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Ravenna
Ravenna
(Italian pronunciation: [raˈvenna], also locally [raˈvɛnna] ( listen); Romagnol: Ravèna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna
Emilia-Romagna
region of Northern Italy. It was the capital city of the Western Roman Empire from 402 until that empire collapsed in 476. It then served as the capital of the Ostrogothic Kingdom
Ostrogothic Kingdom
until it was re-conquered in 540 by the Byzantine Empire. Afterwards, the city formed the centre of the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna
Exarchate of Ravenna
until the invasion of the Lombards
Lombards
in 751, after which it became the seat of the Kingdom of the Lombards. Although an inland city, Ravenna
Ravenna
is connected to the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
by the Candiano Canal. It is known for its well-preserved late Roman and Byzantine architecture, and has eight UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Ancient era 1.2 Exarchate of Ravenna 1.3 Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and Renaissance 1.4 Modern age

2 Architecture 3 Music 4 Ravenna
Ravenna
in literature 5 Ravenna
Ravenna
in film 6 Transport 7 Amusement parks 8 Twin towns 9 Sports 10 References 11 Sources 12 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Ravenna The origin of the name Ravenna
Ravenna
is unclear, although it is believed the name is Etruscan.[3] Some have speculated that "ravenna" is related to "Rasenna" (later "Rasna"), the term that the Etruscans used for themselves, but there is no agreement on this point.[citation needed] Ancient era[edit] See also: Ostrogothic Ravenna The origins of Ravenna
Ravenna
are uncertain.[4] The first settlement is variously attributed to (and then has seen the copresence of) the Thessalians, the Etruscans and the Umbrians. Afterwards its territory was settled also by the Senones, especially the southern countryside of the city (that wasn't part of the lagoon), the Ager Decimanus. Ravenna
Ravenna
consisted of houses built on piles on a series of small islands in a marshy lagoon – a situation similar to Venice
Venice
several centuries later. The Romans ignored it during their conquest of the Po River Delta, but later accepted it into the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
as a federated town in 89 BC. In 49 BC, it was the location where Julius Caesar gathered his forces before crossing the Rubicon. Later, after his battle against Mark Antony
Mark Antony
in 31 BC, Emperor Augustus
Augustus
founded the military harbor of Classe.[5] This harbor, protected at first by its own walls, was an important station of the Roman Imperial Fleet. Nowadays the city is landlocked, but Ravenna
Ravenna
remained an important seaport on the Adriatic
Adriatic
until the early Middle Ages. During the German campaigns, Thusnelda, widow of Arminius, and Marbod, King of the Marcomanni, were confined at Ravenna.

The city of Ravenna
Ravenna
in the 4th century as shown on the Peutinger Map

Ravenna
Ravenna
greatly prospered under Roman rule. Emperor Trajan
Trajan
built a 70 km (43.50 mi) long aqueduct at the beginning of the 2nd century. During the Marcomannic Wars, Germanic settlers in Ravenna revolted and managed to seize possession of the city. For this reason, Marcus Aurelius decided not only against bringing more barbarians into Italy, but even banished those who had previously been brought there.[6] In AD 402, Emperor Honorius
Emperor Honorius
transferred the capital of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
from Milan
Milan
to Ravenna. At that time it was home to 50,000 people.[7] The transfer was made partly for defensive purposes: Ravenna
Ravenna
was surrounded by swamps and marshes, and was perceived to be easily defensible (although in fact the city fell to opposing forces numerous times in its history); it is also likely that the move to Ravenna
Ravenna
was due to the city's port and good sea-borne connections to the Eastern Roman Empire. However, in 409, King Alaric I of the Visigoths simply bypassed Ravenna, and went on to sack Rome in 410 and to take Galla Placidia, daughter of Emperor Theodosius I, hostage. After many vicissitudes, Galla Placidia
Galla Placidia
returned to Ravenna with her son, Emperor Valentinian III, due to the support of her nephew Theodosius II. Ravenna
Ravenna
enjoyed a period of peace, during which time the Christian religion was favoured by the imperial court, and the city gained some of its most famous monuments, including the Orthodox Baptistery, the misnamed Mausoleum of Galla Placidia
Galla Placidia
(she was not actually buried there), and San Giovanni Evangelista. The late 5th century saw the dissolution of Roman authority in the west, and the last person to hold the title of emperor in the West was deposed in 476 by the general Odoacer. Odoacer
Odoacer
ruled as King of Italy for 13 years, but in 489 the Eastern Emperor Zeno sent the Ostrogoth King Theoderic the Great
Theoderic the Great
to re-take the Italian peninsula. After losing the Battle of Verona, Odoacer
Odoacer
retreated to Ravenna, where he withstood a siege of three years by Theoderic, until the taking of Rimini
Rimini
deprived Ravenna
Ravenna
of supplies. Theoderic took Ravenna
Ravenna
in 493, supposedly slew Odoacer
Odoacer
with his own hands, and Ravenna
Ravenna
became the capital of the Ostrogothic Kingdom
Ostrogothic Kingdom
of Italy. Theoderic, following his imperial predecessors, also built many splendid buildings in and around Ravenna, including his palace church Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, an Arian cathedral (now Santo Spirito) and Baptistery, and his own Mausoleum just outside the walls.

