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Raksha Bandhan, also Rakshabandhan,[1] or simply Rakhi, is an annual rite performed in the Indian subcontinent, or by people originating from the Indian subcontinent, and centred around the tying of a thread, talisman, or amulet on the wrist as a form of ritual protection. The protection is offered principally by sisters to brothers, but also by priests to patrons, and sometimes by individuals to real or potential benefactors. Differing versions of the rite have been traditionally performed by Hindus
Hindus
in northern India,[2][3][4] western India,[5] Nepal,[6] and former colonies of the British Empire to which Hindus
Hindus
had emigrated from India in the 19th-century, and have included, in addition, rites with names rendered as Saluno,[7][8] Silono,[9] and Rakri.[10] The rituals associated with these rites, however, have spread beyond their traditional regions and have been transformed through technology and migration,[11] the movies,[12] social interaction,[13] and promotion by politicized Hinduism,[14][15] as well as by the nation state.[16] Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
is observed on the last day of the Hindu
Hindu
lunar calendar month of Shraavana, which typically falls in August.[17][18] On this day, sisters of all ages tie a talisman, or amulet, called the rakhi, around the wrists of their brothers, ritually protecting their brothers, receiving a gift from them in return, and traditionally investing the brothers with a share of the responsibility of their potential care.[19] The expression "Raksha Bandhan," Sanskrit, literally, "the bond of protection, obligation, or care," is now principally applied to this ritual. It has also applied to a similar ritual in which a domestic priest ties amulets, charms, or threads on the wrists of his patrons and receives gifts of money.[10][20] A ritual associated with Saluno includes the sisters placing shoots of barley behind the ears of their brothers.[7] Of special significance to married women, Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
is rooted in the practice of territorial exogamy, in which a bride marries out of her natal village or town, and her parents, by custom, do not visit her in her married home.[21] In rural north India, where territorial exogamy is strongly prevalent, large numbers of married Hindu
Hindu
women travel back to their parents' homes every year for the ceremony.[22][23] Their brothers, who typically live with the parents or nearby, sometimes travel to their sisters' married home to escort them back. Many younger married women arrive a few weeks earlier at their natal homes and stay until the ceremony.[24] The brothers serve as lifelong intermediaries between their sisters' married- and parental homes,[25] as well as potential stewards of their security. In urban India, where families are increasingly nuclear, and marriages not always traditional, the festival has become more symbolic, but continues to be highly popular. Among women and men who are not blood relatives, there is also a transformed tradition of voluntary kin relations, achieved through the tying of rakhi amulets, which have cut across caste and class lines,[26] and Hindu
Hindu
and Muslim divisions.[27] In some communities or contexts, other figures, such as a matriarch, or a person in authority, can be included in the ceremony in ritual acknowledgement of their benefaction.[28] Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
is also celebrated by Hindu communities in other parts of the world.[29][30] Although rooted in Hindu
Hindu
culture, the festival has no traditional prayers unambiguously associated with it. The religious myths claimed for it are disputed, and the historical stories associated with it considered apocryphal by some historians.[31][32] More recently, after enactment of more gender-neutral inheritance laws in India, it has been suggested that in some communities the festival has seen a resurgence of celebration, which is serving to indirectly pressure women to abstain from fully claiming their inheritance.[33]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Regions 3 Traditions 4 Myths and legends

4.1 Indra
Indra
Dev 4.2 King Bali and Goddess Lakshmi 4.3 Santoshi Maa 4.4 Krishna
Krishna
and Draupadi 4.5 Yama
Yama
and the Yamuna

5 History

5.1 Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
and King Puru 5.2 Rani Karnavati and Emperor Humayun 5.3 Rabindranath Tagore
Rabindranath Tagore
and the Bengal partition of 1905 5.4 Sikh history 5.5 Multi-culturalism and activism

6 See also 7 Footnotes 8 References

8.1 Notes 8.2 Works cited

9 External links

Etymology[edit]

Rajendra Prasad, the first president of the Republic of India celebrating Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
at the presidential palace, Rashtrapati Bhawan in New Delhi, 24 August 1953

