Roanoke Colony (/ˈroʊəˌnoʊk/), also known as the Lost Colony,
was established in 1585 on
Roanoke Island in what is today's Dare
County, North Carolina. It was a late 16th-century attempt by Queen
Elizabeth I to establish a permanent English settlement in North
America. The colony was founded by Sir Walter Raleigh.
The colonists disappeared during the Anglo-Spanish War, three years
after the last shipment of supplies from England. Their disappearance
gave rise to the nickname "The Lost Colony". There is no conclusive
evidence as to what happened to the colonists.
2 Raleigh's charter
3 First voyages to Roanoke Island
3.1 In the New World
4 Lost Colony
4.1 Return to the Lost Colony
5 Thomas Harriot
6 Investigations into Roanoke
7 Reports of John Smith and William Strachey
8 Hypotheses about the disappearance
8.1 Integration with local tribes
8.2 Other theories
8.2.2 Dare Stones
8.2.3 Virginia Pars Map
9 Archaeological evidence
10 Climate factors
11 Lost Colony of Roanoke
12 In popular culture
13 See also
15 Further reading
16 External links
The enterprise was originally financed and organized by Sir Humphrey
Gilbert, who drowned in 1583 returning from a voyage to the fishing
settlement at St. John's, Newfoundland. Sir Humphrey Gilbert's
Walter Raleigh later gained his brother's charter
from the Queen and subsequently executed the details of the charter
through his delegates
Ralph Lane and Richard Grenville, Raleigh's
A watercolor of the fort in Guyanailla Bay, which is likely similar to
the fort constructed on Roanoke
On March 25, 1584, Queen Elizabeth I granted Raleigh a charter for the
colonization of the area of North America. This charter specified that
Raleigh needed to establish a colony in North America, or lose his
right to colonization.:9
The Queen and Raleigh intended that the venture should provide riches
from the New World. The queen's charter said that Raleigh was supposed
to "discover, search, find out, and view such remote heathen and
barbarous Lands, Countries, and territories ... to have, hold, occupy,
The queen's charter also said that Raleigh was supposed to establish a
base from which to send privateers on raids against the treasure
fleets of Spain.:135 The purpose of these raids was to tell Spain
that England was ready for war. The original charter basically told
Raleigh to establish a military base to counteract the activities of
the Spaniards. Raleigh himself never visited North America,
although he led expeditions in 1595 and 1617 to South America's
Orinoco River basin in search of the legendary golden city of El
First voyages to Roanoke Island
On April 27, 1584, Raleigh dispatched an expedition led by Philip
Arthur Barlowe to explore the eastern coast of North
America. They arrived on
Roanoke Island on July 4:32 and soon
established relations with the local natives, the Secotans and
Croatans. Barlowe returned to England with two Croatans named Manteo
and Wanchese, who were able to describe the politics and geography of
the area to Raleigh.:44–45 Based on the information given,
Raleigh organized a second expedition, to be led by Sir Richard
Sir Walter Raleigh
Grenville's fleet departed
Plymouth on April 9, 1585, with five main
ships: Tiger (Grenville's), Roebuck, Red Lion, Elizabeth, and Dorothy.
A severe storm off the coast of Portugal separated Tiger from the rest
of the fleet.:57 The captains had a contingency plan if they were
separated, which was to meet up again in Puerto Rico, and Tiger
arrived in the "Baye of Muskito" (Guayanilla Bay) on May 11.
While waiting for the other ships, Grenville established relations
with the resident Spanish while simultaneously engaging in some
privateering against them.:62 He also built a fort. Elizabeth
arrived soon after the fort's construction.:91 Grenville eventually
tired of waiting for the remaining ships and departed on June 7. The
fort was abandoned, and its location remains unknown.
Tiger sailed through
Ocracoke Inlet on June 26, but it struck a shoal,
ruining most of the food supplies.:63 The expedition succeeded in
repairing the ship and, in early July, reunited with Roebuck and
Dorothy, which had arrived in the
Outer Banks with Red Lion some weeks
previous. Red Lion had dropped off its passengers and left for
Newfoundland for privateering.:64
In the New World
During the initial exploration of the mainland coast and the native
settlements, the Europeans blamed the natives of the village of
Aquascogoc for stealing a silver cup. As retaliation, the settlers
sacked and burned the village.:72 English writer and courtier
Richard Hakluyt's contemporaneous reports also describe this incident.
