RIAU (Jawi : رياو, Chinese : 廖内; pinyin : Liào nèi) is a
Indonesia . It is located in the central eastern coast of
Sumatra along the
Strait of Malacca
Strait of Malacca . Until 2004 the province included
Riau Islands , a large group of small islands (of which
the principal islands are
Batam and Bintan ) located east of Sumatra
Island and south of
Singapore , before these islands were split off as
Riau Islands Province in July 2004. The provincial capital of Riau
Province and its largest city is
Pekanbaru . Other major cities
Selat Panjang ,
Bengkalis , Bangkinang
Siak Sri Indrapura . The province shares land borders
Sumatra to the northwest, West
Sumatra to the west, and
Jambi to the south.
The total area for
Riau province is 87,023.66 km² , which stretches
from the slopes of the Bukit Barisan to the Strait of Malacca. Riau
has a wet tropical climate with average rainfall ranging between
2000-3000 millimeters per year, and the average rainfall per year is
about 160 days.
Riau is currently one of the richest provinces in
Indonesia and is
rich in natural resources, particularly petroleum , natural gas ,
rubber , palm oil and fibre plantations. Extensive logging and
plantation development in has led to a massive decline in forest cover
Riau, and associated fires have contributed to haze across the larger
Since the 1970s, much of
Indonesia has experienced a decline in
population growth rates.
Riau has been a significant exception, with
increasing rates every decade since 1970 to a 4.35 percent annual rise
for the 1990s; however, this rate slowed significantly during the
subsequent decade. The provincial population was 5,538,367 at the 2010
census. and according to the estimate for January 2014 this had risen
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 3 Demographics
* 3.1 Ethnic groups
* 3.2 Religion
* 3.3 Education
* 4 Economy
* 4.1 Agriculture and Plantation
* 4.2 Forests and Fishery
* 4.3 Industry
* 4.4 Transportation
* 4.5 Finance and Banking
* 5 Language
* 6 Administrative divisions
* 7 Ecology
* 8 Sports
* 9 See also
* 10 References
Several theories exist for the origin of the word
Three theories exist for the origin of Riau's name. One suggests that
it is a mutation of the Portuguese name "Rio River", referring to a
local river. A Portuguese military expedition explored the Siak river
in 1514, searching for a kingdom believed to exist in the region, as
well as pursuing followers of Sultan Mahmud Shah who tried to escape
income taxes following the fall of the Malacca Sultanate.
A second theory suggests that
Riau is a mutation of the local word
riahi, meaning "sea air".
A third theory says that the province was named after a singer
popular in local communities, who was described as rioh
A fourth theory instead asserts that rioh was a description of locals
by settlers from
Johor led by Raja Kecik in 1719.
DUTCH COLONIAL PERIOD
The local Siak people could not resist the aggressive Dutch invasion.
The Dutch narrowed the sovereign territory of the Siak by establishing
a residency in
Riau (Residentie Riow) at
Tanjung Pinang , under the
rule of the
Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies . The residents were to monitor the
coastal areas of
Sumatra . The Sultan of Siak, tied to an agreement
with the Netherlands, could not intervene. Siak influence was further
weakened by tensions between the Netherlands and the United Kingdom
(the latter dominating the Straits of Malacca ) at strategic areas on
the east coast of Sumatra. The Sultan of Siak was forced to surrender
Siak territory to the Netherlands in an agreement in July 1873, where
power was handed to the Dutch Bengkalis. At the same time period,
Indragiri began to be influenced by the Dutch (although the latter
only managed to control Batavia in 1938), and Dutch dominance of the
Siak was a factor of the outbreak of war in Aceh. The Netherlands also
quickly abolished smaller kingdoms on the coast that were not
subjects. On the coast, the Netherlands moved quickly abolished the
kingdoms that still have not been subject. Finally, the Netherlands
managed to impeach Sultan of Riau-Lingga, Sultan Abdul Rahman Muazzam
Shah in February 1911.
Riau became a prime target for occupation during the Japanese
Rengat was occupied on March 31, 1942. The rest of
then swiftly subjugated under Japanese rule .