According to R. S. McGregor's Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary, 1993, the name of the festival, the masculine Hindi
Hindi
noun rakśābandhan is composed of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
loanword rakśā, a feminine noun, which means, "protection," "preservation," or "care." and a second Sanskrit loanword bandhan, a masculine noun, which means "fastening," or "tying together."[34] According to V. S. Apte's Revised Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary, 1957–1959, रक्षा pronounced rakṣā means, "protection," "preservation," or "guarding;"[35] बन्धन pronounced, "bandhana," means "The act of binding, fastening, tying."[36] According to McGregor, the Hindi
Hindi
feminine noun, rākhī, (which is compared etymologically to rakśā described above) is a "protective talisman: a piece of thread etc., with a rosette, tied ceremoniously round a protector or patron's wrist on the full moon of the month Srāvan: especially by a sister round a brother's wrist, when the brother gives a small gift of money."[37] In contrast, Apte defines one of the secondary meaning of रक्षा (rakṣā) to be: "A piece of silk or thread fastened round the wrist on particular occasions, especially on the full-moon day of Śrāvaṇa, as an amulet or preservative; (रक्षी (rakṣī) also in this sense).[35] According to Jack Goody, rakśābandhan is "cognate with the Sanskrit name for marriage, saṃbandhan, where the common element bandhan (Sanskrit: bandhá) refers to the act of tying. The ceremonies are complementary. Marriage (sam, reciprocally) ties spouses; rakśābandhan ties brother and sister."[38] Regions[edit]

A girl is tying a rakhi (a Rakshasutra) around her mother's wrist as part of the celebration Rakshbandhan in a village Lahree, Jabalpur district, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Scholars who have written about the ritual, have usually described the traditional region of its observance as north India; however, also included are: central India, western India and Nepal, as well other regions of India, and overseas Hindu
Hindu
communities such as in Fiji. Anthropologist Jack Goody, whose field study was conducted in Nandol, in Gujarat, describes Rakshabandhan as an "annual ceremony ... of northern and western India."[39] Anthropologist Michael Jackson, writes, "While traditional North Indian families do not have a Father's or Mother's Day, or even the equivalent of Valentine's Day, there is a Sister's Day, called Raksha Bandhan, ..."[40] Religious scholar J. Gordon Melton
J. Gordon Melton
describes it as "primarily a North Indian festival."[41] Leona M. Anderson and Pamela D. Young describe it as "one of the most popular festivals of North India."[42] Anthropologist David G. Mandelbaum has described it as "an annual rite observed in northern and western India."[43] Other descriptions of primary regions are of development economist Bina Agarwal
Bina Agarwal
("In Northern India and Nepal
Nepal
this is ritualized in festivals such as raksha-bandhan."[44]), scholar and activist Ruth Vanita ("a festival widely celebrated in north India."[27]), anthropologist James D. Faubion ("In north India this brother-sister relationship is formalized in the ceremony of 'Rakshabandhan.'"[45]), and social scientist Prem Chowdhry ("... in the noticeable revival of the Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
festival and the renewed sanctity is has claimed in North India."[46]). Traditions[edit]