(Hakluyt's reports of the first voyage to Roanoke were compiled from
accounts by various financial backers, including Sir Walter Raleigh.
Hakluyt himself never traveled to the New World.)
Despite this incident and a lack of food, Grenville decided to leave
Ralph Lane and 107 men to establish a colony at the north end of
Roanoke Island, promising to return in April 1586 with more men and
fresh supplies. The group disembarked on August 17, 1585, and built
a small fort on the island. There are no surviving renderings of the
Roanoke fort, but it was likely similar in structure to the one in
Guayanilla Bay. Grenville in the Tiger on only his seventh day of sail
captured (after a three-day battle) a rich Spanish galleon, Santa
Maria de San Vicente off
Bermuda which he took with him as a prize
back to England.
As April 1586 passed, there was no sign of Grenville's relief fleet.
Meanwhile, in June, bad blood resulted from the destruction of the
village, and this spurred an attack on the fort by the local Native
Americans, which the colonists were able to repel.:5 Soon after
the attack, Sir
Francis Drake was on his way home from a successful
raid in the Caribbean, and he stopped at the colony and offered to
take the colonists back to England. Several accepted, including
metallurgist Joachim Gans. On this return voyage, the Roanoke
colonists introduced tobacco, maize, and potatoes to England.:5
The relief fleet arrived shortly after Drake's departure with the
colonists. Finding the colony abandoned, Grenville returned to England
with the bulk of his force, leaving behind a small detachment of
fifteen men both to maintain an English presence and to protect
Raleigh's claim to Roanoke Island.:127
In 1587, Raleigh dispatched a new group of 115 colonists to establish
a colony on Chesapeake Bay. They were led by John White, an artist and
friend of Raleigh who had accompanied the previous expedition to
Roanoke, and was appointed governor of the 1587 colony. White and
Raleigh named 12 assistants to aid in the settlement. They were
ordered to stop at Roanoke to pick up the small contingent left there
by Grenville the previous year, but when they arrived on July 22,
1587, they found nothing except a skeleton that may have been the
remains of one of the English garrison.
Baptism of Virginia Dare, the first English child born in North
America. Lithograph, 1880
When they could find no one, the master pilot Simon Fernandez
refused to let the colonists return to the ships, insisting that they
establish the new colony on Roanoke.:215 His motives remain
unclear, however, and new evidence offered by author Brandon Fullam
indicates not only that Fernandez had good reason for his actions, but
that the decision to alter the
Chesapeake Bay destination had already
been agreed to prior to their arrival at Roanoke.
White re-established relations with the
Croatan and other local
tribes, but those with whom Lane had fought previously refused to meet
with him. Shortly thereafter, colonist George Howe was killed by a
native while searching alone for crabs in Albemarle
The colonists persuaded Governor White to return to England to explain
the colony's desperate situation and ask for help.:120–23 Left
behind were about 115 colonists – the remaining men and women
who had made the Atlantic crossing plus White's newly born
granddaughter Virginia Dare, the first English child born in the
White sailed for England in late 1587, although crossing the Atlantic
at that time of year was a considerable risk. Plans for a relief
fleet were delayed first by the captain's refusal to return during the
winter, and then the attack on England of the
Spanish Armada and the
subsequent Anglo-Spanish War. Every able English ship joined the
fight, leaving White without a means to return to Roanoke at the
time.:125–26 In the spring of 1588, White managed to acquire two
small vessels and sailed for Roanoke; however, his attempt to return
was thwarted when the captains of the ships attempted to capture
several Spanish ships on the outward-bound voyage (in order to improve
their profits). They themselves were captured and their cargo seized.
With nothing left to deliver to the colonists, the ships returned to
Return to the Lost Colony
Further information: Watts' West Indies and Virginia expedition
The discovery of the word "Croatoan" carved onto a stockade board
Because of the continuing war with Spain, White was unable to mount
another resupply attempt for an additional three years. He finally
gained passage on a privateering expedition organised by John Watts
and Walter Raleigh. They agreed to stop off at Roanoke on the way back
after raiding the Spanish in the Caribbean. White landed on August 18,
1590, on his granddaughter's third birthday, but found the settlement
deserted. His men could not find any trace of the 90 men, 17 women,
and 11 children, nor was there any sign of a struggle or
The only clue was the word "CROATOAN" carved into a post of the fence
around the village, and the letters C-R-O carved into a nearby tree.