The Mausoleum of Theoderic.

Both Odoacer
Odoacer
and Theoderic and their followers were Arian Christians, but co-existed peacefully with the Latins, who were largely Orthodox. Ravenna's Orthodox bishops carried out notable building projects, of which the sole surviving one is the Capella Arcivescovile. Theoderic allowed Roman citizens within his kingdom to be subject to Roman law and the Roman judicial system. The Goths, meanwhile, lived under their own laws and customs. In 519, when a mob had burned down the synagogues of Ravenna, Theoderic ordered the town to rebuild them at its own expense. Theoderic died in 526 and was succeeded by his young grandson Athalaric
Athalaric
under the authority of his daughter Amalasunta, but by 535 both were dead and Theoderic's line was represented only by Amalasuntha's daughter Matasuntha. Various Ostrogothic military leaders took the Kingdom of Italy, but none were as successful as Theoderic had been. Meanwhile, the orthodox Christian Byzantine Emperor Justinian I, opposed both Ostrogoth
Ostrogoth
rule and the Arian variety of Christianity. In 535 his general Belisarius
Belisarius
invaded Italy
Italy
and in 540 conquered Ravenna. After the conquest of Italy
Italy
was completed in 554, Ravenna
Ravenna
became the seat of Byzantine government in Italy. From 540 to 600, Ravenna's bishops embarked upon a notable building program of churches in Ravenna
Ravenna
and in and around the port city of Classe. Surviving monuments include the Basilica of San Vitale
Basilica of San Vitale
and the Basilica of Sant'Apollinare in Classe, as well as the partially surviving San Michele in Africisco. Exarchate of Ravenna[edit] Main article: Exarchate of Ravenna Following the conquests of Belisarius
Belisarius
for the Emperor Justinian I
Justinian I
in the 6th century, Ravenna
Ravenna
became the seat of the Byzantine governor of Italy, the Exarch, and was known as the Exarchate of Ravenna. It was at this time that the Ravenna Cosmography
Ravenna Cosmography
was written. Under Byzantine rule, the archbishop of the Archdiocese of Ravenna
Ravenna
was temporarily granted autocephaly from the Roman Church by the emperor, in 666, but this was soon revoked. Nevertheless, the archbishop of Ravenna
Ravenna
held the second place in Italy
Italy
after the pope, and played an important role in many theological controversies during this period. Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and Renaissance[edit] The Lombards, under King Liutprand, occupied Ravenna
Ravenna
in 712, but were forced to return it to the Byzantines.[8] However, in 751 the Lombard king, Aistulf, succeeded in conquering Ravenna, thus ending Byzantine rule in northern Italy. King Pepin of the Franks attacked the Lombards
Lombards
under orders of Pope Stephen II. Ravenna
Ravenna
then gradually came under the direct authority of the Popes, although this was contested by the archbishops at various times. Pope
Pope
Adrian I authorized Charlemagne
Charlemagne
to take away anything from Ravenna
Ravenna
that he liked, and an unknown quantity of Roman columns, mosaics, statues, and other portable items were taken north to enrich his capital of Aachen. In 1198 Ravenna
Ravenna
led a league of Romagna
Romagna
cities against the Emperor, and the Pope
Pope
was able to subdue it. After the war of 1218 the Traversari family was able to impose its rule in the city, which lasted until 1240. After a short period under an Imperial vicar, Ravenna
Ravenna
was returned to the Papal States
Papal States
in 1248 and again to the Traversari until, in 1275, the Da Polenta
Da Polenta
established their long-lasting seigniory. One of the most illustrious residents of Ravenna
Ravenna
at this time was the exiled poet Dante. The last of the Da Polenta, Ostasio III, was ousted by the Republic of Venice
Venice
in 1440, and the city was annexed to the Venetian territories. Ravenna
Ravenna
was ruled by Venice
Venice
until 1509, when the area was invaded in the course of the Italian Wars. In 1512, during the Holy League wars, Ravenna
Ravenna
was sacked by the French following the Battle of Ravenna. Ravenna
Ravenna
was also known during the Renaissance as the birthplace of the Monster of Ravenna. After the Venetian withdrawal, Ravenna
Ravenna
was again ruled by legates of the Pope
Pope
as part of the Papal States. The city was damaged in a tremendous flood in May 1636. Over the next 300 years, a network of canals diverted nearby rivers and drained nearby swamps, thus reducing the possibility of flooding and creating a large belt of agricultural land around the city. Modern age[edit] Apart from another short occupation by Venice
Venice
(1527–1529), Ravenna was part of the Papal States
Papal States
until 1796, when it was annexed to the French puppet state of the Cisalpine Republic, (Italian Republic from 1802, and Kingdom of Italy
Italy
from 1805). It was returned to the Papal States in 1814. Occupied by Piedmontese troops in 1859, Ravenna
Ravenna
and the surrounding Romagna
Romagna
area became part of the new unified Kingdom of Italy
Italy
in 1861. During World War II, troops of the British 27th Lancers entered and occupied Ravenna
Ravenna
on 5 December 1944. The town suffered very little damage. Architecture[edit]