Women shopping for rakhi

Tying the rakhi on the wrist

Anthropologist McKim Marriott in his "Little Communities in an Indigenous Civilization," (1955) describes an "Indian-wide" tradition of Rakhi-bandhan, or Raksha-bandhan, in which a priest ties charms around their patrons' wrists and receives gifts of money, and a local tradition of Saluno in Aligarh district
Aligarh district
of North India
North India
in which sisters place ears of sacred grains on the heads and behind the ears of their brother in affirmation of the brother's role as their real or potential protector.[7][47] Marriott's work also describes the field study of anthropologist Alan R. Beals in Namhalli, a village near Bangalore, who notes changes in the rakhi tradition brought on by modern technology.[47] While Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
is celebrated in various parts of the Indian subcontinent, different regions mark the day in different ways. In the state of West Bengal
West Bengal
and Odisha, this day is also called Jhulan Purnima. Prayers and puja of Lord Krishna
Krishna
and Radha
Radha
are performed there. Sisters tie rakhi to brothers and wish immortality. Political parties, offices, friends, schools to colleges, street to palace celebrate this day with a new hope for a good relationship.[citation needed] In Maharashtra, the festival of Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
is celebrated along with Narali Poornima (coconut day festival). Kolis are the fishermen community of the coastal state. The fishermen offer prayers to Lord Varuna, the Hindu
Hindu
god of Sea, to invoke his blessings. As part of the rituals, coconuts were thrown into the sea as offerings to Lord Varuna. The girls and women tie rakhi on their brother's wrist, as elsewhere.[48][49] In the regions of North India, mostly Jammu, it is a common practice to fly kites on the nearby occasions of Janamashtami and Raksha Bandhan. It's not unusual to see the sky filled with kites of all shapes and sizes, on and around these two dates. The locals buy kilometres of strong kite string, commonly called as "gattu door" in the local language, along with a multitude of kites.[citation needed] In Haryana, in addition to celebrating Raksha Bandhan, people observe the festival of Salono.[50] Salono is celebrated by priests solemnly tying amulets against evil on people's wrists.[51] As elsewhere, sisters tie threads on brothers with prayers for their well being, and the brothers give her gifts promising to safeguard her.[52] In Nepal, Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
is referred to as Janai Purnima or Rishitarpani, and involves a sacred thread ceremony. It is observed by both Hindus
Hindus
and Buddhists of Nepal.[53] The Hindu
Hindu
men change the thread they wear around their chests (janai), while in some parts of Nepal
Nepal
girls and women tie rakhi on their brother's wrists. The Raksha Bandhan-like brother sister festival is observed by other Hindus
Hindus
of Nepal
Nepal
during one of the days of the Tihar (or Diwali) festival.[54] The festival is observed by the Shaiva Hindus, and is popularly known in Newar community as Gunhu Punhi.[55] Myths and legends[edit] The scriptures, epics of Hinduism
Hinduism
is peppered with stories of rakhi and Raksha Bandhan. Some of these include: Indra
Indra
Dev[edit] According to Bhavishya Purana, in the war between Gods and demons, Indra
Indra
– the deity of sky, rains and thunderbolts – was disgraced by the powerful demon King Bali. Indra’s wife Sachi consulted Vishnu, who gave her a bracelet made of cotton thread, calling it holy.[17] Sachi tied the holy thread around Indra
Indra
wrist, blessed with her prayers for his well being and success. Indra
Indra
successfully defeated the Bali and recovered Amaravati. This story inspired the protective power of holy thread.[56][57][58] The story also suggests that the Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
thread in ancient India were amulets, used by women as prayers and to guard men going to war, and that these threads were not limited to sister-brother like relationships.[17] King Bali and Goddess Lakshmi[edit] According to Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
and Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana, after Vishnu
Vishnu
won the three worlds from the demon King Bali, Bali asked Vishnu
Vishnu
to stay with him in his palace, a request Vishnu
Vishnu
granted. Vishnu's wife, Goddess Lakshmi
Lakshmi
did not like the palace or his new found friendship with Bali, and preferred that her husband and she return to Vaikuntha. So she went to Bali, tied a rakhi and made him a brother to her. Bali asked her what gift she desired. Lakshmi
Lakshmi
asked that Vishnu
Vishnu
be freed from the request that he live in Bali's palace. Bali consented, as well accepted her as his sister.[59] Santoshi Maa[edit] Ganesha
Ganesha
had two sons, Shubha and Labha. The two boys become frustrated that they have no sister to celebrate Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
with. They ask their father Ganesha
Ganesha
for a sister, but to no avail. Finally, saint Narada appears who persuades Ganesha
Ganesha
that a daughter will enrich him as well as his sons. Ganesha
Ganesha
agreed, and created a daughter named Santoshi Maa by divine flames that emerged from Ganesh's wives, Riddhi (Amazing) and Siddhi (Perfection). Thereafter, Shubha Labha (literally "Holy Profit") had a sister named Santoshi Maa (literally "Goddess of Satisfaction"), to tie Rakhi over Raksha Bandhan.[60] Krishna
Krishna
and Draupadi[edit] In the epic Mahabharat, Draupadi
Draupadi
tied a rakhi on Krishna, while Kunti tied her rakhi on her grandson Abhimanyu, before the great war.[58] Yama
Yama
and the Yamuna[edit] According to another legend, Yama, the god of Death, had not visited his sister Yamuna for 12 years. Yamuna was sad and consulted Ganga. Ganga reminded Yama
Yama
of his sister, upon which Yama
Yama
visits her. Yamuna was overjoyed to see her brother, and prepared a bounty of food for Yama. The god Yama
Yama
was delighted, and asked Yamuna what she wanted for a gift. She wished that he, her brother should return and see her again soon. Yama
Yama
was moved by his sister's love, agreed and to be able to see her again, and made river Yamuna immortal. This legend is the basis for a Raksha Bandhan-like festival called Bhai Duj in some parts of India, which also celebrates brother-sister love, but near Diwali.[61][62] History[edit]