All the houses and fortifications had been dismantled, which meant
that their departure had not been hurried. Before he had left the
colony, White instructed the colonists that, if anything happened to
them, they should carve a
Maltese cross on a tree nearby, indicating
that their absence had been forced. There was no cross, and White took
this to mean that they had moved to Croatoan Island (now known as
Hatteras Island), but he was unable to conduct a search. A massive
storm was forming and his men refused to go any farther; the next day,
Born in 1560,
Thomas Harriot entered Raleigh's employment in the early
1580s, after graduating from the University of Oxford. Harriot may
have been among the men of Arthur Barlowe's 1584 expedition of the
colony. He trained the members of Raleigh's first Roanoke expedition
in navigational skills and eventually sailed to Roanoke with the
second group of settlers, where his skills as a naturalist became
particularly important along with those of painter and settlement
leader John White.
Between their arrival in Roanoke in April 1585 and the July 1586
departure, Harriot and White both conducted detailed studies of the
Roanoke area, with Harriot compiling his samples and notes into
several notebooks that did not survive the colony's disappearance.
Harriot also wrote descriptions of the surrounding flora and fauna of
the area, which survive in his work A Brief and True Report of the New
Founde Land of Virginia, written as a report on the colony's progress
to the English government on the request of Raleigh. Viewed by modern
historians as propaganda for the colony, this work has become vastly
important to Roanoke's history due to Harriot's observations on
wildlife as well as his depictions of Indian activities at the time of
the colony's disappearance.
Harriot reports that relations between the Roanoke Indians and the
English settlers were mutually calm and prosperous, contradicting
other historical evidence that catalogs the bloody struggles between
the Roanoke Indians and both of Raleigh's commanders, Sir Richard
Grenville and his successor, Ralph Lane. Harriot recounts little to
none of these accounts in his report to England and does not mention
the disorderly state of the colony under either Grenville's or Lane's
tenure, correctly assuming these facts would prevent Roanoke from
gaining more settlers. Harriot's text did not reach England, or the
English press, until 1588, by which time the fate of the "Lost Colony"
was sealed in all but name.
Investigations into Roanoke
Reconstructed fortifications at Fort Raleigh National Historic Site
Twelve years went by before Raleigh decided to find out what happened
to his colony. Led by Samuel Mace, this 1602 expedition differed from
previous voyages in that Raleigh bought his own ship and guaranteed
the sailors' wages so that they would not be distracted by
privateering. However, Raleigh still hoped to make money from the
trip, and Mace's ship landed in the
Outer Banks to gather aromatic
woods or plants such as sassafras that would generate a decent profit
back in England. By the time they could turn their attention to the
colonists, the weather had turned bad and they were forced to return
without even making it to Roanoke Island. By this time, having been
arrested for treason, Raleigh was unable to send any further
There was one final expedition in 1603 led by
Bartholomew Gilbert with
the intention of finding Roanoke colonists. Their intended destination
was Chesapeake Bay, but bad weather forced them to land in an
unspecified location near there. The landing team, including Gilbert
himself, was killed by a group of Native Americans for unknown reasons
on July 29. The remaining crew were forced to return to England
Meanwhile, the Spanish had different reasons for wanting to find the
colony. Knowing of Raleigh's plans to use Roanoke as a base for
privateering, they were hoping to destroy it. Moreover, they had been
getting mostly inaccurate reports of activities there, and they
imagined the colony to be far more successful than it actually
In 1590, they found the remnants of the colony purely by accident, but
assumed it was only an outlying base of the main settlement, which
they believed was in the
Chesapeake Bay area (John White's intended
location). But just as the Anglo-Spanish War prevented White from
returning in a timely manner, Spanish authorities in the New World
could not muster enough support back home for such a
Reports of John Smith and William Strachey
Once the Jamestown settlement was established in 1607, efforts were
undertaken by the English to acquire information from the Powhatan
tribe about Roanoke. The first definitive information concerning the
fate of the Lost Colony came from Captain John Smith, leader of the
Jamestown Colony from 1608 to 1609. According to chronicler Samuel
Purchas, Smith learned from Chief
Powhatan that he had personally
conducted the slaughter of the Roanoke colonists just prior to the
arrival of the Jamestown settlers because they were living with the
Chesepians, a tribe living in the eastern portion of the present-day
South Hampton Roads
South Hampton Roads sub-region who were related to the
in Carolina and who refused to merge with the Powhatans.:21–24
This shocking information was reported to England and by the spring of
1609, King James and the Royal Council were convinced that Chief
Powhatan was responsible for the slaughter of the Lost Colony.
