Coordinates: 48°49′53″N 2°13′42″E / 48.831455°N
2.228273°E / 48.831455; 2.228273
Renault S. A.
Drive the future (corporate)
Passion for life (
Renault headquarters in Boulogne-Billancourt, France
CAC 40 Component
25 February 1899; 119 years ago (1899-02-25)
Louis Renault, Marcel Renault, Fernand Renault
Worldwide (128 countries)
Carlos Ghosn (
Chairman and CEO)
Louis Schweitzer (
Chairman and CEO 1992-2005) · 
Automobiles, commercial vehicles, luxury cars, financing
€58.77 billion (2017)
€3.80 billion (2017)
€5.21 billion (2017)
€109.94 billion (end 2017)
€33.44 billion (end 2017)
Number of employees
127,086 (December 2012)
Renault Sport Racing
Renault Sport Cars
Automobile Dacia (99.43%)
Renault Samsung Motors
Renault Samsung Motors (80.1%)
Dongfeng Renault (50%)
RCI Banque Retail
Renault Retail Group
Renault do Brasil
Renault India Private Limited
Groupe Renault (French: [ɡʁup ʁəno]) is a French
multinational automobile manufacturer established in 1899. The
company produces a range of cars and vans, and in the past has
manufactured trucks, tractors, tanks, buses/coaches and autorail
According to the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs
d'Automobiles, in 2016
Renault was the ninth biggest automaker in the
world by production volume. The Renault–Nissan–Mitsubishi
Alliance is the fourth-largest automotive group.
Headquartered in Boulogne-Billancourt, near Paris, the
is made up of the namesake
Renault marque and subsidiaries, Alpine,
Automobile Dacia from Romania,
Renault Samsung Motors
Renault Samsung Motors from South
AvtoVAZ from Russia.
Renault has a 43.4%
controlling stake in
Nissan of Japan, and a 1.55% stake in Daimler
AG of Germany (since 2012,
Renault manufactures engines for the
Daimler's Mercedes A-Class and B-Class cars).
Renault also owns
RCI Banque (automotive financing),
Renault Retail Group
(automotive distribution) and
Motrio (automotive parts).
various joint ventures, including
Carlos Ghosn is the current chairman and CEO. The French
government owns a 15% share of Renault.
Renault Trucks, previously known as
Renault Véhicules Industriels,
has been part of
AB Volvo since 2001.
Renault Agriculture became 100%
owned by German agricultural equipment manufacturer
CLAAS in 2008.
Nissan invested €4 billion
(US$5.16 billion) in eight electric vehicles over three to four
years beginning in 2011.
Renault is known for its role in motor sport, particularly rallying,
Formula 1 and Formula E. Its early work on mathematical curve modeling
for car bodies is important in the history of computer graphics.
1.1 Founding and early years (1898–1918)
1.2 Interwar years (1919–1938)
1.3 World War II and aftermath (1939–1944)
1.4 Postwar resurgence (1945–1971)
1.5 Modern era (1972–1980)
1.6 Restructuring (1981–1995)
1.7 Privatisation and the alliance era (1996–present)
2.1 Formula One
3 Corporate governance
4 Products and technologies
4.1 Current models
4.2 Concept cars
4.3 Electric vehicle
4.6 Autonomous vehicles
5 Vehicle design
5.1.1 "Pre-design" era
5.1.3 Industrial Design Department
5.2 Engineering and Product Planning
6 Subsidiaries and alliances
Renault Samsung Motors
6.1.4 RCI Banque
Renault Retail Group
6.1.6 Manufacturing subsidiaries
188.8.131.52 French factories
184.108.40.206 Manufacturing subsidiaries outside France
Nissan and Daimler alliance
6.2.2 American Motors
6.2.3 Proposed alliances
7 United Kingdom
7.1 1970s, 1980s, 1990s
9 Marketing and branding
11 Further reading
12 External links
Founding and early years (1898–1918)
Renault in 1903
Renault corporation was founded in 1899 as Société Renault
Frères by Louis
Renault and his brothers Marcel and Fernand.
Louis was a bright, aspiring young engineer who had already designed
and built several prototypes before teaming up with his brothers, who
had honed their business skills working for their father's textile
firm. While Louis handled design and production, Marcel and Fernand
managed the business.
Renault car, the
Renault Voiturette 1CV, was sold to a
friend of Louis' father after giving him a test ride on 24 December
Renault Type D Série B
Renault began to manufacture its own engines; until then it
had purchased them from De Dion-Bouton. The first major volume sale
came in 1905 when Société des Automobiles de Place bought Renault
AG1 cars to establish a fleet of taxis. These vehicles were later
used by the French military to transport troops during World War I
which earned them the nickname "
Taxi de la Marne." By 1907, a
significant percentage London and
Paris taxis had been built by
Renault was also the best-selling foreign brand in New
York in 1907 and 1908. In 1908 the company produced 3,575 units,
becoming the country's largest car manufacturer.
The brothers recognised the value of publicity that participation in
motor racing could generate for their vehicles.
Renault made itself
known through succeeding in the first city-to-city races held in
Switzerland, producing rapid sales growth. Both Louis and Marcel raced
company vehicles, but Marcel was killed in an accident during the 1903
Madrid race. Although Louis never raced again, his company
remained very involved, including
Ferenc Szisz winning the first Grand
Prix motor racing event in a
Renault AK 90CV in 1906.
Louis took full control of the company as the only remaining brother
in 1906 when Fernand retired for health reasons. Fernand died in
1909 and Louis became the sole owner, renaming the company Société
Renault Automobile Company).
Renault fostered its reputation for innovation from very early on. At
the time, cars were luxury items. The price of the smallest Renaults
at the time were ₣3000 francs; an amount equal to ten years pay for
the average worker. In 1905 the company introduced mass-production
Taylorism in 1913.
Renault manufactured buses and commercial cargo vehicles in the
pre-war years. The first real commercial truck from the company was
introduced in 1906. During World War I, it branched out into
ammunition, military aircraft engines (the first Rolls-Royce
aircraft engines were
Renault V8 units) and vehicles such as
Renault FT tank. The company's military designs
were so successful that Louis was awarded the
Legion of Honour
Legion of Honour for his
company's contributions. The company exported engines to American
auto manufacturers for use in such automobiles as the GJG, which used
Renault 26 hp or 40 hp four-cylinder engine.
Interwar years (1919–1938)
Renault Celtaquatre, 1935
Renault enlarged Renault's scope after 1918, producing
agricultural and industrial machinery. The war led to many new
products. The first
Renault tractor, the Type GP was produced
between 1919 and 1930. It was based on the FT tank. Renault
struggled to compete with the increasingly popular small, affordable
"people's cars", while problems with the stock market and the
workforce slowed the company's growth.
Renault also had to find a way
to distribute its vehicles more efficiently. In 1920, Louis signed one
of its first distribution contracts with Gustave Gueudet, an
entrepreneur from northern France.
The pre-First World War cars had a distinctive front shape caused by
positioning the radiator behind the engine to give a so-called
"coalscuttle" bonnet. This continued through the 1920s. Only in
1930 did all models place the radiator at the front. The bonnet badge
changed from circular to the familiar and continuing diamond shape in
Renault introduced new models at the
Paris Motor Show that was held in
September or October of the year. This led to confusion about model
years. For example, a "1927" model was mostly produced in 1928.
Renault cars ranged from small to very large. For example, in 1928,
Renault produced 45,809 cars, its seven models started with a
6cv, a 10cv, the Monasix, 15cv, the Vivasix, the 18/22cv and the 40cv.
Renault offered eight body styles. The larger chassis were available
to coachbuilders. The smaller were the most popular while the least
produced was the 18/24cv. The most expensive body style in each range
was the closed car. Roadsters and tourers (torpedoes) were the
The London operation was important to
Renault in 1928. The UK market
was quite large and "colonial" modified vehicles were dispatched from
there to North America. Lifted suspensions, enhanced cooling and
special bodies were common on vehicles sold abroad. Exports to the US
by 1928 had declined to near-zero from their high point prior to WWI.