Rakhi threads for sale in India

Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
is an ancient festival of the Indian subcontinent, and its history dates back thousands of years. Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
and King Puru[edit] According to one legendary narrative, when Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
invaded India in 326 BCE, Roxana (or Roshanak, his wife) sent a sacred thread to Porus, asking him not to harm her husband in battle. In accordance with tradition, Porus, the king of Kaikeya kingdom, gave full respect to the rakhi. In the Battle of the Hydaspes, when Porus saw the rakhi on his own wrist and restrained himself from attacking Alexander personally.[63] Rani Karnavati and Emperor Humayun[edit] Another controversial historical account is that of Rani Karnavati of Chittor
Chittor
and Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Humayun, which dates to 1535 CE. When Rani Karnavati, the widowed queen of the king of Chittor, realised that she could not defend against the invasion by the Sultan of Gujarat, Bahadur Shah, she sent a rakhi to Emperor Humayun. The Emperor, according to one version of the story, set off with his troops to defend Chittor. He arrived too late, and Bahadur Shah had already captured the Rani's fortress. Alternative accounts from the period, including those by historians in Humayun's Mughal court, do not mention the rakhi episode and some historians have expressed skepticism whether it ever happened.[64] Humayun's own memoirs never mention this, and give different reasons for his war with Sultan Bahadur Shah of Gujarat
Bahadur Shah of Gujarat
in 1535.[65]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: 'The Raki' in 'The Zenana'. by L. E. L.

This is the story included by Letitia Elizabeth Landon
Letitia Elizabeth Landon
in her long poem The Zenana within Fisher's Drawing Room Scrap Book, 1834. Muslim commentators in modern era publications mention this story as evidence of Muslim- Hindu
Hindu
communal ties in the past.[66][67] Rabindranath Tagore
Rabindranath Tagore
and the Bengal partition of 1905[edit] Rabindranath Tagore, the Indian Nobel Laureate for literature, invoked Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
and rakhi as concepts to inspire love, respect and a vow of mutual protection between Hindus
Hindus
and Muslims during India's colonial era.[68] In 1905, the British empire divided Bengal, a province of British India on the basis of religion. Rabindra Nath Tagore arranged a ceremony to celebrate Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
to strengthen the bond of love and togetherness between Hindus
Hindus
and Muslims of Bengal, and urge them to together protest the British empire. He used the idea of Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
to spread the feeling of brotherhood. In 1911, British colonial empire reversed the partition and unified Bengal, a unification that was opposed by Muslims of Bengal. Ultimately, Tagore's Raksha Bandhan-based appeals were unsuccessful. Bengal not only was split during the colonial era, one part became modern Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and predominantly Muslim country, the other a largely Hindu
Hindu
Indian state of West Bengal. Rabindranath Tagore
Rabindranath Tagore
started Rakhi Mahotsavas as a symbol of Bengal unity, and as a larger community festival of harmony.[69] In parts of West Bengal, his tradition continues as people tie rakhis to their neighbors and close friends.[70] One of Tagore's poem invoking rakhi is:[71]

The love in my body and heart For the earth's shadow and light Has stayed over years.