Basilica of San Vitale
Basilica of San Vitale
- triumphal arch mosaics.

Garden of Eden
Garden of Eden
mosaic in mausoleum of Galla Placidia. 5th century CE.

Arian Baptistry
Arian Baptistry
ceiling mosaic.

6th-century mosaic in Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna
Ravenna
portrays Jesus long-haired and bearded, dressed in Byzantinian style.

The Arian Baptistry.

Dante's tomb exterior and interior, built in 1780

The so-called "Mausoleum of Galla Placidia" in Ravenna.

Mosaic
Mosaic
of the Palace of Theoderic
Palace of Theoderic
in Sant'Apollinare Nuovo.

Eight early Christian monuments of Ravenna
Ravenna
are inscribed on the World Heritage List. These are

Orthodox Baptistry also called Baptistry of Neon
Baptistry of Neon
(c. 430) Mausoleum of Galla Placidia
Galla Placidia
(c. 430) Arian Baptistry
Arian Baptistry
(c. 500) Archiepiscopal Chapel (c. 500) Basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo
Sant'Apollinare Nuovo
(c. 500) Mausoleum of Theoderic
Mausoleum of Theoderic
(520) Basilica of San Vitale
Basilica of San Vitale
(548) Basilica of Sant'Apollinare in Classe
Basilica of Sant'Apollinare in Classe
(549)

Other attractions include:

The church of St. John the Evangelist is from the 5th century, erected by Galla Placidia
Galla Placidia
after she survived a storm at sea. It was restored after the World War II
World War II
bombings. The belltower contains four bells, the two majors dating back to 1208. The 6th-century church of the Spirito Santo, which has been quite drastically altered since the 6th century. It was originally the Arian cathedral. The façade has a 16th-century portico with five arcades. The St. Francis basilica, rebuilt in the 10th–11th centuries over a precedent edifice dedicated to the Apostles and later to St. Peter. Behind the humble brick façade, it has a nave and two aisles. Fragments of mosaics from the first church are visible on the floor, which is usually covered by water after heavy rains (together with the crypt). Here the funeral ceremony of Dante
Dante
Alighieri was held in 1321. The poet is buried in a tomb annexed to the church, the local authorities having resisted for centuries all demands by Florence
Florence
for return of the remains of its most famous exile. The Baroque
Baroque
church of Santa Maria Maggiore (525–532, rebuilt in 1671). It houses a picture by Luca Longhi. The church of San Giovanni Battista (1683), also in Baroque
Baroque
style, with a Middle Ages
Middle Ages
campanile. The basilica of Santa Maria in Porto (16th century), with a rich façade from the 18th century. It has a nave and two aisles, with a high cupola. It houses the image of famous Greek Madonna, which was allegedly brought to Ravenna
Ravenna
from Constantinople. The nearby Communal Gallery has various works from Romagnoli painters. The Rocca Brancaleone ("Brancaleone Castle"), built by the Venetians in 1457. Once part of the city walls, it is now a public park. It is divided into two parts: the true Castle and the Citadel, the latter having an extent of 14,000 m2 (150,694.75 sq ft). The "so-called Palace of Theoderic", in fact the entrance to the former church of San Salvatore. It includes mosaics from the true palace of the Ostrogoth
Ostrogoth
king. The church of Sant'Eufemia (18th century), gives access to the so-called Stone Carpets Domus (6th–7th century): this houses splendid mosaics from a Byzantine palace. The National Museum. The Archiepiscopal Museum