A NM 40cv Tourer had a US list price of over $4,600, about the same as
a Cadillac V-12. Closed 7-seat limousines started at $6,000 which was
more expensive than a Cadillac V-16.
Cars were conservatively engineered and built. The Vivasix, model PG1,
was sold as the "executive sports" model beginning in 1927. Lighter
weight factory steel bodies powered by a 3180 cc six-cylinder motor
provided a formula that lasted until the Second World War.
The "de Grand Luxe Renaults", those with a wheelbase over 12-foot
(3.7 m), were produced in small numbers in two major types –
six- and eight-cylinder. The 1927 six-cylinder Grand
NM, PI and PZ introduced the new three spring rear suspension that
considerably aided stability that was needed since some vehicles
surpassed 90 mph (140 km/h).
The 8-cylinder Reinastella was introduced in 1929 and expanded to a
range culminating in the 1939 Suprastella. Coachbuilders included
Kellner, Labourdette, J. Rothschild et Fils and
Renault bodies. Closed
Renault bodies were often trimmed with interior woodwork by
Renault Viva Grand Sport
Renault Viva Grand Sport and Hélène Boucher. During the 1930s,
Renault settled several speed world records with
thanks to its 6-cylinders engines and aerodynamic designs
Renault introduced an upgraded specification to its "Stella"
line. The Vivastella's and Grand Renaults had upgraded interior
fittings and a small star fitted above the front hood logo. This
proved to be a winning differentiator and in the 1930s all cars
changed to the Stella suffix from the previous two alpha character
The Grand Renaults were built using a considerable amount of
aluminium. Engines, brakes, transmissions, floor and running boards
and all external body panels were aluminium. Of the few that were
built, many went to scrap to aid the war effort.
Renault introduced diesel engines for its commercial
Renault was one of the few French vehicle manufactures that pursued
the production of aircraft engines after World War I. In the late
1920s it attempted to produce a high-power military engine to compete
with the American Pratt & Whitney units, which proved
unsuccessful, although its civil engines achieved better results.
In the 1930s the company took over the aircraft manufacturer Caudron,
focusing its production in small airplanes, acquired a stake in
Air France and partnered to establish the airmail company
Caudron airplanes settled several speed world
records during the 1930s.
Renault continued developing tanks as part
of France's rearming effort, including the D1 and the FT's
replacement, the R 35.
During the late 1920s and early 1930s,
Renault was surpassed by
Citroën as the largest car manufacturer in France.
Citroën models at
the time were more innovative and popular than Renault's. However,
by mid-1930s the French manufacturers were hit by the Great
Renault could initially offset losses through its tractor,
railroad and weaponry businesses while
Citroën filed for bankruptcy
and was later acquired by Michelin.
Renault became again the
largest car manufacturer, a position it would keep until the
Renault was finally affected by the economic crisis in 1936. The
Caudron and spun off its foundry and aircraft engine
divisions into related but autonomous operations, keeping its core
automotive business. Between 1936 and 1938, a series of labour
disputes, strikes, and worker unrest spread throughout the French
automobile industry. The disputes were eventually quashed by
Renault in a particularly intransigent way, and over 2,000 people lost
World War II and aftermath (1939–1944)
After the French capitulation in 1940, Louis
Renault refused to
produce tanks for Nazi Germany, which took control of his factories.
He produced trucks instead. On 3 March 1942, the British Royal Air
Force (RAF) launched 235 low-level bombers at the Billancourt plant,
the largest number aimed at a single target during the war. 460
tons of bombs were dropped on the plant and the surrounding area,
causing extensive damage along with heavy civilian casualties.
Renault resolved to rebuild the factory as quickly as possible, but
bombardments continued a year later, on 4 April, this time delivered
by the Americans, and on 3 and 15 September 1943.
A few weeks after the Liberation of Paris, at the start of September
1944, the factory gates at Renault's Billancourt plant reopened.
Operations restarted slowly, in an atmosphere poisoned by plotting and
political conspiracy. In 1936 the Billancourt factory had been the
scene of violent political and industrial unrest that had surfaced
under Leon Blum's Popular Front government. The political jostling and
violence that followed liberation ostensibly reflected the rivalries
between capitalist collaboration and communist resistance, many of the
scores settled predated the invasion.
Responding to the chaotic situation at Renault, a 27 September 1944
meeting of the Council of (the provisional government's) Ministers
took place under de Gaulle's presidency. Postwar European politics had
quickly become polarised between communists and anti-communists, and
France De Gaulle was keen to resist
Communist Party attempts to
monopolise the political dividends available to resistance heroes:
politically Billancourt was a communist stronghold. The government
decided to "requisition" the
Renault factories. A week later, on 4
October Pierre Lefaucheux, a resistance leader with a background in
engineering and top-level management, was appointed provisional
administrator of the firm, assuming his responsibilities at once.
Meanwhile, the provisional government accused Louis
collaborating with the Germans. In the frenzied atmosphere of those
early post-liberation days, with many wild accusations,
advised by his lawyers to present himself to a judge. He appeared
before Judge Marcel Martin, on 22 September 1944 and was arrested
on 23 September 1944, as were several other French auto-industry
leaders. Renault's harsh handling of the 1936–1938 strikes had
left him without political allies and no one came to his aid. He
was incarcerated at
Fresnes prison where he died on 24 October 1944
under unclear circumstances, while awaiting trial.
On 1 January 1945, by de Gaulle's decree, the company was posthumously
expropriated from Louis Renault. On 16 January 1945 it was formally
nationalised as Régie Nationale des Usines Renault. Renault's
were the only factories permanently expropriated by the French
government. In subsequent years, the
Renault family tried to have
the nationalisation rescinded by French courts and receive
compensation. In 1945 and again in 1961 the Courts responded that they
had no authority to review the government's actions.
Renault Frégate, 1951
Renault Floride, 1958
Renault R8 Gordini
Renault R8 Gordini was the first sportive compact car for a
public consumption price.
Postwar resurgence (1945–1971)
Under the leadership of Pierre Lefaucheux,
Renault experienced both a
commercial resurgence and labor unrest, that was ultimately to
continue into the 1980s.
In secrecy during the war, Louis
Renault had developed the rear engine
4CV which was subsequently launched under Lefacheux in 1946.
Renault debuted its flagship model, the largely conventional 2-litre
Renault Frégate (1951–1960), shortly thereafter. The 4CV
proved a capable rival for cars such as the
Morris Minor and
Volkswagen Beetle; its sales of more than half a million ensured its
production until 1961.
After the success of the 4CV, Lefacheux continued to defy the postwar
French Ministry of Industrial Production, which had wanted to convert
Renault solely to truck manufacture, by directing the development
of its successor. He oversaw the prototyping of the Dauphine (until
his death), enlisting the help of artist
Paule Marrot in pioneering
the company's textile and color division.
The Dauphine sold well as the company expanded production and sales
further abroad, including Africa and North America. The Dauphine
sold well initially in the US, although it subsequently became
outdated against increased competition, including from the country's
nascent domestic compacts such as the Chevrolet Corvair.
Renault Caravelle roadster, which was called the Floride
outside North America.
During the 1950s,
Renault absorbed small French heavy vehicles'
Somua and Latil) and in 1955 merged them with its own
truck and bus division to form the Société Anonyme de Véhicules
Industriels et d'Equipements Mécaniques (Saviem).
Renault then launched two successful cars – the
(1961–1992), a practical competitor for the likes of the Citroën
Renault 8. The larger rear-engined
Renault 10 followed
the success of the R8, and was the last rear-engined Renault. The
company achieved success with the more modern and more upmarket
Renault 16, a pioneering hatchback launched in 1966, followed by the
On 16 January 1970 the manufacturer celebrated the 25th anniversary of
its 1945 rebirth as the nationalised Régie Nationale des Usines
Renault. The 1960s had been a decade of aggressive growth: a few
months earlier, in October 1969, the manufacturer had launched the
Renault 12, combining the engineering philosophy of its hatch-backs
with the more conservative "three-box" design. The four-door Renault
12 model fit between the
Renault 6 and
Renault 16. The model was a
success. 1970 was also the first year during which
more than a million cars in a single year, building 1,055,803.
