-09.
^ Otake; et al. (2001). "Shape Design of Gel Robots made of
Electroactive Polymer trolo Gel" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-10-16.
^ John D. Madden, 2007, /science.1146351
^ "Syntouch LLC: BioTac(R) Biomimetic Tactile
Sensor Array". Retrieved
^ Wettels, N; Santos, VJ; Johansson, RS; Loeb, Gerald E.; et al.
(2008). "Biomimetic tactile sensor array". Advanced Robotics. 22 (8):
^ "What is The SmartHand?". SmartHand Project. Retrieved 4 February
^ "What is a robotic end-effector?". ATI Industrial Automation. 2007.
^ Crane, Carl D.; Joseph Duffy (1998). Kinematic Analysis of Robot
University Press. ISBN 0-521-57063-8.
^ G.J. Monkman, S. Hesse, R. Steinmann & H.
Schunk – Robot
Grippers – Wiley, Berlin 2007
^ a b I. Ben-Gal, Y. Bukchin, O. Goldstain (2007. "Remote learning for
the manipulation and control of robotic cells" (PDF). European Journal
of Engineering Education 32 (4), 481–494, 2007. CS1 maint:
Multiple names: authors list (link)
^ "Annotated Mythbusters: Episode 78: Ninja Myths – Walking on
Water, Catching a Sword, Catching an Arrow". (Discovery
Channel's Mythbusters making mechanical gripper from chain and metal
hand by [[TU Delft]publisher=
^ M&C. "TU
Delft ontwikkelt goedkope, voorzichtige
^ "astrictive definition – English definition dictionary –
^ Tijsma, H. A.; Liefhebber, F.; Herder, J. L. (1 June 2005).
"Evaluation of new user interface features for the MANUS robot arm"
(PDF). pp. 258–263. doi:10.1109/ICORR.2005.1501097 – via IEEE
^ Allcock, Andrew (2006). "Anthropomorphic hand is almost human".
Machinery. Retrieved 2007-10-17.
^ "T.O.B.B". Mtoussaint.de. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
^ "nBot, a two wheel balancing robot". Geology.heroy.smu.edu.
^ "ROBONAUT Activity Report". NASA. 2004. Archived from the original
on 2007-08-20. Retrieved 2007-10-20.
^ "IEEE Spectrum: A
Robot That Balances on a Ball". Spectrum.ieee.org.
^ "Carnegie Mellon Researchers Develop New Type of Mobile
Balances and Moves on a Ball Instead of Legs or Wheels" (Press
release). Carnegie Mellon. 2006-08-09. Retrieved 2007-10-20.
Robot Can Climb Over Obstacles". BotJunkie. Retrieved
^ "Rotundus". Rotundus.se. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
^ "OrbSwarm Gets A Brain". BotJunkie. 2007-07-11. Retrieved
^ "Rolling Orbital Bluetooth Operated Thing". BotJunkie. Retrieved
^ "Swarm". Orbswarm.com. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
^ "The Ball Bot : Johnnytronic@Sun". Blogs.sun.com. Retrieved
^ "Senior Design Projects College of Engineering & Applied
University of Colorado at Boulder". Engineering.colorado.edu.
2008-04-30. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
^ "JPL Robotics: System: Commercial Rovers".
^ "AMBER Lab".
^ "Micromagic Systems
^ "AMRU-5 hexapod robot" (PDF).
^ "Achieving Stable Walking".
Honda Worldwide. Retrieved
^ "Funny Walk". Pooter Geek. 2004-12-28. Retrieved 2007-10-22.
^ "ASIMO's Pimp Shuffle". Popular Science. 2007-01-09. Retrieved
^ "The Temple of VTEC –
Honda and Acura Enthusiasts Online Forums
Robot Shows Prime Minister How to Loosen Up > > A drunk
^ "3D One-Leg Hopper (1983–1984)". MIT Leg Laboratory. Retrieved
^ "3D Biped (1989–1995)". MIT Leg Laboratory.
^ "Quadruped (1984–1987)". MIT Leg Laboratory.
^ "MIT Leg Lab Robots- Main".
^ "About the robots". Anybots. Archived from the original on
2007-09-09. Retrieved 2007-10-23.
^ "Homepage". Anybots. Retrieved 2007-10-23.
^ "Dexter Jumps video". YouTube. 2007-03-01. Retrieved
^ Collins, Steve; Wisse, Martijn; Ruina, Andy; Tedrake, Russ
(2005-02-11). "Efficient bipedal robots based on passive-dynamic
Walkers" (PDF). Science. 307 (5712): 1082–1085.
doi:10.1126/science.1107799. PMID 15718465. Archived from the
original (PDF) on 2007-06-22. Retrieved 2007-09-11.
