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The Info List - Reversed Electrodialysis


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Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is the salinity gradient energy retrieved from the difference in the salt concentration between seawater and river water.[1] A method of utilizing the energy produced by this process by means of a heat engine was invented by Prof. Sidney Loeb in 1977 at the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev. --United States Patent US4171409 In reverse electrodialysis a salt solution and fresh water are let through a stack of alternating cation and anion exchange membranes. The chemical potential difference between salt and fresh water generates a voltage over each membrane and the total potential of the system is the sum of the potential differences over all membranes. The process works through difference in ion concentration instead of an electric field, which has implications for the type of membrane needed.[2] In RED, as in a fuel cell, the cells are stacked. A module with a capacity of 250 kW has the size of a shipping container. In the Netherlands, for example, more than 3,300 m³ fresh water runs into the sea per second on average. The membrane halves the pressure differences which results in a water column of approximately 135 meters. The energy potential is therefore e=mgΔh=3.3*106 kg/s*10 m/s2*135 meters ca.= 4.5*109  Joule
Joule
per second, Power=4.5 gigawatts.

Contents

1 Development 2 See also 3 References 4 External links

Development[edit] In 2006 a 50 kW plant was located at a coastal test site in Harlingen, the Netherlands,[3] the focus being on prevention of biofouling of the anode, cathode, and membranes and increasing the membrane performance.[4][5] In 2007 the Directorate for Public Works and Water Management, Redstack, and ENECO signed a declaration of intent for development of a pilot plant on the Afsluitdijk
Afsluitdijk
dike in the Netherlands.[6] The plant was put into service on 26 November 2014 and produces 50 kW of electricity to show the technical feasibility in real-life conditions using fresh IJsselmeer water and salt water from the Wadden Sea. Theoretically, with 1m3/s river water and an equal amount of sea water, approximately 1 MW of renewable electricity can be recovered at this location by upscaling the plant.[7] It is to be expected that after this phase the installation could be further expanded to a final capacity of 200 MW. See also[edit]

Energy portal Sustainable development portal

Osmotic power Van 't Hoff factor Pressure-retarded osmosis
Pressure-retarded osmosis
(PRO) Electrodialysis
Electrodialysis
reversal (EDR) Reverse osmosis Semipermeable membrane Green energy Renewable energy

References[edit]

^ 1980 - energy by reverse electrodialysis ^ See note 2 Archived 2008-09-27 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Blue energy ^ electrodialysis stacks by a validated model ^ Friese wereldprimeur met stroomproductie uit zoet-zout water ^ Electricity from fresh and salt water ^ "Dutch King opens world's first RED power plant driven on fresh-salt water mixing". Dutch Water Sector. Retrieved 4 April 2016. 

External links[edit]

Wetsus KEMA KEMA Dutch Research Database Osmotic Energy (1995) Salinity Power UN Report Practical Potential of Reverse Electrodialysis, Environ. Sci. Technol., July 29, 2009 Dutch water plan to turn green energy blue

v t e

Ocean energy

Wave power

Australia New Zealand United States

Tidal power

New Zealand Annapolis Royal Generating Station

Other

Marine current power Offshore construction Ocean thermal energy conversion Osmotic power Pelamis wave energy converter SDE Sea Waves Power Plant Wind power (offshore) Wave farm

Ocean energy Portals: Energy Renewable energy Sustainable development

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Fuel cells

By electrolyte

Alkaline fuel cell Molten carbonate fuel cell Phosphoric acid fuel cell Proton exchange membrane fuel cell Solid oxide fuel cell

By fuel

Direct-ethanol fuel cell Direct methanol fuel cell Formic acid fuel cell Reformed methanol fuel cell Zinc-air battery

Biofuel cells

Enzymatic biofuel cell Microbial fuel cell

Others

Blue energy Direct borohydride fuel cell Direct carbon fuel cell Electro-galvanic fuel cell Flow battery Membraneless Fuel Cells Metal hydride fuel cell Photoelectrochemical cell Protonic ceramic fuel cell Regenerative fuel cell Solid oxide electrolyser cell Unitized regenerative fuel cell

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Economy Storage Station Vehi