Modern era (1972–1980)
Renault 5 Turbo
Renault 17 coupe
Renault Fuego won 8 consecutive championships in the TC 2000
touring car racing series between 1986 and 1993
The company's compact and economical
Renault 5 model, launched in
January 1972, was another success, anticipating the 1973 energy
crisis. Throughout the 1970s the R4, R5, R6, R12, R15, R16 and R17
maintained Renault's production with new models including the Renault
During the mid seventies the already broad-based company diversified
into more industries and continued to expand globally, including South
East Asia. The energy crisis led
Renault to again attempt to attack
the North American market. Despite the Dauphine's success in the
United States in the late 1950s and an unsuccessful assembly project
in Saint-Bruno-de-Montarville, Quebec, (1964–72),
Renault began to
disappear from North America at the end of the decade.
Over the decades
Renault had developed a collaborative partnership
Nash Motors Rambler and its successor
American Motors Corporation
(AMC). From 1962 to 1967,
Renault assembled complete knock down (CKD)
kits of the
Rambler Classic sedans in its factory in Belgium.
Renault did not have large or luxury cars in its product line and the
"Rambler Renault" was positioned as an alternative to the
Mercedes-Benz "Fintail" cars. Later,
Renault continued to make and
sell a hybrid of AMC's
Rambler American and
Rambler Classic called the
Renault Torino in Argentina (sold through IKA-Renault). Renault
partnered with AMC on other projects, such as a rotary concept engine
in the late 1960s.
In the late 1960s and 1970s the company established subsidiaries in
Eastern Europe, most notably Dacia in Romania, and South America (many
of which remain active) and forged technological cooperation
Volvo and Peugeot, (for instance, for the
development of the PRV V6 engine, which was used in
Peugeot 604, and
Volvo 260 in the late 1970s).
In the mid-1960s
Renault Australia was set up in Melbourne. The
company produced and assembled models including the R8, R10, R12, R16,
sporty R15, R17 coupe's, R18 and R20. The unit closed in 1981. Renault
Australia also built and marketed Peugeots. From 1977, they assembled
Ford Cortina station wagons under contract- the loss of this contract
ended the factory.
Citroën and formed PSA, the group's
Renault was reduced, although established joint
production projects were maintained. Prior its merging with Peugeot,
Citroën sold to
Renault the truck and bus manufacturer
1975, merging it with its subsidiary
Saviem in 1978 to create
Renault Véhicules Industriels, which became the only French
manufacturer of heavy commercial vehicles. In 1976, Renault
reorganised the company into four business areas: automobiles (for car
and light commercial vehicles or LCVs), finance and services,
commercial vehicles (coaches and trucks over 2.5 tons GVW), and minor
operations under an industrial enterprises division (farm machinery,
plastics, foundry, etc.). In 1980,
Renault produced 2,053,677 cars and
LCVs. The cars at the time were the
Renault 4, 5, 6, 7, 12, 14, 16,
18, 20 and 30; the LCVs were the 4, 5 and 12 Société and the
Estafette. The company added 54,086 buses/coaches and trucks.
In North America,
Renault partnered with American Motors, lending AMC
operating capital and buying a minority 22.5% stake in the company in
late 1979. The first
Renault model sold through AMC's dealerships was
the R5, renamed
Renault Le Car.
Jeep was keeping AMC afloat until new
products, particularly the XJ Cherokee, could be launched. When the
bottom fell out of the 4×4 truck market in early 1980 AMC was in
danger of bankruptcy. To protect its investment,
Renault bailed AMC
out with cash – at the price of a controlling 47.5% interest.
Renault replaced some AMC executives, and Jose J. Dedeurwaerder of
Renault became President of AMC.
The partnership resulted in the marketing of
Jeep vehicles in
Jeep XJ Cherokee may have been a joint AMC/Renault
project, since some early sketches of the XJ series were made in
Renault and AMC engineers (AMC insisted that the XJ
Cherokee was designed by AMC personnel; even though a former Renault
engineer designed the Quadra-Link front suspension for the XJ
Jeep also used wheels and seats from Renault. Part of
AMC's overall strategy was to save manufacturing cost by using Renault
parts and engineering expertise when practical. This led to the
improvement of the venerable AMC in-line six – a
Renault/Bendix-based port electronic fuel injection system (usually
called Renix) transformed it into a modern, competitive powerplant
with a jump from 110 to 177 hp (82 to 132 kW) with less
displacement (from 4.2L to 4.0L). The XJC Cherokee concept which was
conceived in 1983 as a successor to the XJ series was also a joint
collaboration with AMC and
Renault engineers until the design was
inherited by the
Chrysler Corporation in late 1987 after Renault
divested AMC - which debuted in 1989 as the
Jeep Concept 1 (evolving
Jeep Grand Cherokee in April 1992).
The Renault-AMC marketing effort in passenger cars was not successful
compared to the popularity for
Jeep vehicles. This was because by the
Renault range was ready, the second energy crisis was over,
taking with it much of the desire for economical, compact cars. One
exception was the
Renault Alliance (an Americanised version of the
Renault 9), which debuted for the 1983 model year. Assembled at AMC's
Kenosha, Wisconsin plant, the Alliance received Motor Trend's
domestic Car of The Year award in 1983. The Alliance's 72% U.S.
content allowed it to qualify as a domestic vehicle, making it the
first car with a foreign nameplate to win the award. (In 2000, Motor
Trend did away with separate awards for domestic and imported
US releases in the 1980s included the
Renault Alliance GTA and GTA
convertible – an automatic-top convertible with a 2.0 L engine
– big for a car of its class and the
Renault Fuego coupe. The
Alliance was followed by the Encore (U.S. version of the
an Alliance-based hatchback. In 1982
Renault become the second
European automaker to build cars in the United States, after
Volkswagen. However, Renaults quickly became the target of customer
complaints for poor quality and sales plummeted.
Renault sold AMC to
Chrysler in 1987 after the
assassination of Renault's chairman, Georges Besse. The Renault
Renault 21 in Europe) sedan and wagon was sold from 1987 to
Jeep-Eagle was the division
Chrysler created out of the former American Motors.
ended after 1989. A completely new full-sized 4-door sedan, the Eagle
Premier, was developed during the partnership between AMC and Renault.
The Premier design, as well as its state-of-the-art manufacturing
facility in Bramalea, Ontario, Canada, were the starting point for the
sleek LH sedans such as the
Eagle Vision and
In early 1979, as part of its attempts to expand into the American
Renault bought a 20% minority stake in the truck manufacturer
Mack Trucks. The aim of this operation was to make use of the
company's extensive delearship network to distribute light trucks.
Renault increased its stake in
Mack Trucks to 44.6%.
In 1987, it transferred the ownership of a 42% stake to Renault
In the late seventies and early eighties
Renault increased its
involvement in motorsport, with novel inventions such as turbochargers
Formula One cars. Renault's head of engines, Georges Douin,
orchestrated the installation of turbocharged engines across much of
Renault range beginning in 1980. 10% of all turbocharged European
cars in 1984 were Renaults. The company's road car designs were
revolutionary in other ways also – the
Renault Espace was one of the
first minivans and was to remain the most well-known minivan in Europe
for the next two decades. The second-generation
Renault 5, the
European Car of the Year-winning
Renault 9, and the most luxurious
Renault yet, the aerodynamic 25 were all released in the early 1980s.
At the same time poor product quality damaged the brand. The ill-fated
Renault 14 may have been the culmination of these problems in the
Renault Espace, the first European multi-purpose vehicle
Renault Twingo popularized the city car in Europe from 1992. Six years
later, most of its rivals began to enter the city car market.