^ Collins, Steve; Ruina, Andy. "A bipedal walking robot with efficient
and human-like gait" (PDF). Proc. IEEE International Conference on
Robotics and Automation.
^ "Testing the Limits" (PDF). Boeing. p. 29. Retrieved
^ Miller, Gavin. "Introduction". snakerobots.com. Retrieved
^ "ACM-R5". Archived from the original on 2011-10-11.
^ "Swimming snake robot (commentary in Japanese)".
^ "Commercialized Quadruped Walking Vehicle "TITAN VII"". Hirose
Robotics Lab. Retrieved 2007-10-23.
^ "Plen, the robot that skates across your desk". SCI FI Tech.
2007-01-23. Retrieved 2007-10-23.
^ Capuchin on YouTube
^ Wallbot on YouTube
^ Stanford University: Stickybot on YouTube
^ Sfakiotakis; et al. (1999). "Review of Fish Swimming Modes for
Aquatic Locomotion" (PDF). IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-09-26. Retrieved
^ Richard Mason. "What is the market for robot fish?". Archived from
the original on 2009-07-04.
^ "Robotic fish powered by Gumstix PC and PIC".
Human Centred Robotics
Group at Essex University. Retrieved 2007-10-25.
^ Witoon Juwarahawong. "Fish Robot". Institute of Field Robotics.
Archived from the original on 2007-11-04. Retrieved 2007-10-25.
^ "High-Speed Robotic Fish iSplash". isplash-robot. Retrieved
^ "iSplash-II: Realizing Fast Carangiform Swimming to Outperform a
Real Fish" (PDF).
Robotics Group at Essex University. Retrieved
^ "iSplash-I: High Performance Swimming Motion of a Carangiform
Robotic Fish with Full-Body Coordination" (PDF).
Robotics Group at
Essex University. Retrieved 2015-09-29.
^ Jaulin, L.; Le Bars, F. (2012). "An interval approach for stability
analysis; Application to sailboat robotics" (PDF). IEEE Transaction on
Robotics. 27 (5).
^ J. Norberto Pires, (2005). "Robot-by-voice: experiments on
commanding an industrial robot using the human voice", Industrial
Robot: An International Journal, Vol. 32, Issue 6, pp. 505–511,
doi:10.1108/01439910510629244. Available: online and pdf
^ "Survey of the State of the Art in
Human Language Technology: 1.2:
^ Fournier, Randolph Scott., and B. June. Schmidt. "Voice Input
Learning Style and Attitude Toward Its Use." Delta Pi
Epsilon Journal 37 (1995): 1_12.
^ "History of
Speech & Voice Recognition and Transcription
Software". Dragon Naturally Speaking. Retrieved 2007-10-27.
^ M.L. Walters, D.S. Syrdal, K.L. Koay, K. Dautenhahn, R. te
Human approach distances to a mechanical-looking
robot with different robot voice styles. In: Proceedings of the 17th
IEEE International Symposium on
Communication, 2008. RO-MAN 2008, Munich, 1–3 Aug. 2008, pp.
707–712, doi:10.1109/ROMAN.2008.4600750. Available: online and pdf
^ Sandra Pauletto, Tristan Bowles, (2010). Designing the emotional
content of a robotic speech signal. In: Proceedings of the 5th Audio
Mostly Conference: A Conference on Interaction with Sound, New York,
ISBN 978-1-4503-0046-9, doi:10.1145/1859799.1859804. Available:
^ Tristan Bowles, Sandra Pauletto, (2010). Emotions in the Voice:
Humanising a Robotic Voice. In: Proceedings of the 7th
Sound and Music
Computing Conference, Barcelona, Spain.
^ Waldherr, Romero & Thrun (2000). "A
Gesture Based Interface for
Robot Interaction" (PDF). Kluwer Academic Publishers. Retrieved
^ Markus Kohler. "Vision Based Hand
Gesture Recognition Systems".
University of Dortmund. Retrieved 2007-10-28.
Frubber facial expressions".
^ "Best Inventions of 2008 – TIME". 29 October 2008 – via
Robot at MIT's AI Lab Interacts With Humans". Sam Ogden.
^ "(Park et al. 2005) Synthetic Personality in Robots and its Effect
Robot Relationship" (PDF).
Robot Receptionist Dishes Directions and Attitude".
^ "New Scientist: A good robot has personality but not looks"
^ "Playtime with Pleo, your robotic dinosaur friend".
^ Jennifer Bogo (October 31, 2014). "Meet a woman who trains robots
for a living".
