In geography , REGIONS are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography ), human impact characteristics (human geography ), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental geography ). Geographic regions and sub-regions are mostly described by their imprecisely defined, and sometimes transitory boundaries, except in human geography, where jurisdiction areas such as national borders are defined in law.
Apart from the global continental regions, there are also hydrospheric and atmospheric regions that cover the oceans , and discrete climates above the land and water masses of the planet. The land and water global regions are divided into subregions geographically bounded by large geological features that influence large-scale ecologies, such as plains and features.
As a way of describing spatial areas, the concept of regions is important and widely used among the many branches of geography, each of which can describe areas in regional terms. For example, ecoregion is a term used in environmental geography , cultural region in cultural geography , bioregion in biogeography , and so on. The field of geography that studies regions themselves is called regional geography .
In the fields of physical geography , ecology , biogeography , zoogeography , and environmental geography , regions tend to be based on natural features such as ecosystems or biotopes , biomes , drainage basins , natural regions , mountain ranges , soil types . Where human geography is concerned, the regions and subregions are described by the discipline of ethnography .
A region has its own nature that could not be moved. The first nature is its natural environment (landform, climate, etc.). The second nature is its physical elements complex that were built by people in the past. The third nature is its socio-cultural context that could not be replaced by new immigrants.
* 1 Globalization
* 1.1 Continental regions * 1.2 Regional geography
* 2 Human geography
* 2.6 Administrative regions
* 2.6.1 Local administrative regions
* 2.7 Traditional or informal regions
* 2.8 Functional regions
* 2.9 Military regions
* 2.10 Media
* 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 External links
Global regions distinguishable from space, and are therefore clearly distinguished by the two basic terrestrial environments, land and water . However, they have been generally recognised as such much earlier by terrestrial cartography because of their impact on human geography. They are divided into largest of land regions, known as continents , and the largest of water regions known as oceans . There are also significant regions that do not belong to either classification, such as archipelago regions that are littoral regions, or earthquake regions that are defined in geology .
Continental regions are usually based on broad experiences in human history and attempts to reduce very large areas to more manageable regionalization for the purpose of study. As such they are conceptual constructs, usually lacking distinct boundaries. Oceanic division into maritime regions are used in conjunction with the relationship to the central area of the continent, using directions of the compass .
Some continental regions are defined by the major continental feature
of their identity, such as the
Amazon basin , or the
To a large extent, major continental regions are mental constructs created by considering an efficient way to define large areas of the continents. For the most part, the images of the world are derived as much from academic studies, the media, or from personal experience of global exploration . They are a matter of collective human knowledge of its own planet and are attempts to better understand their environments.
Regional geography is a branch of geography that studies regions of
all sizes across the
Regional geography is also considered as a certain approach to study in geographical sciences (similar to quantitative or critical geographies ; for more information, see history of geography ).
Human geography is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of
patterns and processes that shape human interaction with various
discrete environments. It encompasses human , political , cultural ,
social , and economic aspects among others that are often clearly
delineated. While the major focus of human geography is not the
physical landscape of the
The field of historical geography involves the study of human history as it relates to places and regions or the study of how places and regions have changed over time.
D. W. Meinig , a historical geographer of America, describes many
historical regions in his book _The Shaping of America: A Geographical
Perspective on 500 Years of History_. For example, in identifying
European "source regions" in early American colonization efforts, he
defines and describes the _Northwest European Atlantic Protestant
Region_, which includes sub-regions such as the "Western Channel
Community", which itself is made of sub-regions such as the _English
West Country _ of
In describing historic regions of America, Meinig writes of "The
Great Fishery" off the coast of Newfoundland and New England, an
oceanic region that includes the
Grand Banks . He rejects regions
traditionally used in describing American history, like
Main article: Tourism region
A tourism region is a geographical region that has been designated by a governmental organization or tourism bureau as having common cultural or environmental characteristics. These regions are often named after a geographical, former, or current administrative region or may have a name created for tourism purposes. The names often evoke certain positive qualities of the area and suggest a coherent tourism experience to visitors. Countries, states, provinces, and other administrative regions are often carved up into tourism regions to facilitate attracting visitors.
Some of the more famous tourism regions based on historical or
current administrative regions include
NATURAL RESOURCE REGIONS
Natural resources often occur in distinct regions. Natural resource regions can be a topic of physical geography or environmental geography, but also have a strong element of human geography and economic geography. A coal region, for example, is a physical or geomorphological region, but its development and exploitation can make it into an economic and a cultural region. Some examples of natural resource regions include the Rumaila Field , the oil field that lies along the border or Iraq and Kuwait and played a role in the Gulf War ; the Coal Region of Pennsylvania, which is a historical region as well as a cultural, physical, and natural resource region; the South Wales Coalfield , which like Pennsylvania's coal region is a historical, cultural, and natural region; the Kuznetsk Basin , a similarly important coal mining region in Russia; Kryvbas , the economic and iron ore mining region of Ukraine; and the James Bay Project , a large region of Quebec where one of the largest hydroelectric systems in the world has been developed.