With its cares and its hope it has thrown A language of its own Into blue skies.

It lives in my joys and glooms In the spring night's buds and blooms Like a Rakhi-band On the Future's hand.

Sikh history[edit] In the 18th century, states Arvind-Pal Singh Mandair, Sikh Khalsa armies introduced the term Rakhi (Raksha Bandhan) as a promise of protection to farmers from Muslim armies such as those of the Mughals and Afghans, in exchange for sharing a small cut of their produce.[72][73] Maharaja Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
was the founder and ruler of the Sikh Empire, and he observed Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
festival.[74] His wife Maharani Jindan sent a Rakhi to the ruler of Nepal, who accepted her as sister and gave her refuge in the Hindu
Hindu
kingdom of Nepal
Nepal
in 1849 after the collapse of the Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
and annexation of its territories by the British.[75][76] Sikhs have observed Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
festival, and has sometimes been referred to as Rakhardi (literally, wristband)[77] or Rakhari in historic Sikh texts.[78][79][80] Like the Hindu
Hindu
tradition, the festival has involved the tying of the rakhi and giving of gifts.[81][82] An annual fair is held on Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
at Baba Bakala in Amritsar district.[83] Multi-culturalism and activism[edit] Some Muslims in India view it a secular, multicultural festival.[66] Raksha bandhan has also been adopted by the Christian community in India who view it as a festival of historical and social importance.[84] In 2015, men tied rakhis on women seeking protection from the ‘misuse’ of section 498A of the Indian Penal Code. "Society has gone through massive changes in the last few decades and men are now considered on the same platform with women. Why should laws show a discrimination against them?" asked Amartya Talukdar, founder member of Hridaya, an NGO working for gender neutrality.[85] See also[edit]

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Footnotes[edit]