Music[edit] The city annually hosts the Ravenna
Ravenna
Festival, one of Italy's prominent classical music gatherings. Opera performances are held at the Teatro Alighieri while concerts take place at the Palazzo Mauro de André as well as in the ancient Basilica of San Vitale
Basilica of San Vitale
and Basilica of Sant'Apollinare in Classe. Chicago Symphony Orchestra music director Riccardo Muti, a longtime resident of the city, regularly participates in the festival, which invites orchestras and other performers from around the world. Ravenna
Ravenna
in literature[edit]

Pre-1800

The city is mentioned in Canto V in Dante's Inferno. Also in the 16th century, Nostradamus
Nostradamus
provides four prophecies:

"The Magnavacca (canal) at Ravenna
Ravenna
in great trouble, Canals
Canals
by fifteen shut up at Fornase", in reference to fifteen French sabateurs.[9] As the place of a battle extending to Perugia
Perugia
and a sacred escape in its aftermath, leaving rotting horses left to eat In relation to the snatching of a lady "near Ravenna" and then the legate of Lisbon seizing 70 souls at sea Ravenna
Ravenna
is one of three-similarly named contenders for the birth of the third and final Antichrist
Antichrist
who enslaves Slovenia
Slovenia
(see Ravne na Koroškem)[10]

Ravenna
Ravenna
is the setting for The Witch, a play by Thomas Middleton (1580–1627)

Post-1800

Lord Byron
Lord Byron
lived in Ravenna
Ravenna
between 1819 and 1821, led by the love for a local aristocratic and married young woman, Teresa Guiccioli. Here he continued Don Juan and wrote:

Ravenna
Ravenna
Diary, My Dictionary and Recollections.[11]

Oscar Wilde
Oscar Wilde
(1854–1900) wrote a poem Ravenna
Ravenna
in 1878.[12] Symbolist, lyrical poet Alexander Blok
Alexander Blok
(1880–1921) wrote a poem entitled Ravenna
Ravenna
(May–June 1909) inspired by his Italian journey (spring 1909). During his travels, German poet and philosopher Hermann Hesse (1877–1962) came across Ravenna
Ravenna
and was inspired to write two poems of the city. They are entitled Ravenna
Ravenna
(1) and Ravenna
Ravenna
(2). T. S. Eliot's (1888–1965) poem "Lune de Miel" (written in French) describes a honeymooning couple from Indiana sleeping not far from the ancient Basilica of Sant' Apollinare in Classe
Basilica of Sant' Apollinare in Classe
(just outside Ravenna), famous for the carved capitals of its columns, which depict acanthus leaves buffeted by the wind, unlike the leaves in repose on similar columns elsewhere. J.R.R. Tolkien
J.R.R. Tolkien
(1892-1973) may have based his city of Minas Tirith
Minas Tirith
at least in part on Ravenna.[13]