Sometimes a region associated with a religion is given a name, like Christendom , a term with medieval and renaissance connotations of Christianity as a sort of social and political polity . The term Muslim world is sometimes used to refer to the region of the world where Islam is dominant. These broad terms are very vague when used to describe regions.
Within some religions there are clearly defined regions. The Roman Catholic Church , the Church of England , the Eastern Orthodox Church , and others, define ecclesiastical regions with names such as diocese , eparchy , ecclesiastical provinces , and parish .
For example, the United States is divided into 32 Roman Catholic ecclesiastical provinces . The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod is organized into 33 geographic _districts_, which are subdivided into _circuits_ (the Atlantic District (LCMS) , for example). The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints uses regions similar to dioceses and parishes, but uses terms like ward and stake .
In the field of political geography , regions tend to be based on
political units such as sovereign states ; subnational units such as
administrative regions, provinces , states (in the United States) ,
counties , townships , territories , etc.; and multinational
groupings, including formally defined units such as the European Union
Association of Southeast Asian Nations , and
Further information: Administrative division
The word "region" is taken from the
The following countries use the term "region" (or its cognate ) as the name of a type of subnational administrative unit:
* Belgium (in French, _région_; in German, _Region_; the Dutch term
_gewest_ is often translated as "region")
* Chad (_région_, effective from 2002)
The Canadian province of Québec also uses the "administrative region" (_région administrative_).
Scotland had local government regions from 1975 to 1996.
In Spain the official name of the autonomous community of Murcia is
_Región de Murcia_. Also, some single-province autonomous communities
Two län (counties) in Sweden are officially called 'regions': Skåne and Västra Götaland , and there is currently a controversial proposal to divide the rest of Sweden into large regions , replacing the current counties.
The government of the Philippines uses the term "region" (in Filipino
, _rehiyon_) when it's necessary to group provinces, the primary
administrative subdivision of the country. This is also the case in
The government of Singapore makes use of the term "region " for its own administrative purposes.
The following countries use an administrative subdivision conventionally referred to as a region in English:
* Bulgaria , which uses the _област_ (_oblast_) * Russia , which uses the _область_ (_oblast'_), and for some regions the _край_ (_krai _) * Ukraine , which uses the _область_ (_oblast'_) * Slovakia (_kraj_)
China has five 自治区 (_zìzhìqū_) and two 特別行政區 (or 特别行政区; _tèbiéxíngzhèngqū_), which are translated as "autonomous region " and "special administrative region ", respectively.
Local Administrative Regions
There are many relatively small regions based on local government
agencies such as districts, agencies, or regions. In general, they are
all regions in the general sense of being bounded spatial units.
Examples include electoral districts such as Washington\'s 6th
congressional district and Tennessee\'s 1st congressional district ;
school districts such as
Granite School District and Los Angeles
TRADITIONAL OR INFORMAL REGIONS
The traditional territorial divisions of some countries are also commonly rendered in English as "regions". These informal divisions do not form the basis of the modern administrative divisions of these countries, but still define and delimit local regional identity and sense of belonging. Examples include:
* Finland * Japan * Korea * Norway (_landsdeler_) * Romania * Slovakia
Functional regions are usually understood to be the areas organised by the horizontal functional relations (flows, interactions) that are maximised within a region and minimised across its borders so that the principles of internal cohesiveness and external separation regarding spatial interactions are met (see, for instance, Farmer and Fotheringham, 2011; Klapka et al., 2013; Smart, 1974 ). A functional region is not an abstract spatial concept, but to a certain extent it can be regarded as a reflection of the spatial behaviour of individuals in a geographic space. The functional region is conceived as a general concept while its inner structure, inner spatial flows, and interactions need not necessarily show any regular pattern, only selfcontainment. The concept of self-containment remains the only crucial defining characteristic of a functional region. Nodal regions, functional urban regions, daily urban systems, local labour-market areas (LLMAs), or travel-to-work areas (TTWAs) are considered to be special instances of a general functional region that need to fulfil some specific conditions regarding, for instance, the character of the region-organising interaction or the presence of urban cores, (Halas et al., 2015 ).
COMMON MILITARY RANKS IN ENGLISH
NAVIES ARMIES AIR FORCES
COMMISSIONED AND NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS
In military usage, a region is shorthand for the name of a military
formation larger than an Army Group and smaller than an Army Theater
or simply Theater. The full name of the military formation is Army
Region. The size of an Army
Media geography is a spatio-temporal understanding, brought through different gadgets of media, nowadays, media became inevitable at different proportions and everyone supposed to consumed at different gravity. The spatial attributes are studied with the help of media outputs in shape of images which are contested in nature and pattern as well where politics is inseparable. Media geography is giving spatial understanding of mediated image.