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ McGregor, Ronald Stuart (1993), The Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-563846-2  Quote: m Hindi
Hindi
rakśābandhan held on the full moon of the month of Savan, when sisters tie a talisman (rakhi q.v.) on the arm of their brothers and receive small gifts of money from them. ^ Prasad, Leela (2012), "Anklets on the pyal", in Leela Prasad; Ruth B. Bottigheimer; Lalita Handoo, Gender and Story in South India, SUNY Press, p. 9, ISBN 978-0-7914-8125-7  Quote: While women-centered narratives cherish brotherly love, heroism, and chivalry (celebrated in festivals like nagapanchami in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh and rakshabandhan in north India), they are all too aware of the fragility of sibling ties. ^ Anderson, Leona May; Young, Pamela Dickey (2004), Women and Religious Traditions, Oxford University Press, pp. 30–31, ISBN 978-0-19-541754-8  Quote: "One of the most popular festivals in North India
North India
is the festival of Raksabandhana, observed in July or August. ^ Gokulsing, K. Moti; Dissanayake, Wimal, eds. (2009), Popular Culture in a Globalised India, Routledge, p. xix, ISBN 978-1-134-02307-3  Quote: Glossary and acronyms: Raksha Bandhan: A popular Hindu
Hindu
festival of north India where sister ties a thread on brother's wrist, seeking protection. (page xix)" ^ Goody, Jack (1990), The Oriental, the Ancient and the Primitive: Systems of Marriage and the Family in the Pre-Industrial Societies of Eurasia, Cambridge University Press, p. 222, ISBN 978-0-521-36761-5  Quote: "That relation is celebrated and epitomised in the annual ceremony of Rakshābandhan in northern and western India," ^ Agarwal, Bina (1994), A Field of One's Own: Gender and Land Rights in South Asia, Cambridge University Press, p. 264, ISBN 978-0-521-42926-9  Quote: "Brothers (even younger ones), and natal kin in general, are seen as women's potential protectors. In northern India and Nepal, this is ritualized in festivals such as raksha-bandhan (literally the tie of protection) and symbolized by sisters tying a thread (rakhi) on the brother's wrist. ^ a b c Marriott, McKim (1955), "Little Communities in an Indigenous Civilization", in McKim Marriott, Village India: Studies in the Little Community, University of Chicago Press, pp. 198–202  ^ Wadley, Susan S. (27 July 1994), Struggling with Destiny in Karimpur, 1925-1984, University of California Press, pp. 84, 202, ISBN 978-0-520-91433-9  Quote: (p 84) Potters: ... But because the festival of Saluno takes place during the monsoon when they can't make pots, they make pots in three batches ... ^ Lewis, Oscar (1965), Village Life in Northern India: Studies in a Delhi Village, University of Illinois Press, p. 208  ^ a b Berreman, Gerald Duane (1963), Hindus
Hindus
of the Himalayas, University of California Press, pp. 390–, GGKEY:S0ZWW3DRS4S  Quote: Rakri: On this date Brahmins go from house to house tying string bracelets (rakrī) on the wrists of household members. In return the Brahmins receive from an anna to a rupee from each household. ... This is supposed to be auspicious for the recipient. ... It has no connotation of brother-sister devotion as it does in some plains areas. It is readily identified with Raksha Bandhan. ^ Coleman, Leo (2017), A Moral Technology: Electrification as Political Ritual in New Delhi, Cornell University Press, p. 148, ISBN 978-1-5017-0791-9  Quote: In modern rakhi, technologically mediated and performed with manufactured charms, migrating men are the medium by which the village women interact, vertically, with the cosmopolitan center—the site of radio broadcasts, and the source of technological goods and national solidarity ^ Pandit, Vaijayanti (2003), BUSINESS @ HOME, Vikas Publishing House, p. 234, ISBN 978-81-259-1218-7  Quote: "Quote: Raksha Bandhan traditionally celebrated in North India
North India
has acquired greater importance due to Hindi
Hindi
films. Lightweight and decorative rakhis, which are easy to post, are needed in large quantities by the market to cater to brothers and sisters living in different parts of the country or abroad." ^ Khandekar, Renuka N. (2003), Faith: filling the God-sized hole, Penguin Books, p. 180  Quote: "But since independence and the gradual opening up of Indian society, Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
as celebrated in North India
North India
has won the affection of many South Indian families. For this festival has the peculiar charm of renewing sibling bonds." ^ Joshy, P. M.; Seethi, K. M. (2015), State and Civil Society under Siege: Hindutva, Security and Militarism in India, SAGE Publications, p. 112, ISBN 978-93-5150-383-5  Quote:(p 111) The RSS employs a cultural strategy to mobilise people through festivals. It observes six major festivals in a year. ... Till 20 years back, festivals like Raksha Bandhan' were unknown to South Indians. Through Shakha's intense campaign, now they have become popular in the southern India. In colleges and schools tying `Rakhi'—the thread that is used in the 'Raksha Bandhan'—has become a fashion and this has been popularised by the RSS and ABVP cadres. ^ Jaffrelot, Christophe (1999), The Hindu
Hindu
Nationalist Movement and Indian Politics: 1925 to the 1990s : Strategies of Identity-building, Implantation and Mobilisation (with Special Reference to Central India), Penguin Books, p. 39, ISBN 978-0-14-024602-5  Quote: This ceremony occurs in a cycle of six annual festivals which often coincides with those observed in Hindu