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The Info List - Reversed Electrodialysis


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Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is the salinity gradient energy retrieved from the difference in the salt concentration between seawater and river water.[1] A method of utilizing the energy produced by this process by means of a heat engine was invented by Prof. Sidney Loeb in 1977 at the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev. --United States Patent US4171409 In reverse electrodialysis a salt solution and fresh water are let through a stack of alternating cation and anion exchange membranes. The chemical potential difference between salt and fresh water generates a voltage over each membrane and the total potential of the system is the sum of the potential differences over all membranes. The process works through difference in ion concentration instead of an electric field, which has implications for the type of membrane needed.[2] In RED, as in a fuel cell, the cells are stacked. A module with a capacity of 250 kW has the size of a shipping container. In the Netherlands, for example, more than 3,300 m³ fresh water runs into the sea per second on average. The membrane halves the pressure differences which results in a water column of approximately 135 meters. The energy potential is therefore e=mgΔh=3.3*106 kg/s*10 m/s2*135 meters ca.= 4.5*109  Joule
Joule
per second, Power=4.5 gigawatts.

Contents

1 Development 2 See also 3 References 4 External links

Development[edit] In 2006 a 50 kW plant was located at a coastal test site in Harlingen, the Netherlands,[3] the focus being on prevention of biofouling of the anode, cathode, and membranes and increasing the membrane performance.[4][5] In 2007 the Directorate for Public Works and Water Management, Redstack, and ENECO signed a declaration of intent for development of a pilot plant on the Afsluitdijk
Afsluitdijk
dike in the Netherlands.[6] The plant was put into service on 26 November 2014 and produces 50 kW of electricity to show the technical feasibility in real-life conditions using fresh IJsselmeer water and salt water from the Wadden Sea. Theoretically, with 1m3/s river water and an equal amount of sea water, approximately 1 MW of renewable electricity can be recovered at this location by upscaling the plant.[7] It is to be expected that after this phase the installation could be further expanded to a final capacity of 200 MW. See also[edit]

Energy portal Sustainable development portal

Osmotic power Van 't Hoff factor Pressure-retarded osmosis
Pressure-retarded osmosis
(PRO) Electrodialysis
Electrodialysis
reversal (EDR) Reverse osmosis Semipermeable membrane Green energy Renewable energy

References[edit]

^ 1980 - energy by reverse electrodialysis ^ See note 2 Archived 2008-09-27 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Blue energy ^ electrodialysis stacks by a validated model ^ Friese wereldprimeur met stroomproductie uit zoet-zout water ^ Electricity from fresh and salt water ^ "Dutch King opens world's first RED power plant driven on fresh-salt water mixing". Dutch Water Sector. Retrieved 4 April 2016. 

External links[edit]

Wetsus KEMA KEMA Dutch Research Database Osmotic Energy (1995) Salinity Power UN Report Practical Potential of Reverse Electrodialysis, Environ. Sci. Technol., July 29, 2009 Dutch water plan to turn green energy blue

v t e

Ocean energy

Wave power

Australia New Zealand United States

Tidal power

New Zealand Annapolis Royal Generating Station

Other

Marine current power Offshore construction Ocean thermal energy conversion Osmotic power Pelamis wave energy converter SDE Sea Waves Power Plant Wind power (offshore) Wave farm

Ocean energy Portals: Energy Renewable energy Sustainable development

v t e

Fuel cells

By electrolyte

Alkaline fuel cell Molten carbonate fuel cell Phosphoric acid fuel cell Proton exchange membrane fuel cell Solid oxide fuel cell

By fuel

Direct-ethanol fuel cell Direct methanol fuel cell Formic acid fuel cell Reformed methanol fuel cell Zinc-air battery

Biofuel cells

Enzymatic biofuel cell Microbial fuel cell

Others

Blue energy Direct borohydride fuel cell Direct carbon fuel cell Electro-galvanic fuel cell Flow battery Membraneless Fuel Cells Metal hydride fuel cell Photoelectrochemical cell Protonic ceramic fuel cell Regenerative fuel cell Solid oxide electrolyser cell Unitized regenerative fuel cell

Hydrogen

Economy Storage Station Vehi

.

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