Renaults were somewhat successful on both road and track, including
the 1984 Espace launch, which was Europe's first multi-purpose
vehicle, a dozen years before any competitor. However,
losing a billion francs a month totaling 12.5 billion in 1984.
The government intervened and
Georges Besse was installed as chairman;
he set about cutting costs dramatically, selling many of Renault's
non-core assets (
Volvo stake, Gitane, Eurocar and Renix), withdrawing
almost entirely from motorsports and laying off many employees.
This halved the deficit by 1986, but Besse was murdered by the
communist terrorist group Action Directe in November 1986. He was
replaced by Raymond Lévy, who continued Besse's initiatives, slimming
the company enough that by the end of 1987,
Renault was more or less
financially stable. However, while Besse was convinced that Renault
needed a presence in the North American market and wanted to push
forward with restructuring American Motors, Lévy, facing domestic
Renault at home, and losses from
American Motors in the
United States, along with the political climate that led to Besse's
assassination, decided to sell
American Motors to
Chrysler that same
Renault 9, a small four-door family saloon, was voted European Car
of the Year on its 1981 launch. It sold well in France, but was
eventually eclipsed by its sister vehicle, the
Renault 11 hatchback,
as the hatchback bodystyle became more popular on this size of car.
Renault 5 entered its second generation in 1984 and continued to
sell well. The long-running
Renault 18 was replaced by the
early in 1986, adding a seven-seater estate badged as the Nevada or
Savanna depending on where it was sold. Renault's top of the range
model in the 1980s was the
Renault 25, launched at the end of 1983.
Renault strengthened its collaboration with
Volvo by signing
an agreement that allowed both companies to reduce vehicle conception
costs and purchasing expenses.
Renault had access to
in upper market segments and in return
for low and medium segments. In 1993 the two companies announced their
intention to merge operations by 1 January 1994 and increased their
cross-shareholding. The French accepted the merger, while Volvo
shareholders rejected it.
Renault launched successful new cars in the early 1990s,
accompanied by an improved marketing effort on European markets,
including the 5 replacement, the Clio in May 1990. The Clio was
the first new model of a generation that replaced numeric identifiers
with traditional nameplates. The Clio was voted European Car of the
Year soon after its launch, and was one of Europe's best selling cars
in the 1990s, proving even more popular than its predecessor. Other
important launches included the third-generation Espace in 1996 and
the innovative Twingo in 1992, the first car to be marketed as a city
car MPV. The Twingo was roomier than any prior cars of its size range.
Twingo sales reached 2.4 million in Europe, even though the original
was only built for (Continental) left-hand drive markets.
Renault Scenic, awarded Car of the year in Europe in 1997 and the
first car to be marketed as a compact MPV, is the most popular MPV
in Europe for 20 years.
Renault Clio IV, 5 doors or estate, named
European Car of the Year in
Renault Captur is the best seller SUV in Europe since its
first commercialization month in 2013.
Renault Espace V, a crossover mixing elements of SUVs and MPVs
Privatisation and the alliance era (1996–present)
It was eventually decided that the company's state-owned status was a
detriment. By 1994 plans to sell shares to public investors were
officially announced. The company was privatised in 1996. This
new freedom allowed the company to venture once again into markets in
Eastern Europe and South America, including a new factory in Brazil
and upgrades for its infrastructure in Argentina and Turkey. In
General Motors Europe
General Motors Europe and
Renault begun to collaborate
in the development of LCVs, starting with the second generation Trafic
Renault's financial problems were not all fixed by the privatisation,
and Renault's President, Louis Schweitzer gave to his then deputy,
Carlos Ghosn, the task of confronting them. Ghosn elaborated a plan to
cut costs for the period 1998–2000, reducing the workforce, revising
production processes, standardising vehicle parts and pushing the
launch of new models. The company also undertook organisational
changes, introducing a lean production system with delegate
responsibilities inspired by Japanese systems (the "
Way"), reforming work methods and centralising research and
development at its Technocentre to reduce vehicle conception costs
while accelerating such conception.
After Volvo's exit,
Renault searched for a new partner to cope with an
industry that was consolidating. Talks with BMW, Mitsubishi, Nissan,
PSA and others were held yielded a relationship with Nissan, whose
negotiations with Daimler had stalled. Signed on 27 March 1999,
Nissan Alliance is the first of its kind involving a
Japanese and a French company, including cross-ownership. Renault
initially acquired a 36.8% stake at a cost of US$3.5 billion in
Nissan in turn took a 15% non-voting stake in Renault.
Renault continued to operate as a stand-alone company, but with the
intent to collaborate with its alliance partner to reduce costs. The
Renault bought a 51% majority stake of the Romanian company
Dacia, thus returning after 30 years, in which time the Romanians
had built over 2 million cars that primarily consisted of local
version of Renaults 8, 12 and 20. In 2000,
Renault acquired a
controlling stake of the South Korean Samsung Group's automotive
Renault was formerly licensed by Yanase Co., Ltd., Japan’s
premier seller of imported cars. However, as a result of Renault's
purchase of interest in
Nissan in 1999, Yanase canceled its licensing
Renault in the spring of 2000, and
Nissan Motor Co., Ltd
took over as the sole licensee, hence sales of
Renault vehicles in
Japan were transferred from Yanase Store locations
Nissan Red Stage
In the late 1990s and early 2000s,
Renault sold various assets to
finance its inversions and acquisitions, refocusing itself as a
car and van manufacturer. In 1999, the company sold its industrial
Renault Automation, to
Comau and its engine
parts division to TWR Engine Components. In 2001,
Renault sold its
50% stake in bus/coach manufacturer Irisbus to co-owner
Iveco and its
logistics subsidiary CAT
France to Global Automotive Logistics.
Following the sale of
Renault Véhicules Industriels to
Volvo in 2001,
the company retained a minority (but controlling) stake (20%) in the
Volvo Group. In 2010
Renault reduced its participation to 6.5% and in
December 2012 sold its remaining shares. In 2004,
Renault sold a
51% majority stake in its agricultural machinery division, Renault
Agriculture, to CLAAS. In 2006,
CLAAS increased its ownership to 80%
and in 2008 took full control.
In the twenty-first century,
Renault developed a reputation for
distinctive, outlandish design. The second generation of the Laguna
and Mégane featured ambitious, angular designs that turned out to be
successful, The 2000 Laguna was the second European car to feature
"keyless" entry and ignition. Less successful were the company's
more upmarket models. The Avantime, a unique coupé / multi-purpose
vehicle, sold poorly and was quickly discontinued while the luxury Vel
Satis model also disappointed. However, the design inspired the lines
of the second-generation Mégane, the maker's most successful car. As
well as its distinctive styling,
Renault was to become known for its
car safety by the independent company EuroNCAP Thus, in 2001, the
Laguna achieved a 5-star rating, followed in 2004 by the
In April 2010, Renault-
Nissan announced an alliance with Daimler.
Renault supplied Mercedes-Benz with its brand new 1.6 L turbodiesel
engine and Mercedes-Benz provided a 2.0 L four-cylinder petrol engine
to Renault-Nissan. The resulting new alliance was to develop a
replacement for the Smart based on the Twingo.
In February 2010,
Renault opened a new production factory near
Tangier, Morocco, with an annual output capacity of 170,000
vehicles. Initially, it manufactured the
Dacia Lodgy and Dacia
Dokker models followed in October 2013 by the second generation
Dacia Sandero. The output capacity increased to 340,000 vehicles per
year with the inauguration of a second production line. The site
is located in a dedicated free trade area, neighboring Tanger
Automotive City. According to Renault, the new factory emits zero
carbon and industrial liquid discharges. Over 100,000 vehicles
were produced there in 2013.
Renault expects to eventually increase
production at the
Tangier plant to 400,000 vehicles per year.