Ravenna
Ravenna
in film[edit] Michelangelo Antonioni
Michelangelo Antonioni
filmed his 1964 movie Red Desert (Deserto Rosso) within the industrialised areas of the Pialassa valley within the city limits. Transport[edit] Ravenna
Ravenna
has an important commercial and tourist port. Ravenna railway station
Ravenna railway station
has direct Trenitalia
Trenitalia
service to Bologna, Ferrara, Lecce, Milan, Parma, Rimini, and Verona. Ravenna Airport
Ravenna Airport
is located in Ravenna. The nearest commercial airports are those of Forlì, Rimini
Rimini
and Bologna. Freeways crossing Ravenna
Ravenna
include: A14-bis from the hub of Bologna; on the north-south axis of EU routes E45 (from Rome) and E55 (SS-309 "Romea" from Venice); and on the regional Ferrara- Rimini
Rimini
axis of SS-16 (partially called "Adriatica"). Amusement parks[edit]

Mirabilandia Safari Ravenna

Twin towns[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy Ravenna
Ravenna
is twinned with:

Chichester, United Kingdom Dubrovnik, Croatia, since 1969 Speyer, Germany, since 1989 Chartres, France, since 1957 Tønsberg, Norway Szekszárd, Hungary Laguna, Brazil

Sports[edit] The historical Italian football of the city is Ravenna F.C.
Ravenna F.C.
Currently it plays in Eccellenza Emilia-Romagna
Emilia-Romagna
Girone B. A.P.D. Ribelle 1927
A.P.D. Ribelle 1927
is the Italian football of Castiglione di Ravenna, a fraction of Ravenna
Ravenna
and was founded in 1927. Currently it plays in Italy's Serie D after promotion from Eccellenza Emilia-Romagna
Emilia-Romagna
Girone B in the 2013-14 season. The president is Marcello Missiroli and the manager is Enrico Zaccaroni. Its home ground is Stadio Massimo Sbrighi of the fraction with 1,000 seats. The team's colors are white and blue. The beaches of Ravenna
Ravenna
hosted the 2011 FIFA Beach Soccer World Cup, in September 2011. References[edit]

Notes

^ GeoDemo - Istat.it ^ Generally speaking, adjectival "Ravenna" and "Ravennate" are more common for most adjectival uses—the Ravenna
Ravenna
Cosmography, Ravenna grass, the Ravennate fleet—while "Ravennese" is more common in reference to people. The neologism "Ravennan" is also encountered. The Italian form is ravennate; in Latin, Ravennatus, Ravennatis, and Ravennatensis are all encountered. ^ Tourism in Ravenna
Ravenna
– Official site – History. Turismo.ravenna.it (2010-06-20). Retrieved on 2011-06-20. ^ Deborah M. Deliyannis, Ravenna
Ravenna
in Late Antiquity (Cambridge University Press, 2010), for this and much of the information that follows ^ From classis, Latin "fleet". ^ Dio 72.11.4-5; Birley, Marcus Aurelius ^ https://www.academia.edu/1166147/_The_Fall_and_Decline_of_the_Roman_Urban_Mind_ ^ Noble, Thomas F. X. (1984). The Republic of St. Peter: The Birth of the Papal State, 680–825. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-1239-8.  ^ Jones, Tom (2012). Nostradamus. Pittsburgh, PA: Dorrance Publishing. ISBN 9781434918239.  ^ Reading, Mario (2009). The Complete Prophesies of Nostradamus. London: Watkins Publishing. ISBN 9781906787394.  ^ "Sito Ufficiale – Ufficio Turismo del Comune
Comune
di Ravenna
Ravenna
– I grandi scrittori". Turismo.ra.it. Retrieved 2009-05-06.  ^ Ravenna ^ https://www.theguardian.com/books/2015/oct/23/jrr-tolkien-middle-earth-annotated-map-blackwells-lord-of-the-rings?CMP=fb_gu

Sources[edit]

See also: Bibliography of the history of Ravenna

Janet Nelson, Judith Herrin, Ravenna: its role in earlier medieval change and exchange, London, Institute of Historical Research, 2016, ISBN 9781909646148

External links[edit]

Ravenna
Ravenna
- Catholic encyclopedia Tourism and culture Official website (in Italian) (in English) Ravenna, A Study (1913) by Edward Hutton, from Project Gutenberg Ravenna's early history and its monuments - Catholic Encyclopedia Adrian Fletcher's Paradoxplace Ravenna
Ravenna
Pages (photos) Deborah M. Deliyannis, Ravenna
Ravenna
in Late Antiquity (Cambridge University Press, 2010)