The second source of Chief Powhatan’s involvement was William
Strachey, Secretary of the Jamestown colony in 1610–11. Strachey’s
The Historie of Travaile Into Virginia Britannia seemed to confirm
Smith’s report and provided additional information: the colonists
had been living peacefully among a group of natives beyond
Powhatan’s domain for more than twenty years when they were
Powhatan himself seemed to have directed the
slaughter because of prophecies by his priests that he would be
overthrown by people from that area,:101 and he reportedly
produced several English-made iron implements to back his claim.
The information from these two sources, John Smith and William
Strachey, provides the basis for the traditional view that the Lost
Colony was slaughtered by Chief Powhatan, and versions of the
Powhatan-Lost Colony-slaughter scenario have persisted for more than
400 years. However, no bodies were found and no archaeological
evidence has been found to support this claim.
Furthermore, recent re-examination of the Smith and Strachey sources
advanced by author and researcher Brandon Fullam has suggested that
the massacre described by
Powhatan was actually of the 15 people left
behind by the first Roanoke expedition, leaving the fate of the second
colony still unknown.
Hypotheses about the disappearance
Integration with local tribes
The Francis Nelson (or Zuniga) map, c. 1607
As per Smith's and Strachey's reports, Dr. David Beers Quinn theorized
that the colonists moved north to integrate with the Chesepians that
Powhatan claimed to have killed. To make the journey northward,
Quinn believed that they used the pinnace and other small boats to
transport themselves and their belongings. Naturally, if that were the
mode of transportation, the colonists could have gone to live in other
locations as well.
In her 2000 book Roanoke: Solving the Mystery of the Lost Colony,
historian Lee Miller postulated that some of the Lost Colony survivors
sought shelter with the Chowanoke, who were attacked by another tribe,
identified by the Jamestown Colony as the "Mandoag" (an Algonquian
name commonly given to enemy nations). The Mandoag are believed to be
either the Tuscarora, an Iroquois-speaking tribe,:45 or the Eno,
also known as the Wainoke.:255–56
The so-called "Zuniga Map" (named for Pedro de Zúñiga, the Spanish
ambassador to England, who had secured a copy and passed it on to
Philip III of Spain:112), drawn about 1607 by the Jamestown
settler Francis Nelson, also gives credence to this claim. The map
states "four men clothed that came from roonock" were living in an
Iroquois site on the Neuse.
William Strachey wrote that, at the Indian
settlements of Peccarecanick and Ochanahoen, there were reportedly
two-story houses with stone walls. The Indians supposedly had learned
how to build them from the Roanoke settlers.:222 In both cases, as
stated above, it is equally possible that these were survivors of
Chief Powhatan's attack of the first colonists.
There were also reported sightings of European captives at various
Indian settlements during the same time period.:250 Strachey wrote
in 1612 that four English men, two boys and one girl had been sighted
at the Eno settlement of Ritanoc, under the protection of a chief
called Eyanoco. Strachey reported that the captives were forced to
beat copper and that they had escaped the attack on the other
colonists and fled up the Chaonoke river, the present-day Chowan River
in Bertie County, North Carolina.:242:222
John Lawson wrote in his 1709 work A New Voyage to Carolina that the
Croatans living on
Hatteras Island used to live on
Roanoke Island and
claimed to have white ancestors:
A farther Confirmation of this we have from the Hatteras Indians, who
either then lived on Ronoak-Island, or much frequented it. These tell
us, that several of their Ancestors were white People, and could talk
in a Book, as we do; the Truth of which is confirm'd by gray Eyes
being found frequently amongst these Indians, and no others. They
value themselves extremely for their Affinity to the English, and are
ready to do them all friendly Offices. It is probable, that this
Settlement miscarry'd for want of timely Supplies from England; or
thro' the Treachery of the Natives, for we may reasonably suppose that
the English were forced to cohabit with them, for Relief and
Conversation; and that in process of Time, they conform'd themselves
to the Manners of their Indian Relations.