In December 2012 the Algeria's National Investment Fund (FNI), the
Société Nationale de Véhicules Industriels (SNVI), and Renault
signed an agreement to establish a factory near the city of Oran,
Algeria, with the aim of manufacturing Symbol units from 2014 onwards.
The production output was estimated at 25,000 vehicles. The Algerian
State has a 51% stake in the facility.
In September 2013,
Renault launched its brand in Indonesia, the
world's fourth most populous country, with the aim of becoming one of
the top European brands there until 2016. The model range at the time
of the launch consisted of the Duster (locally assembled), the Koleos
and the Mégane RS. Later, the Clio and the Captur were also
In April 2015, the French government upped their stake in
15% to 19.73% with the aim of blocking a resolution at the next annual
general meeting that could reduce its control over the company. In
2017, the government sold back shares and returned to a 15% stake as
agreed with Renault.
Renault changed position on the viability of small diesel
cars in Europe, as they become significantly more expensive when
re-engineered to comply with new emissions regulations as a result of
Volkswagen emissions scandal.
Renault believes that all small and
some mid-size will no longer be diesels by 2020. However, on
Friday, 13 January 2017,
Renault shares fell as the
started an investigation into possible exhaust emissions
Renault denied any foul play, stating compliance
with French and European standards.
On 12 May 2017, one of the
Renault manufacturing plants' computer
networks was attacked by a malware known as WannaCry which was found
to be something critical, causing it being shut down for one day. The
production of at least 1,200 vehicles was halted.
1899 : Louis
Renault "Driving, speed-changing mechanism and
reversing gear" Louis
Renault invented a revolutionary direct
drive gear with no drive belt, with much better uphill
Renault 8 was the first serial car with four-wheel disc brake
1980 : First patents for "Braking distribution device for total
adherence" · 
1988 : CARMINAT, a real-time system for location and weather
information. This program received European support from 1988, under
the code Eureka EU-55 CARMINAT. These innovations for the
real-time location and human-machine interfaces are included in the
Renault R-link system and Carminat Tom-Tom devices.
1907 Renault-built Replica of their
French Grand Prix
French Grand Prix winner, one of 4
known to exist
Renault Sport and Formula Renault
Renault took part in motorsport at the beginning of the 20th century,
promoted by Marcel Renault's racing interests and over the years
acquired companies with a sporting connection such as
In the seventies,
Renault set up a dedicated motorsport division
Renault Sport, and won the Le Mans 24 Hours with the Renault
Alpine A442 in 1978.
Renault achieved success in both rallying and in
Formula One over decades.
Renault has twelve F1 Championships wins as engine manufacturer in
Formula One. Nigel Mansell, Damon Hill, Michael Schumacher, Alain
Prost, Fernando Alonso,
Sebastian Vettel and Jacques Villeneuve won
eleven F1 driver's titles with cars powered by
The company has also backed various one-make single-seater series such
Formula Renault and the
Formula Renault 3.5. These two racing
series were a step in the career of thousands of drivers, including
Formula One champions Fernando Alonso, Sebastian Vettel, Kimi
Räikkönen or Lewis Hamilton or
IndyCar champion Will
Renault Sport develops and manufactures the
cars, as the
Renault Clio RS (for
Renault Sport) and the Renault
Mégane RS, which own the world records in their categories, such as
the Nürburgring, and the Suzuka circuit and awards from What
Car?, Evo, and other magazines.
Fernando Alonso driving for
Renault F1 at Indianapolis in 2005, the
year in which the
Renault team won the first of their two Formula One
Renault Alpine A442, 1978 Le Mans 24 Hours winner, at the 2014
Goodwood festival of speed
Renault Sport R.S. 01, 2014
Renault Alpine A110, first Champion of the World Rally Championship.
Renault Megane RS III
Renault in Formula One
Renault introduced the turbo engine to
Formula One when they debuted
their first car, the
Renault RS01 at Silverstone in 1977. The Renault
team continued until 1986. From 1989
Renault supplied engines to the
Renault took over the
Benetton Formula team in 2000 for the 2001
season and renamed it
Renault F1 in 2002. In 2005 and 2006 the team
won the Constructors' and Drivers' titles (with Fernando Alonso).
At the 2005
French Grand Prix
French Grand Prix
Carlos Ghosn set out his policy
regarding the company's involvement in motorsport:
"We are not in
Formula One out of habit or tradition. We're here to
show our talent and that we can do it properly ...
Formula One is
a cost if you don't get the results.
Formula One is an investment if
you do have them and know how to exploit them."
Renault powered the winning 2010
Red Bull Racing
Red Bull Racing team, and took a
similar role with its old team in December 2010, when it sold its
final stake to the investment group Genii Capital, the main
stakeholder since December 2009, ending Renault's direct
role in running a F1 team for the second time.
to F1 as a works team for the 2016 season.
Renault has been involved in rallying from an early era. Marcel
Renault won the 1902 Rallye Paris-Vienna, but lost his life while
competing in the 1903 Paris-
During the 1950s and 1960s,
Renault manufactured several small cars
with rear wheel drive in some cases, as the 4CV, the R8 or the
Dauphine. These cars were well-adapted to the rally of the time, and
the tuner Amedee
Gordini collaborated with its performance. In
the 1950s the
Renault Dauphine won several international rallies,
including the 1956
Mille Miglia and the 1958 Monte Carlo Rally.
Renault took control of Automobiles Alpine, a related company
for several years, which was responsible for building successful rally
cars such as the A110. A highly evolved A110 won the first World
Rally Championship, representing Alpine-Renault.
In 1976, the Alpine's competition department and the
at Viry-Chatillon were merged into
Renault Sport. The focus
shifted to Formula One, although
Renault achieved several victories
including the 1981
Monte Carlo Rally
Monte Carlo Rally with the
Renault 5 Turbo
before retirement from the world rally in late 1994.
Renault cars also participate of cross-country races, most prominently
the Dakar Rally. The Marreau brothers won the 1982 edition driving a
Renault 20 Turbo 4x4 prototype.
Renault provided a
Renault Megane platform and
sponsored the Schlesser-
Renault Elf buggies that won the 1999 and
2000 editions. The 1999 car was the first two-wheel drive Dakar's
Renaults won the
European Rally Championship
European Rally Championship four times, in 1970,
1999, 2004 and 2005.
Renault's head office is in Boulogne-Billancourt. The head office
is located near the old
Renault has maintained a
historical presence in Boulogne-Billancourt since the company's
opening in 1898.
Renault is administered through a board of directors, an executive
committee and a management committee. As of May 2014[update],
members of the 19-seat board include Carlos Ghosn, Alain J. P. Belda,
Charles de Croisset, Thierry Desmarest, Yuriko Koike, Marc Ladreit de
Franck Riboud and Pascale Sourisse.
Products and technologies
Main article: List of
Current model line up, with calendar year of introduction or most
Alaskan (2016–present; pick-up)
Clio IV (2012–present; hatchback, estate)
Duster Oroch (2015–present; pick-up)
Espace V (2015–present)
Fluence (2010/2012–present; saloon based on the Mégane III
Kangoo II (2009/2013–present)
Kwid (2015–present; hatchback)
Mégane IV (2016–present; hatchback, estate)
Pulse (2012–present; India only version of the
Safrane II (2008)
Scala (2012–present; India only version of the
Scénic III (2009/2013–present; also available as Grand Scénic)
Symbol (2012; restyled Dacia Logan)
Talisman (2015–present; saloon, estate)
Twingo III (2014–present; hatchback)
Zoe (2012–present; hatchback)
Dacia vehicles, sold in some markets under the
Renault Samsung vehicles, sold in some markets under the Renault
Latitude (2011–present ;
Renault Samsung SM5)
Talisman (2012–present ;
Renault Samsung SM7)
Renault light commercial vehicles:
Kangoo Express (developed by
Renault and sold in some markets as
Nissan Kubistar and Mercedes-Benz Citan)
Master (developed by
Renault and sold in some markets as Nissan
Interstar and Opel Movano)
Trafic (developed by
Renault and sold in some markets as Opel Vivaro,
Vauxhall Vivaro and
Dacia light commercial vehicles, sold in some markets under the
Renault Kangoo Z.E. Concept
Renault Eolab, a 1l/100km hybrid concept car
Main article: List of
Renault vehicles: Concept cars
Renault's concept cars show future design and technology directions.