Legacy of the Japanese occupation include a now abandoned 300km
railway line connecting Muaro Sijunjung and
Pekanbaru , completed
through forced labor by hundreds of thousands of
Riau Province was formerly part of the Central
Sumatra Province, but
the rebellion of Dewan Banteng saw
Riau being occupied on 1 January
1957. On 9 August 1957, then president
Soekarno declared an
In 1999, the second son of the first Djasit
Riau took up his parent's
post and served as governor in the Provincial Parliament. He was
succeeded by former Regent of Indragiri Hilir, Rusli Zainal, who was
elected in 2004 and 2008, and then succeeded by Annas Mahmun. Both
Rusli Zainal and Annas Mahmun were removed from post and jailed
following corruption scandals. Arsyadjuliandi Rachman, nicknamed
"Andi", is the current governor of Riau.
Riau is under review by the Indonesian government for reorganisation.
The population of the province of
Riau based on data from the Central
Statistics Agency of
Riau Province in 2010 amounted to 5,543,031
inhabitants. Regency / City which has the largest population is
Pekanbaru city with a population of 903 902 inhabitants, while the
district / city with the smallest population of Kepulauan Meranti,
amounting to 176 371 inhabitants.
Riau provincial population consists of diverse ethnic groups. They
Java (25.05%), Minangkabau (11.26%),
Batak (7.31%), Banjar
(3.78%), Chinese (3.72%), and Bugis (2.27% ). The Malays are the
largest community with a composition of 37.74% of the entire
population of Riau. They generally come from coastal areas in Rokan
Hilir, Dumai, Bengkalis, Meranti Islands, up to Pelalawan, Siak,
Inderagiri Inderagiri Upstream and Downstream. However, there are also
indigenous Minangkabau ethnic clumps mainly from areas Rokan Hulu,
Kampar, Kuantan Singingi, and partly Inderagiri Hulu. Also Mandailing
community in Rokan Hulu, which is claimed to be a Malay rather than as
Minangkabau or Batak. The 19th century, the people of South Kalimantan
Banjar and Bugis from South Sulawesi, also began arriving in Riau.
They are widely settled in Indragiri Hilirkhususnya Tembilahan. The
opening of Caltex oil mining company in the 1940s in Rumbai,
encouraging people from throughout the country to try his luck in
Riau. Javanese and Sundanese in general, many migrants are in the
area. While ethnic Minangkabau generally become merchants and many
living in urban areas such as Pekanbaru, Bangkinang, Duri, and Dumai.
Likewise, Chinese people are generally the same as the ethnic
Minangkabau are becoming merchants and settled especially in
Pekanbaru, and many are also found in coastal areas in the east as
Rupat and Bengkalis. Other than that in
the province, there are a set of indigenous people who live in rural
areas and riverbanks, such as Sakai tribe, Akit Tribe, Talang Mamak
and Orang Laut.
RELIGION IN RIAU (2010 CENSUS)
Other, not stated or not asked
Riau has several universities, including the University of Riau, Riau
Islamic University, University of Muhammadiyah
Riau Islamic University
of Sultan Syarif Kasim Riau, Lancang Kuning University, University
Abdurrab, University Sand Pengaraian, Universitas
Islamic University Kuantan Singingi, Polytechnic of
Politeknik Caltex Riau.
The economy of
Riau expands faster (8.66% in 2006) than the
Indonesian average (6.04% in 2006), and is largely a resource-based
economy, including crude oil (600,000 bpd), palm oil , rubber trees
and other forest products . Local government income benefits from a
greater share of tax revenue (mainly from crude oil) due to the
decentralisation law of 2004.
The province has natural resources, both riches contained in the
bowels of the earth, in the form of oil and gas, as well as gold, as
well as forest products and plantations. Along with the implementation
of regional autonomy, gradually began to apply the system for results
or financial balance between central and local. The new rules provide
expressly limits the obligations of investors, resource utilization,
and revenue-sharing with the surrounding environment.
AGRICULTURE AND PLANTATION
Plantation growing is rubber and oil palm plantations, either run by
the state or by the people. There is also a citrus and coconut
plantations. For oil palm plantation area currently
Riau province has
a land area of 1:34 million hectares. In addition there have been
about 116 palm oil mills (PKS) which operates with the production of
coconut palm oil (CPO) 3.3868 million tons per year.