From the early 17th century to the middle 18th century, European
colonists reported encounters with gray-eyed American Indians who
claimed descent from the colonists:257, 263 (although at least
one, a story of a Welsh priest who met a Doeg warrior who spoke the
Welsh language, is likely to be a hoax).:76 Records from French
Huguenots who settled along the
Tar River in 1696 tell of meeting
Tuscaroras with blond hair and blue eyes not long after their arrival.
As Jamestown was the nearest English settlement, and they had no
record of being attacked by Tuscarora, the likelihood that the origin
of those fair-skinned natives was the Lost Colony is high.:28
Fred Willard and Phillip MacMullan believe that the colonists along
with the Croatans relocated to villages along the Alligator River in
an area known as "Beechland", slightly inland from Roanoke Island.
Archeological remains of settlements have been discovered in the area,
including coffins with Christian markings on them where there had been
no previous record of a grave site, but their hypothesis is mostly
based on oral histories and also lacks any definitive evidence.
In the late 1880s,
North Carolina state legislator Hamilton McMillan
discovered that his "redbones" (those of Indian blood) neighbors in
Robeson County claimed to have been descended from the Roanoke
settlers. He also noticed that many of the words in their language had
striking similarities to obsolete English words. Furthermore, many of
the family names were identical to those listed in Hakluyt's account
of the colony. Thus on February 10, 1885, convinced that these were
the descendants of the Lost Colony, he helped to pass the "Croatan
bill", that officially designated the population around Robeson county
as Croatan.:231–33 Two days later on February 12, 1885, the
Fayetteville Observer published an article regarding the Robeson
people's origins. This article states:
They say that their traditions say that the people we call the Croatan
Indians (though they do not recognize that name as that of a tribe,
but only a village, and that they were Tuscaroras), were always
friendly to the whites; and finding them destitute and despairing of
ever receiving aid from England, persuaded them to leave [Roanoke
Island], and go to the mainland... They gradually drifted away from
their original seats, and at length settled in Robeson, about the
center of the county...
However, the case was far from settled. A similar legend claims that
the now extinct Saponi of Person County, North Carolina, are descended
from the English colonists of Roanoke Island. However, no documented
evidence exists to link the Saponi to the Roanoke colonists.
Other tribes claiming partial descent from surviving Roanoke colonists
include the Catawba (who absorbed the Shakori and Eno people), and the
Coree and the people who call themselves the Lumbee. Samuel A'Court
Ashe was convinced that the colonists had relocated westward to the
banks of the
Chowan River in Bertie County, and Conway Whittle Sams
claimed that after being attacked by Wanchese and Powhatan, the
colonists scattered to multiple locations: the Chowan River, and south
Pamlico and Neuse Rivers.:233
Another theory is that the Spanish destroyed the colony. Earlier in
the century, the Spanish did destroy evidence of the French colony of
Fort Charles in coastal
South Carolina and then massacred the
inhabitants of Fort Caroline, a French colony near present-day
Jacksonville, Florida. However, a Spanish attack is unlikely, as the
Spanish were still looking for the location of England's failed colony
as late as 1600, ten years after White discovered that the colony was
Main article: Dare Stones
From 1937 to 1941, a series of stones were discovered that were
claimed to have been written by Eleanor Dare, mother of Virginia Dare.
They told of the travelings of the colonists and their ultimate
deaths. Most historians believe that they are a fraud, but there are
some today who still believe at least one of the stones to be
Virginia Pars Map
In May 2011, Brent Lane of the First Colony Foundation was studying
the Virginia Pars Map, which was made by John White during his 1585
visit to Roanoke Island, and noticed two patches where the map had
been corrected. The patches are made of paper contemporaneous with
that of the map. Lane asked researchers at the
British Museum in
London, where the map has been kept since 1866, what might be under
the patches, sparking a research investigation. On May 3, 2012, at
Wilson Library of the University of
North Carolina at Chapel Hill,
members of the Foundation and representatives of the museum announced
the discovery of "a large, square-shaped symbol with oddly shaped
corners." This symbol, presumed to represent a fort, is visible when
the map is viewed on a light box. Some scholars speculate that the
colonists relocated to that location, on what is now called Salmon
Creek in the Bertie County community of Merry Hill. The Scotch Hall
Preserve golf course community was planned on the site, but it has not
been fully developed.