^ "A Ping-Pong-Playing Terminator". Popular Science.
^ NOVA conversation with Professor Moravec, October, 1997. NOVA Online
^ Sandhana, Lakshmi (2002-09-05). A Theory of Evolution, for Robots.
Wired Magazine. Retrieved 2007-10-28.
Evolution In Robots Probes The Emergence Of Biological
Communication. Science Daily. 2007-02-24. Retrieved 2007-10-28.
^ Žlajpah, Leon (2008-12-15). "
Simulation in robotics". Mathematics
and Computers in Simulation. 79 (4): 879–897.
^ News, Technology Research. "
Evolution trains robot teams TRN
^ Agarwal, P.K. Elements of Physics XI. Rastogi Publications.
p. 2. ISBN 978-81-7133-911-2.
Robotics Engineer". Princeton Review. 2012. Retrieved
^ Saad, Ashraf; Kroutil, Ryan (2012). Hands-on
Learning of Programming
Robotics for Middle and High School Students.
Proceedings of the 50th Annual Southeast Regional Conference of the
Association for Computer Machinery. ACM. pp. 361–362.
Robotics Degree Programs at Worcester Polytechnic Institute".
Worcester Polytechnic Institute. 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-12.
^ "B.E.S.T. Robotics".
^ "LEGO® Building &
Robotics After School Programs". Retrieved 5
^ Toy, Tommy (June 29, 2011). "Outlook for robotics and Automation for
2011 and beyond are excellent says expert". PBT Consulting. Retrieved
^ "The future of employment: How susceptible are jobs to
computerisation?". Technological Forecasting and Social Change. 114:
254–280. 2017-01-01. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2016.08.019.
^ E McGaughey, 'Will Robots Automate Your Job Away? Full Employment,
Basic Income, and Economic Democracy' (2018) SSRN, part 2(3). DH
Autor, ‘Why Are There Still So Many Jobs? The History and Future of
Workplace Automation’ (2015) 29(3) Journal of Economic Perspectives
^ "Focal Points Seminar on review articles in the future of work –
Safety and health at work – EU-OSHA". osha.europa.eu. Retrieved
^ "Robotics: Redefining crime prevention, public safety and security".
^ ""Draft Standard for Intelligent Assist Devices — Personnel Safety
^ "ISO/TS 15066:2016 – Robots and robotic devices – Collaborative
R. Andrew Russell (1990).
Robot Tactile Sensing. New York: Prentice
Hall. ISBN 0-13-781592-1.
E McGaughey, 'Will Robots Automate Your Job Away? Full Employment,
Basic Income, and Economic Democracy' (2018) SSRN, part 2(3)
DH Autor, ‘Why Are There Still So Many Jobs? The History and Future
of Workplace Automation’ (2015) 29(3) Journal of Economic
Find more aboutRoboticsat's sister projects
Definitions from Wiktionary
Media from Wikimedia Commons
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Learning resources from Wikiversity
Robotics at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Robotics and Automation Society
Robotics – The
Investigation of social robots – Robots that mimic human behaviors
Wired's guide to the '50 best robots ever', a mix of robots in fiction
(Hal, R2D2, K9) to real robots (Roomba, Mobot, Aibo).
Notable Chinese Firms Emerging in Medical Robots Sector(GCiS)
Hall of Fame
Closed ecological systems
Genetically modified food
Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence
Whole genome sequencing
Bionic contact lens
Optical head-mounted display
Virtual retinal display
Multi-primary color display
Thermal copper pillar bump
Airborne wind turbine
Concentrated solar power
Home fuel cell
Molten salt reactor
Space-based solar power
Compressed air energy storage
Flywheel energy storage
Grid energy storage
Research in lithium-ion batteries
Thermal energy storage
Internet of things
Applications of artificial intelligence
Progress in artificial intelligence
Carbon nanotube field-effect transistor
Fourth-generation optical discs
3D optical data storage
Holographic data storage
Three-dimensional integrated circuit
Linear acetylenic carbon
Pure fusion weapon
Vortex ring gun
Quantum complexity theory
Quantum error correction
Quantum key distribution
Quantum logic gates
Quantum machine learning
Quantum neural network
Self-reconfiguring modular robot
Reusable launch system
Plasma propulsion engine
Nuclear pulse propulsion
Adaptive compliant wing
Pulse detonation engine
Alternative fuel vehicle
Ground effect train
Personal rapid transit
Vehicular communication systems
Automated vacuum collection
Cloak of invisibility
Digital scent technology
Immersive virtual reality
Differential technological development
Technology readiness level
Glossaries of science and engineering
Electrical and electronics engineering
Probability and statistics
BNF: cb11983019n (d