Renault has displayed various all-electric car concepts
under the name "Z.E.", for zero emission, starting with a concept
based on the
Renault Kangoo Be Bop. Further concepts and announcements
followed, with production of the Fluence Z.E. saloon beginning in 2011
Renault Zoe in 2012.
Renault revealed the Ondelios hybrid concept in 2008. but
this was overtaken by the Z.E. programme. However,
Renault presented a
new hybrid car in September 2014, the Eolab, which incorporates
various innovations that the company said will be added to production
models by 2020.
In 2014 at the New Delhi Auto Show,
Renault announced a new model, the
Kwid Concept, which comes with helicopter drone.
See also: Renault–
Nissan Alliance zero-emission vehicles
Renault Zoe, a pure electric car with a 210 km to 230 km
Renault Twizy all-electric heavy quadricycle.
Renault became the leader of electric vehicles sales in
Europe, thanks to its large range of vehicles (Twizy, Zoe, Fluence,
Beginning in 2008,
Renault made agreements for its planned
zero-emissions products, including with Israel, Portugal, Denmark and
the US states of Tennessee and Oregon,
Yokohama in Japan and the
Principality of Monaco. Serge Yoccoz is the electric vehicle
In 2008, Renault-
Nissan signed a deal to produce electric cars for an
initiative in Israel with Better Place, a US company developing new
non-petroleum–based transport infrastructure.
Renault aimed to sell
10–20,000 cars a year in Israel.
Renault also agreed to develop
exchangeable batteries for the project.
Renault collaborated with
Better Place to produce a network of all-electric vehicles and
thousands of charging stations in Denmark, planned to be operational
by 2011. The
Renault Fluence Z.E., was selected for the
Israel project. It became the first zero-emission vehicle with a
switchable battery, with trials in 2010 undertaken with the
Renault ended the partnership in 2013, following
Better Place's bankruptcy, with only 1000 vehicle sales in Israel and
240 in Denmark.
Nissan and the largest French electric utility, Electricite de
France (EDF) signed an agreement to promote electric vehicles in
France. The partnership planned to pilot projects on battery
management and charging infrastructure. Renault-
signed deals with Ireland's ESB, and in
Milton Keynes as part of
the UK's Plugged in Places national project.
We have decided to introduce zero-emission vehicles as quickly as
possible in order to ensure individual mobility against the background
of high oil prices and better environmental protection
— Carlos Ghosn, CEO of
Renault and Nissan
According to Ghosn, the Renault-
Nissan alliance was a fundamental step
in electric car development, and that they needed each other for other
issues such as battery manufacturing, charging infrastructure and
I don't think either
Nissan would have been able to launch
an EV alone successfully. You can have an electric car alone. But what
you cannot have is an EV business system, from batteries to recycling
to cars to infrastructure to negotiation, by being alone.
— Carlos Ghosn, CEO of
Renault and Nissan
Nissan group is a member of the PHEV Research Center.
In September 2013,
Bolloré announced an agreement to
collaborate on a new electric vehicle and in car-sharing project.
Renault Zoe, with 18,453 registrations, was the top selling
all-electric car in Europe in 2015. With 11,873 units sold
during the first half of 2016, the Zoe continued to rank as the top
selling plug-in electric car in Europe. Global Zoe sales
achieved the 50,000 unit milestone in June 2016. Groupe Renault
global electric vehicle sales passed the 100,000 unit milestone in
September 2016, with Zoe sales representing 54%, the Kangoo Z.E. with
24%, the Twizy with 18% and the Fluence Z.E. and its Korean rebadged
Samsung SM3 Z.E.
Samsung SM3 Z.E. together representing 4%.
Renault introduced a new line of eco-friendly derivatives
marked eco² that were based on production platforms. A minimum of 5%
recycled plastic was used and the vehicle's materials were 95%
reusable. Eco²'s CO2 emissions were not to exceed 140g/km, or would
be biofuel compatible. At the 2008 Fleet World Honours, Renault
received the Environment Award. The chairman of Judges, George
Emmerson, commented, "This was the most hotly contested category in
the history of the Fleet World Honours, such is the clamour for
organizations' green credentials to be recognised. There were some
very impressive entries, but the panel felt that Renault's impressive
range of low-emission vehicles was the most tangible, and the most
This section about the infotainment system R-Link of
too much on references to primary sources. Please improve this section
about the infotainment system R-Link of
Renault by adding secondary or
tertiary sources. (March 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this
This section with source from EC may rely excessively on sources too
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The R-Link infotainment system, developed by
Renault and the CCETT
labs during the 1980s, produced with
TomTom and fitted in
Renault's vehicles, was ranked first in a user accessibility study
performed by an independent consulting British company SBD in Europe,
R-Link getting 85% of the users' satisfaction, whereas the second "big
five" automotive maker got a 10% lower satisfaction from the
users.[unreliable source?][relevant? – discuss]
Renault plans to introduce autonomous vehicle technology by 2020. The
company unveiled a prototype, the Next Two (based on the Zoe), in
During its early years,
Renault only manufactured the cars' chassis,
while the bodywork was in charge of coachbuilders. The first car with
Renault's bodywork was the "
Taxi de la Marne" introduced in 1905.
Most Renault-made bodyworks were simple and utilitarian until the
Reinastella unveiling in 1928. In the 1930s,
streamlined cars as the Viva Grand Sport. In the 1950s the company
worked with Ghia designers.
In 1961, with the assistance of the independent designer Philippe
Charbonneaux (responsible for the R8), the company created Renault
Styling as a design department, led by
Gaston Juchet since
1963. In 1975,
Robert Opron was named chief designer
Renault Styling was divided into Interior, Exterior and Advanced
In the 1960s an in-house CAD CAM system called
UNISURF was introduced,
Pierre Bézier (who popularised Bézier curves and worked at
Renault from 1933 to 1975).
Industrial Design Department
Patrick le Quément
Patrick le Quément as chief designer and
created the Industrial Design Department to replace
The new division incorporated a new management system, with more
technology and personnel.
Renault gave it the same importance as
Engineering and Product Planning, participating in product
Le Quément was responsible for bold designs such as the Mégane II
and the Vel Satis, giving
Renault a more coherent and stylish
image. In 1995, Design and Quality were merged under le
Quément's direction. Later, the new department moved to
Guyancourt's Technocentre, which also became the base for Engineering
and Product Planning. the group was organized in three sections:
Automobile Design; Truck, LCV and Bus Design; and Concept Cars and
Advanced Design. During the next years satellite centres opened in
Paris (2000), South Korea (2003), Romania (2007), India
(2007) and Brazil (2008).
At the end of 2009, le Quément was replaced by Laurens van den
Acker, who introduced the "cycle of life" concept to Renault's
Engineering and Product Planning
Renault twin-turbo engine
Renault engineering was decentralised until 1998, when the
Technocentre became the main Renault's engineering facility.
Satellite centres exist, including
Renault Technologies Americas (with
branches in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico), Renault
Technologies Romania (branches in Morocco, Russia, Slovenia and
Renault Technologies Spain (branch in Portugal). As
of 2013[update], Renault's engineering section had over 6500 employees
worldwide, of which 34% were engineers and 63% technicians.
Engine development is in charge of a specific division, Renault
Powertrains, with nearly 65 engineers. Overseas engineering is
increasing and R&D teams are in charge of adjusting existing
vehicles to local needs and budgets.
As of 2014[update] Engineering and Product Planning are directed by
Gaspar Gascon Abellan and Philippe Klein respectively.