The discovery of new information on the map led to more study of
artifacts previously found, as well as additional digs in 2012 and
In 1993, Hurricane Emily caused numerous relics to appear, and David
East Carolina University
East Carolina University later began digging in the area and
found evidence the settlers lived with the native people.
East Carolina University
East Carolina University organized "The Croatoan Project", an
archaeological investigation into the events at Roanoke. The
excavation team sent to
Hatteras Island uncovered what they believed
to be a 10 karat (42%) gold 16th-century English signet ring, gun
flints, and two copper farthings (produced sometime in the 1670s) at
the site of the ancient
Croatan capital, 50 miles (80 km) from
the old Roanoke Colony. Genealogists were able to trace the lion crest
on the signet ring to the Kendall coat of arms, and concluded that the
ring most likely belonged to one Master Kendall who is recorded as
having lived in the
Roanoke Colony from 1585 to 1586. If this is the
case, the ring represents the first material connection between the
Roanoke colonists and the Native Americans on Hatteras
Island. However, archaeologist David Phelps did not
have the ring tested, and Charles Ewen, who continued Phelps' work
after Phelps retired, had the ring tested and found the ring was
brass. Ewen announced his findings in April 2017. Mark Horton of the
University of Bristol
University of Bristol said he was not convinced that this news proved
the ring did not date to the 16th century.
It is also believed that the reason for the extreme deficiency in
archaeological evidence is due to shoreline erosion. Since all that
was found was a rustic looking fort on the north shore, and this
location is well-documented and backed up, it is believed that the
settlement must have been nearby. The northern shore, between 1851 and
1970, lost 928 feet because of erosion. If in the years leading up to
and following the brief life of the settlement at Roanoke, shoreline
erosion was following the same trend, it is likely the site of the
dwellings is underwater, along with any artifacts or signs of
life. Archaeological investigations continue to find tantalizing
clues and funding is being sought to continue recent excavations.
In 1998, a team led by climatologist David W. Stahle, of the
University of Arkansas
University of Arkansas and archaeologist Dennis B. Blanton of the
College of William and Mary
College of William and Mary used tree ring cores from 800-year-old
bald cypresses taken from the
Roanoke Island area of North Carolina
and the Jamestown area of Virginia to reconstruct precipitation and
The researchers concluded that the settlers of the Lost Colony landed
Roanoke Island in the summer of the worst growing-season drought in
800 years. "This drought persisted for 3 years, from 1587 to 1589, and
is the driest 3-year episode in the entire 800-year reconstruction,"
the team reported in the journal Science. A map shows that "the Lost
Colony drought affected the entire southeastern
United States but was
particularly severe in the Tidewater region near Roanoke [Island]."
The authors suggested that the
Croatan who were shot and killed by the
colonists may have been scavenging the abandoned village for food as a
result of the drought.
Lost Colony of Roanoke
The Lost Colony of Roanoke
DNA Project was founded in 2007 by a group
led by Roberta Estes, who owns a private DNA-testing company, in order
to solve the mystery of the Lost Colony using historical records,
migration patterns, oral histories and
DNA testing. The project used Y
DNA and Autosomal DNA. As of
2016[update], they have not yet been able to positively identify any
descendants of the colony.
In popular culture
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The White Doe: The Fate of
Virginia Dare (1901) is one of the many
novels about the most settlers of the Roanoke Colony, Virginia Dare,
that details the theory of assimilation. In this story, Dare is
married off into the
The Daughter of
Virginia Dare (1908) is another novel about Virginia
Dare, in which the author claims Dare to be the mother of Pocahontas.
Rising Shore Roanoke (2007) by Deborah Homsher
The Missing Book 3: Sabotaged (2010) by Margaret Peterson Haddix
Vampire Hunter by Seth Grahame-Smith, released in
2010, features a character called Henry, a vampire who was a part of
the Roanoke Colony. Through this character, the novel presents a
situation in which "Cro" referred to the Colony's Doctor Crowley. In
this fictional version of events, the Colony was wiped out by Dr.
Crowley, a vampire who then turned Henry into a vampire to be his
The Last American
Vampire is the 2015 sequel to Abraham Lincoln:
Vampire Hunter. This time, the story follows the character, Henry. He
reveals that he lied about the death of
Virginia Dare and that in
truth, he kept her alive and raised her as his own. In this version of
events, Dare is still alive and lives on as a vampire.