FORESTS AND FISHERY
Deforestation (in Indragiri Hulu); Forestry development essentially
includes all efforts to utilize and strengthen the natural resource
functions of forests and other natural resources and the ecosystem,
both as a patron and life support and preservation of biodiversity as
well as resource development. But in reality had lost its three
primary functions, namely the function of long-term economic,
protection function, and aesthetics as the impact of government
policies ago. The loss of the three functions above led to an
increased extent of critical lands caused by forest products companies
that ignore the aspect of sustainability. The next effect is the
decreasing production of non timber forest concessions, while
reforestation and afforestation efforts have not been optimally
implemented. Another issue that is detrimental not only to the
Riau in particular but
Indonesia in general, is the
problem of illegal logging leading to reduced forest areas and the
problem of illegal sand dredging.
In this province there are several international companies engaged in
the oil and gas as well as the processing of forest products and oil.
In addition there is also a copra and rubber processing industry.
Several major companies including Chevron Pacific
subsidiary of Chevron Corporation, PT. Indah Kiat Pulp & Paper Tbk in
Perawang, and PT.
Riau Andalan Pulp float:right;"> Riau
Governmental office in
The dialect of Malay spoken in
Riau Province is considered by
linguists to have one of the least complex grammars among the
languages of the world, apart from creoles , possessing neither noun
declensions, temporal distinctions, subject/object distinctions, nor
singular/plural distinction. For example, the phrase Ayam makan (lit.
'chicken eat') can mean, in context, anything from 'the chicken is
eating', to 'I ate some chicken', 'the chicken that is eating' and
'when we were eating chicken'. A possible reason for this is that Riau
Malay has been used as a lingua franca for communication between
different people in this area during its history, and extensive
foreign-language speaker use of this kind tends to simplify the
grammar of a language used. The traditional script in
Riau is Jawi
(locally known in
Indonesia as "Arab-Melayu"), an Arabic-based writing
in the Malay language.
It is sometimes supposed that
Riau Malay is the basis for the modern
national language, Indonesian . However, it is instead based on
Classical Malay, the court language of Johor-
Riau Sultanate, based
primarily from the one used in the
Riau archipelago and the state of
Johor , Malaysia, which is distinct from the local mainland Riau
Non-mainstream varieties in
Riau include Orang Sakai, Orang Asli,
Orang Akit, and Orang Laut.
Minangkabau language is the indigenous language of the western part
of Riau, mainly in the Pekanbaru, Kampar, Kuantan, and Rokan Hulu.
The pronunciation of
Riau Minangkabau similar to
Payakumbuh-Batusangkar dialect, even differs from that of other
dialects varieties of West Sumatra. Historically, Minangkabau language
used in the Sultanate of Siak and nowadays also spoken in the lower
Siak river basin.
sources: Note: Census years not equidistant, 2010 excludes Riau
Riau Province is subdivided into ten regencies (kabupaten) and two
autonomous cities (kota), listed below with their areas and their
populations at the 2010 Census and according to the latest (January
Census 2010 Population
Estimate 2014 CAPITAL
Indragiri Hulu Regency
Indragiri Hilir Regency
Indragiri Hilir Regency
Kepulauan Meranti Regency
(Meranti Islands) 3,707.84
Kuantan Singingi Regency
Rokan Hulu Regency
Rokan Hilir Regency
Siak Sri Indrapura
Forest cover in
Riau has declined from 78% in 1982 to only 33% in
2005. This has been further reduced an average of 160,000 hectares on
average per year, leaving 22%, or 2.45 million hectares left as of
2009. Fires associated with deforestation have contributed to serious
haze over the province and cities to the East, such as
Kuala Lumpur ,
Malaysia . Giam Siak Kecil - Bukit Batu
Giam Siak Kecil –
Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve , Indonesia, is a
peatland area in
Sumatra featuring sustainable timber production and
two wildlife reserves, which are home to the
Sumatran tiger , Sumatran
Malayan tapir , and
Malayan sun bear . Research activities
in the biosphere include the monitoring of flagship species and
in-depth study on peatland ecology. Initial studies indicate a real
potential for sustainable economic development using native flora and
fauna for the economic benefit of local inhabitants.