View of the Technocentre from the Jardin des Gogottes
Renault Technocentre (French pronunciation: [ʁəno
tɛknɔˈsɑ̃tʁ])) is the main research and development facility. It
is located in Guyancourt. It covers 150 hectares and integrates
all departments involved in developing products and industrial
processes (design, engineering and product planning) as well as
supplier representatives. The Technocentre gathers more than 8000
employees and comprises three main sections, The Advance
Precinct, The Hive and the prototype build centre. The Advance
Precinct, a stepped structure surrounded by a lake, has design studios
and other departments related to early design stages. The Hive is the
tallest structure and includes research and engineering facilities
dedicated to the development process of new vehicles. The prototype
build centre is an extension of The Hive. The three main structures
are accompanied by smaller technical buildings.
The Technocentre was one of the first enterprises to have real-time
life-size 3D modelling systems.
Renault Tech is a division of
Renault Sport Technologies,
headquartered in Les Ulis. It was established in 2008 and is in charge
of modifying cars and vans for special purposes (transporting people
with reduced mobility, driving school cars, business
Subsidiaries and alliances
Renault España offices in Madrid
Main article: AvtoVAZ
In February 2008
Renault acquired a 25% share in AvtoVAZ, known for
Lada range of vehicles. VAZ had been seeking a strategic
partner since the late nineties. After severing its original ties with
Fiat, the company had little success in forming an alliance with
Renault began off and on in talks with
AvtoVAZ in 2005, initially
insisting that CKD assemble Logans at its facilities, while VAZ
intended to keep its own
Lada brand and sought only a new platform and
engine. After several rounds of talks, interrupted by VAZ's attempts
to ally with
Fiat and Magna,
Renault agreed to the partnership under
terms similar to its
Renault and Rosoboronexport, the
state corporation that is a major stockholder of VAZ, discussed
Renault increasing its stake in VAZ to 50%. Following an AvtoVAZ
recapitalisation in 2016,
Renault holds 73.3 of the company, making it
Main article: Automobile Dacia
Renault acquired a 51% controlling stake from the
Romanian-based manufacturer Automobile Dacia, which increased to
99.43%. As part of the
Renault group, Dacia is a regional marque
of entry-levels cars focused on Europe and Northern Africa which
shares various models with the
Renault Samsung Motors
Renault Samsung Motors
Renault acquired the car division of Samsung on 1 September 2000 in a
$560 million deal for 70% of the company, eventually rising its
stake to 80.1%.
Renault Samsung Motors
Renault Samsung Motors is a marque used almost
exclusively in South Korea (although some models are sold in Chile).
The majority of the company's production at its Busan plant is
exported under the
Main article: RCI Banque
RCI Banque is a wholly owned subsidiary that provides financial
Renault marques worldwide and
Nissan marques in Europe,
Russia and South America.
Renault Retail Group
Renault Retail Group is Renault's wholly owned automobile distributor
for Europe. In 1997, the French branches were merged to establish
France Automobiles (RFA). In 2001, it served as
the basis for
Renault Europe Automobiles (REA), which managed sales in
Europe. In 2008, the company adopted its current name.
Renault Retail Group operates in France, Austria, Belgium, the Czech
Republic, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Poland, Portugal,
Spain, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
Batilly, subsidiary Société de Véhicules Automobiles de Batilly
Dieppe, Société des Automobiles Alpine
Douvrin, subsidiary Française de Mécanique (FM), equally owned by
Renault and PSA
Le Mans, subsidiary Auto Châssis International (ACI)
Maubeuge Construction Automobile (MCA).
Ruitz, subsidiary Société des Transmissions Automatiques (STA) owned
Renault (80%) and PSA
Manufacturing subsidiaries outside France
Cormecánica S.A. (Chile)
Dongfeng Renault, a joint venture between
Renault and Dongfeng Motor
Corporation, established in 2013
Oyak-Renault (Turkey), a joint venture between
Renault and Oyak
(Turkey's Armed Forces Pension Fund), established in 1969
Renault Algérie production (montage brk) (Algeria), a joint venture
SNVI (51%) and
Renault (49%), established in 2012.
Renault Argentina (Argentina)
Renault do Brasil
Renault do Brasil (Brazil)
Renault España (Spain)
Renault India (India)
Renault Industrie Belgique S.A. /
Renault Industrie België N.V.
Renault Med (Morocco), a subsidiary operating the Renault-Nissan
Alliance factory in Tangier
Renault México (Mexico, cars manufactured in the Nissan's
Renault Pars (Iran), a joint venture established in 2004 and owned by
Renault (51%) and Iran's Industrial Development Renovation
Organisation (IDRO) (49%)
Renault Russia (Russia)
Renault South Africa (South Africa, cars manufactured in the Nissan's
Main article: Renault-
Renault has a 43.4% stake in Nissan, and
Nissan holds a 15% stake
(with no voting rights) in Renault, thereby giving it effective
Renault has a 50% stake in the joint venture Renault-Nissan
b.v., which was established to manage the Renault-
Nissan alliance. The
company is responsible for the management of two joint companies, RNPO
Nissan Purchasing Organization) and RNIS (Renault-Nissan
Information Services). Combined vehicle sales in 2008 reached
6.9 million (including AvtoVAZ), making the Renault-Nissan
Alliance the world's third-largest automotive group.
As well as sharing engines and joint-development of zero-emissions
Nissan increased its presence in Europe by badging various
Renault van models such as the
Nissan Kubistar, Renault
Nissan Interstar and the
Nissan Primastar. Some
passenger cars have also been badged-engineered, such as the Renault
Nissan Platina in Brazil. The "
Renault Production System"
standard used by all
Renault factories borrowed extensively from the
Nissan Production Way" and resulted in
Renault productivity improving
by 15%. The alliance led to the loss of 21,000 jobs, the closure of
three assembly and two powertrain plants.
In March 2010 the Renault-
Nissan alliance opened its first joint
facility in Chennai, India, investing 45 billion rupees
(US$991.1 million). The facility builds the
Renault Fluence and
Renault Koleos are intended to be assembled
there from completely knocked-down units. As a result of opening its
Renault ended its five-year Mahindra
venture with Mahindra & Mahindra company to make and sell the
Renault Logan in India.
Nissan and Daimler alliance
On 7 April 2010 Ghosn and
Daimler AG CEO
Dieter Zetsche announced a
partnership between the three companies. Daimler acquired a 3.1
per cent stake in Renault-
Nissan each took a
1.55 per cent stake in Daimler.
Renault entered into an agreement with American Motors
Corporation (AMC) to sell cars in the US. A year later, Renault
acquired a 22.5% interest in AMC. This was not the first time the
two companies had worked together. In the early 1960s, Renault
assembled CKD kits and marketed Ramblers in France. In 1982,
Renault increased its stake in AMC to 46.4%. The Renault
Alliance/Encore (a modified version of the
Renault 9 and 11) entered
production in the US, but following AMC's continued decline, Renault
withdrew from the US in 1987 and sold its share to Chrysler.
On 30 June 2006, the media reported that
General Motors convened an
emergency board meeting to discuss a proposal by shareholder Kirk
Kerkorian to form an alliance with Renault-Nissan. However, GM CEO
Richard Wagoner felt that an alliance would disproportionaely benefit
Renault's shareholders and that GM should receive compensation
accordingly. Talks between GM and
Renault ended on 4 October
In 2007, Renault-
Nissan entered talks with Indian manufacturer Bajaj
Auto to develop a new ultra-low-cost car along the lines of the Tata
Nano. Renault's existing partner in India, Mahindra, was not
interested in the project. The proposed joint venture did not come to
fruition and in late 2009 they companies announced that Bajaj would
develop and manufacturer the vehicle and supply Renault-
On 7 October 2008 a
Renault executive said the company was interested
in acquiring or partnering with Chrysler. On 11 October 2008, the
New York Times
New York Times reported that General Motors,
all been in discussions over the past month with Chrysler's owner
Cerberus Capital Management
Cerberus Capital Management about acquiring Chrysler.