Marvel 1602, a 2003 comic book series, provides an alternate timeline
in which the
Roanoke Colony thrived and places many Marvel characters,
such as Steve Rogers in this situation.
Marvel Comics Presents, an American comic book anthology series
published by Marvel Comics, included a story in which the
responsible of the disappearance of the
Roanoke Colony was a Vinland
viking settler turned into a vampire circa AD 1000.
The dramatic feature, The Legend of Two Path (1998), recounts the
arrival of the English settlers from the viewpoint of the Native
Roanoke Island in 1584.
2004 crime thriller
Mindhunters is about someone who goes missing from
a group of FBI trainees, only to be found in the Lost Colony after
leaving the word 'Croatoan' behind as a clue.
Wraiths of Roanoke, otherwise known as The Lost Colony is a 2007 Sci
Fi original movie the features the perspective of Ananias Dare, the
father of Virginia and the one John White leaves in charge of the
Colony while he is gone. In this fictional story,
responsible for the Colony's disappearance, and the victims become
ghosts that haunt the island.
Ananias Dare defeats the ghosts and
sends Virginia away from the island, who is then raised by Manteo, the
Stephen King's 1999 miniseries,
Storm of the Century
Storm of the Century is loosely based
on the story of the
Roanoke Colony and offers a theory as to what
In cancelled TV series,
FreakyLinks (2000), character Embry's brother
dies whilst investigating the disappearance of the Roanoke Colony.
Virginia Dare is alive as a demonic being in this story who is
revealed to have been responsible for killing off the Roanoke Colony.
In 2005 TV series Haven, a character dreams of the Roanoke Colony. The
word 'Croatoan' comes to symbolize a monster.
The first season of Sleepy Hollow (2013) connects The Legend of Sleepy
Hollow to the story of the Roanoke Colony. In this adaptation, the
Horseman of Pestilence supposedly visited
Roanoke Island and infected
its inhabitants with plague.
Virginia Dare became a ghost and led her
fellow settlers to
Upstate New York
Upstate New York where they continue to haunt to
American Horror Story: Roanoke, which came out in 2016, is the sixth
season of American Horror Story, features the colonists from real life
as spirits that haunt
North Carolina due to a deal that John White's
wife made with a witch. As a result, they must perform blood rituals
and murder people during the month of October.
"The Mysterious Disappearance of the Roanoke Colony", released on
November 17, 2017, is an episode of BuzzFeed Unsolved: Supernatural in
which the various theories that surround the disappearance are
List of colonists at Roanoke
Charlesfort-Santa Elena Site
List of people who disappeared mysteriously
Timeline of the colonization of North America
Charter to Sir
Walter Raleigh March 25, 1584". University of
Groningen. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
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particularities of the imployments of the English men left in Roanoke
Richard Grenville under the charge of Master
Ralph Lane Generall of
the same, from the 17. of August 1585. until the 18. of June 1586. at
which time they departed the Countrey; sent and directed to Sir Walter
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October 16, 2002). Bertie County: An
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'Lost Colony' theories". News & Observer. Retrieved April 11,
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Another Cruel Twist". Smithsonian. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
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^ Kaminski, Len (w), Heck, Don (p), Ivy,
Chris (i), Ivy, Chris (col), Starkings,
Richard (let), Kavanagh, Terry] (ed). "Norse
Marvel Comics Presents 63: 25 (November 1990), New York,
NY: Marvel Comics
Hariot, Thomas, John White and John Lawson (1999). A Vocabulary of
Roanoke. Evolution Publishing: Merchantville, NJ.
ISBN 1-889758-81-7. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list
(link) This volume contains practically everything known about the
Croatan language spoken on Roanoke Island.
Miller, Lee, Roanoke: Solving the Mystery of the Lost Colony Retrieved
Giles Milton (2000). Big Chief Elizabeth. New York: Farrar, Straus and
Giroux. ISBN 0-374-26501-1. Critically acclaimed account,
based on contemporary travel accounts from 1497–1611, of attempts to
establish a colony in the Roanoke area. Milton is also the author of
the 2013 children's fictional work, Children of the Wild, which tells
the story of the colony through the eyes of four English children.
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The finding of Raleigh's lost colony (1907)
The Lost Colony of Roanoke loses its portrait of Queen Elizabeth I
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