Cagar Biosfer Giam Siak Kecil Bukit Batu (CB-GSK-BB) is one of seven
Biosphere Reserves in Indonesia. They are located in two areas of Riau
Bengkalis and Siak . CB-GSK-BB is a trial presented by Riau
at the 21st Session of the International Coordinating Council of Man
and the Biosphere (UNESCO) in Jeju , South Korea, on 26 May 2009.
CB-GSK-BB is one of 22 proposed locations in 17 countries accepted as
reserves for the year. A Biosphere Reserve is the only internationally
recognised concept of environmental conservation and cultivation. Thus
the supervision and development of CB-GSK-BB is a worldwide concern at
a regional level.
CB-GSK-BB is a unique type of Peat Swamp Forest in the Kampar
Peninsula Peat Forest (with a small area of swamp). Another
peculiarity is that the CB-GSK-BB was initiated by private parties in
co-operation with the government through BBKSDA (The Center for the
Conservation of Natural Resources), including the notorious
conglomerate involved in forest destruction,
Sinar Mas Group , owning
the largest paper and pulp company in Indonesia.
Riau has a football team, PSPS
Pekanbaru , based in Kaharuddin
Nasution Stadium , Pekanbaru. There is football team
PS Siak too. In
Pekan Olahraga Nasional .
* Deforestation in
Pekan Olahraga Nasional
Riau Tourism Portal
* ^ "Provinsi
Riau Dalam Angka 2016" (PDF) (in Indonesian).
* ^ Aris Ananta; Evi Nurvidya Arifin; M. Sairi Hasbullah; Nur Budi
Handayani; Agus Pramono (2015). Demography of Indonesia’s Ethnicity.
Institute of Southeast Asian Studies dan BPS – Statistics Indonesia.
* ^ BPS:Laju Pertumbuhan Penduduk menurut Provinsi
* ^ Central Bureau of Statistics: Census 2010, retrieved 17 January
2011 (in Indonesian)
* ^ "Daftar Gubernur Riau". bahasa Indonesia,
ensiklopedia bebas (in Indonesian). 2017-04-03.
* ^ "Population by Region and Religion in Indonesia". BPS . 2010.
* ^ Riau, Provinsi yang Maju Pesat
* ^ McWhorter, John (2001). "The world's simplest grammars are
creole grammars". Linguistic Typology. Walter de Gruyter. 5 (2001):
125–166. doi :10.1515/lity.2001.001 .
* ^ Gil, David (2008). Miestamo, Matti; Sinnemäki, Kaius;
Karlsson, Fred, eds. How complex are isolating languages?. Language
complexity: Typology, contact, change (Studies in Language Companion
Series 94). Amsterdam: Benjamins. pp. 109–131.
* ^ Sneddon 2003, The Indonesian Language: Its History and Role in
Modern Society, p. 70
* ^ "Dept. of Linguistics Linguistic Field Work in
* ^ Bambang Kaswanti Purwo; Kajian Serba Linguistik: untuk Anton
Moeliono, Pereksa Bahasa; BPK Gunung Mulia, 2000
* ^ "Statistics Indonesia". Bps.go.id.
Estimasi Penduduk Menurut Umur Tunggal Dan Jenis Kelamin 2014
* ^ Indeks-Pembangunan-Manusia-2014
* ^ WWF:The Eleventh Hour for Riau\'s Forests
* ^ "Logging moratorium \'a must\' to save
Riau forests". The
Jakarta Post. 16 May 2009.
* ^ "\'Indonesian\'-made haze covers parts of KL, surrounding
Jakarta Post. 16 June 2012.
* ^ http://www.bernama.com/bernama/v6/newsindex.php?id=673630
‹ The template below (Geographic location ) is being considered
for deletion. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus.
Regencies, cities , and islands of
* Indragiri Hilir
* Indragiri Hulu
* Kepulauan Meranti
* Kuantan Singingi
* Rokan Hulu
* Rokan Hilir
Siak Sri Indrapura
* Teluk Kuantan
Tebing Tinggi Island
See also: List of regencies and cities of
Provinces of Indonesia
East Nusa Tenggara
East Nusa Tenggara
West Nusa Tenggara
* West Papua
* West Papua
* GRP per capita