Find out more on's Sister projects

Media from Commons Travel guides from Wikivoyage Definitions from Wiktionary Source texts from Wikisource

v t e

Emilia-Romagna
Emilia-Romagna
· Comuni of the Province of Ravenna

Alfonsine Bagnacavallo Bagnara di Romagna Brisighella Casola Valsenio Castel Bolognese Cervia Conselice Cotignola Faenza Fusignano Lugo Massa Lombarda Ravenna Riolo Terme Russi Sant'Agata sul Santerno Solarolo

v t e

World Heritage Sites in Italy

Northwest

Crespi d'Adda Genoa Mantua
Mantua
and Sabbioneta Monte San Giorgio1 Porto Venere, Palmaria, Tino and Tinetto, Cinque Terre

Corniglia Manarola Monterosso al Mare Riomaggiore Vernazza

Residences of the Royal House of Savoy

Castle of Moncalieri Castle of Racconigi Castle of Rivoli Castello del Valentino Royal Palace of Turin Palazzo Carignano Palazzo Madama, Turin Palace of Venaria Palazzina di caccia of Stupinigi Villa della Regina

Rhaetian Railway
Rhaetian Railway
in the Albula / Bernina Landscapes1 Rock Drawings in Valcamonica Sacri Monti of Piedmont
Piedmont
and Lombardy Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan Vineyard Landscape of Piedmont: Langhe- Roero
Roero
and Monferrato

Northeast

Aquileia The Dolomites Ferrara Modena
Modena
Cathedral, Torre della Ghirlandina
Torre della Ghirlandina
and Piazza Grande, Modena Orto botanico di Padova Ravenna Venice Verona City of Vicenza
Vicenza
and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto

Central

Assisi Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi Etruscan Necropolises of Cerveteri
Cerveteri
and Tarquinia Florence Hadrian's Villa Medici villas Piazza del Duomo, Pisa Pienza Rome2 San Gimignano Siena Urbino Val d'Orcia Villa d'Este

South

Alberobello Amalfi Coast Castel del Monte, Apulia Cilento
Cilento
and Vallo di Diano
Vallo di Diano
National Park, Paestum
Paestum
and Velia, Certosa di Padula Herculaneum Oplontis
Oplontis
and Villa Poppaea Naples Palace of Caserta, Aqueduct of Vanvitelli
Aqueduct of Vanvitelli
and San Leucio
San Leucio
Complex Pompeii Sassi di Matera

Islands

Aeolian Islands Arab-Norman Palermo
Palermo
and the Cathedral Churches of Cefalù and Monreale Archaeological Area of Agrigento Barumini nuraghes Mount Etna Syracuse and Necropolis of Pantalica Val di Noto

Caltagirone Catania Militello in Val di Catania Modica Noto Palazzolo Acreide Ragusa Scicli

Villa Romana del Casale

Countrywide

Longobards in Italy, Places of Power (568–774 A.D.)

Brescia Cividale del Friuli Castelseprio Spoleto Temple of Clitumnus
Temple of Clitumnus
located at Campello sul Clitunno Santa Sofia located at Benevento Sanctuary of Monte Sant'Angelo
Sanctuary of Monte Sant'Angelo
located at Monte Sant'Angelo

Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps3 Primeval Beech Forests of Europe4 Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries5

Bergamo Palmanova Peschiera del Garda

1 Shared with Switzerland 2 Shared with the Holy See 3 Shared with Austria, France, Germany, Slovenia, and Switzerland 4 Shared with Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Germany, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain
Spain
and Ukraine 5 Shared with Croatia
Croatia
and Montenegro

v t e

Cities in Italy
Italy
by population

1,000,000+

Rome Milan

500,000+

Naples Turin Palermo Genoa

200,000+

Bari Bologna Catania Florence Messina Padua Trieste Venice Verona

100,000+

Ancona Andria Arezzo Bergamo Bolzano Brescia Cagliari Ferrara Foggia Forlì Giugliano Latina Livorno Modena Monza Novara Parma Perugia Pescara Piacenza Prato Ravenna Reggio Calabria Reggio Emilia Rimini Salerno Sassari Syracuse Taranto Terni Trento Udine Vicenza

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 279348621 LCCN: n79042080 GND: 4048629-1 SUDOC: 135913276 BNF: cb11865405z (data) NLA: 3596

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