In 2014, two
Renault models were among the most numerous on British
roads: the Clio (ranked 6th by total number) and the Mégane (ranked
Renault Centre, ordered by
Renault to Norman Foster
1970s, 1980s, 1990s
The first Renaults to sustain sales in the UK were the
Renault 5 and
Renault 18, both of which attained six-digit sales figures during the
late 1970s and early 1980s.
Renault commissioned British architect Norman Foster, to
Renault Centre, an award-winning office and
distribution centre in Swindon. It was easily identified by the
extensive use of the corporate
Renault enjoyed greater popularity with the arrival of the Clio
supermini in March 1991. It was regularly among the best sellers
during the 1990s. The successor (launched in 1998, alongside the final
instalment of the successful "Papa & Nicole" advertising
campaign), continued its success. The sedan/saloon version,
Thalia, was not launched in the United Kingdom.
Renault introduced the Mégane in April 1996 to steady sales, although
it failed to reach the top ten during the first two years. In 1998,
however, sales grew, making it Britain's sixth-best selling car and
the second most popular in its sector.
Renault was Britain's third most popular brand, surpassed only
by Ford and Vauxhall.
In November 2007,
Renault UK lost a US$2 million lawsuit against
an independent distributor, who had placed orders for 217 cars under a
discount scheme. This was intended for members of the British Airline
Pilots Association. Three were legitimate, because they had "made a
profit of some sort on every vehicle". Two
Renault employees were
criticised, for having "turned a blind eye" to the very large number
Renault sales started declining, and the marque fell to the
eighth most popular, with 89,570 sales (down 29% compared to
2007) and considerably less than 2002's 194,685 sales.
Renault suffered more than most main brands during 2009, as the
recession deepened and ended the year with 63,174 sales, and a reduced
3.17% market share.
During 2010, however, as the economy returned to growth,
more than 95,000 cars and increased its market share to 4.71%,
before falling again in 2011 to 68,449, yielding a 3.53 per cent
market share. In December 2011,
Renault announced that the
Laguna, Espace, Kangoo, Modus, and Wind lines would be discontinued as
a cost-cutting measure, while 55 of its 190 British dealerships would
close. By 2014
Renault sales outperformed the market overall
growth with a 41.9% increase, in spite of a range limited to the
Clio, Captur, Mégane, Zoe, Scénic, Kangoo, Twizy and the
third-generation Twingo, launched at the end of 2014.
Renault models have won the
European Car of the Year award six times
in the last forty years:
Renault Mégane II
Renault Clio III
Renault cars have won numerous national-level awards in Spain,
Australia, Ireland, the United States, Denmark, and
Renault and its Dacia subsidiary have won three "Autobest"
car of the year awards for the Duster, Logan, and Symbol models.
Under the patronage of the Italian Ministry of Culture, in the 2016
edition of the
Corporate Art Awards
Renault received by pptArt the
award for its Art Collection that inspired the creativity of its car
Marketing and branding
Renault markets its products under five marques: Renault, Lada, Dacia,
Renault Samsung Motors, and Alpine.
Renault's first badge was introduced in 1900 and consisted in the
Renault brothers' intertwined initials. When the company started mass
production in 1906, it adopted a gear-shaped logo with a car inside
World War I
World War I the company used a logo depicting an FT tank. In
1923 it introduced a new circle-shaped badge, which was replaced by
the "diamond" or lozenge in 1925. The lozenge of
Renault means a
diamond that expresses the brand's firm desire to project a strong and
consistent corporate image.
Renault diamond logo has been through many iterations. To
modernise its image,
Victor Vasarely to design its new
logo in 1972. The transformed logo maintained the diamond shape. The
design was later revised to reflect the more rounded lines of the
brand's new styling cues. The current badge has been in use since
The logo for web and print use was updated three times thereafter. In
2004 a more realistic representation inside a yellow square with the
word "Renault" in
Renault Identité typeface besides it was
incorporated. In 2007, Saguez & Partners produced a version with
the word "Renault" inside the yellow square.
In April 2015,
Renault introduced new designs to differentiate the
company from the product brand, as part of the 'Passion for life'
campaign. The new brand logo replaced the yellow background with a
yellow stripe. A new typeface was also introduced. A corporate logo
was unveiled at the 2015 Annual General Meeting, incorporating
Renault, Dacia and
Renault Samsung Motors.
The yellow associated with the company appeared initially in the
diamond badge of 1946, when
Renault was nationalised.
Renault diamond with a 3D effect, by Victor Vasarely
Renault logo and its documentation (technical as well as
commercial) historically used
Renault MN, a custom typeface developed
by British firm Wolff Olins. This type family is said to have been
designed mainly to save costs at a time where the use of typefaces was
A retail version of the font family was sold by URW++ as Renault.
In 2004, French typeface designer
Jean-François Porchez was
commissioned to design a replacement. This was shown in October of
that year and was called
Renault Identité. The OpenType font
family was developed from the
Renault logotype created by Éric de
Since 2007, as part of the Saguez & Partners revamp, all graphic
advertising makes use of
Helvetica Neue Condensed.
Renault in Paris, a cultural place, gastronomy restaurant
and car showroom
Renault Life font family was built by Fontsmith Limited, based on
the foundry's FS Hackney font family.
The family consists of six fonts in three weights (Life, Regular, and
Bold) and one width, with complimentary italic.
Renault's flagship showroom, L'Atelier
pronunciation: [latəlje ʁəno]), is located on the
Champs-Élysées in Paris, with other manufacturers such as Peugeot,
Citroën and Toyota. It opened in November 2000, located on the site
of Pub Renault, which operated from 1963 to 1999. The first Renault
venue at the location was the Magasin
Renault in 1910, a pioneering
L'Atelier features a
Renault Boutique as well as regular exhibitions
Renault and Dacia cars. An upmarket restaurant is located on
the second floor, looking out onto the Champs-Élysées. The ground
floor can hold up to five exhibitions at any one time. As of March
2009, 20 million visitors had visited L'Atelier
Renault Classic is a department within
Renault that seeks to collect,
preserve and exhibit notable vehicles from the company's history.
Originally named Histoire & Collection, the collection was
assembled in 2002 and its workshops formally opened on 24 April
Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, Renault's European advertising made
extensive use of Robert Palmer's song "Johnny and Mary".
Television advertisements initially used Palmer's original version,
while a range of special recordings in different styles were produced
during the 1990s, most famously the acoustic interpretation by Martin
Taylor that he released on his album Spirit of Django.
Renault is a sponsor of the
Port Adelaide Football Club
Port Adelaide Football Club in the
Australian Football League, signing a three-year deal in 2013.
Renault has sponsored films as an advertising technique since 1899. A
Renault Voiturette Type A, driven by Louis Renault, appeared in one of
the Lumiéres' early films. Between 1914 and 1940, the
company commissioned a series of documentary films to promote its
Renault also backed some films set in
Africa during the 1920s to promote the reliability of its products on
tough conditions. Since 1983, the company sponsors the Cannes
Film Festival and it has also sponsored other festivals as the
Venice Film Festival, the Marrakech Film Festival and the BFI
London Film Festival.
Through its foundations and institutes,
Renault funds projects around
the world that focus on: education through scholarships, road
safety and diversity.
Renault Group sites across the world - Groupe Renault".
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mobility. The first will be the electric version of Fluence which will
initially be available in Israel and Europe. The second will be an
electric version of
Renault Kangoo Express, intended primarily for
fleet and business use. The range of electric vehicles will then
expand to cover other segments, with two vehicles that will be
designed from scratch as electric vehicles. Derived from the Twizy
Z.E. Concept, the third vehicle will target urban mobility. The fourth
vehicle, which takes it inspiration from Zoe Z.E. Concept, will go on
sale at the beginning of 2012 and will be a multi-purpose daily driver
for built-up areas.
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for the Germans vs. 6548 for French customers. This compared to
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support for the Free French,
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