Hindu
society, and which Hedgewar inscribed in the ritual calendar of his movement: Varsha Pratipada (the Hindu
Hindu
new year), Shivajirajyarohonastava (the coronation of Shivaji), guru dakshina, Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
(a North Indian festival in which sisters tie ribbons round the wrists of their brothers to remind them of their duty as protectors, a ritual which the RSS has re-interpreted in such a way that the leader of the shakha ties a ribbon around the pole of the saffron flag, after which swayamsevaks carry out this ritual for one another as a mark of brotherhood), .... ^ Coleman, Leo (2017), A Moral Technology: Electrification as Political Ritual in New Delhi, Cornell University Press, p. 148, ISBN 978-1-5017-0791-9  Quote: ... as citizens become participants in the wider "new traditions" of the national state. Broadcast mantras become the emblems of a new level of state power and the means of the integration of villagers and city dwellers alike into a new community of citizens ^ a b c S. Sehgal (1999), Encyclopaedia of Hinduism, Vol 3, ISBN 978-8176250641, pp. 536–537 ^ " Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
Being Celebrated Across India". HINDUISM TODAY. 24 August 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2016.  ^ Agarwal, Bina (1994), A Field of One's Own: Gender and Land Rights in South Asia, Cambridge University Press, p. 264, ISBN 978-0-521-42926-9  Quote: "A man's tie with his sister is accounted very close. The two have grown up together, at an age when there is no distinction made between the sexes. And later, when the sister marries, the brother is seen as her main protector, for when her father has died to whom else can she turn if there is trouble in her conjugal household. The parental home, and after the parents' death the brother's home, often offers the only possibility of temporary or longer-term support in case of divorce, desertion, and even widowhood, especially but not only for a woman without adult sons." ^ Gnanambal, K. (1969), Festivals of India, Anthropological Survey of India, Government of India, p. 10  Quote: In North India, the festival is popularly called Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
... On this day, sisters tie an amulet round the right wrists of brothers wishing them long life and prosperity. Family priests (Brahmans) make it an occasion to visit their clientiele to get presents. ^ Coleman, Leo (2017), A Moral Technology: Electrification as Political Ritual in New Delhi, Cornell University Press, p. 127, ISBN 978-1-5017-0791-9  Quote: Rakhi and its local performances in Kishan Garhi were part of a festival in which connections between out-marrying sisters and village-resident brothers were affirmed. In the "traditional" form of this rite, according to Marriott, sisters exchanged with their brothers to ensure their ability to have recourse—at a crisis, or during childbearing—to their natal village and their relatives there even after leaving for their husband's home. For their part, brothers engaging in these exchanges affirmed the otherwise hard-to-discern moral solidarity of the natal family, even after their sister's marriage. ^ Goody, Jack (1990), The Oriental, the Ancient and the Primitive: Systems of Marriage and the Family in the Pre-Industrial Societies of Eurasia, Cambridge University Press, p. 222, ISBN 978-0-521-36761-5  Quote: "... the heavy emphasis placed on the continuing nature of brother-sister relations despite the fact that in the North marriage requires them to live in different villages. That relation is celebrated and epitomised in the annual ceremony of Rakśābandhan in northern and western India. ... The ceremony itself involves the visit of women to their brothers (that is, to the homes of their own fathers, their natal homes) ^ Hess, Linda (2015), Bodies of Song: Kabir
Kabir
Oral Traditions and Performative Worlds in North India, Oxford University Press, p. 61, ISBN 978-0-19-937416-8  Quote: "In August comes Raksha Bandhan, the festival celebrating the bonds between brothers and sisters. Married sisters return, if they can, to their natal villages to be with their brothers. ^ Wadley, Susan Snow (2005), Essays on North Indian Folk Traditions, Orient Blackswan, p. 66, ISBN 978-81-8028-016-0  Quote: In Savan, greenness abounds as the newly planted crops take root in the wet soil. It is a month of joy and gaiety, with swings hanging from tall trees. Girls and women swing high into the sky, singing their joy. The gaiety is all the more marked because women, especially the young ones, are expected to return to their natal homes for an annual visit during Savan. ^ Gnanambal, K. (1969), Festivals of India, Anthropological Survey of India, Government of India, p. 10  ^ Heitzman, James; Worden, Robert L. (1996), India: A Country Study, Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, p. 246, ISBN 978-0-8444-0833-0  ^ a b Vanita, Ruth (2002), "Dosti and Tamanna: Male-Male Love, Difference, and Normativity in Hindi
Hindi
Cinema", in Diane P. Mines; Sarah Lamb, Everyday Life in South Asia, Indiana University Press, pp. 146–158, 157, ISBN 0-253-34080-2  ^ Chowdhry, Prem (1994), The Veiled Women: Shifting Gender Equations in Rural Haryana, Oxford University Press, pp. 312–313, ISBN 978-0-19-567038-7  Quote: The same symbolic protection is also requested from the high caste men by the low caste women in a work relationship situation. The ritual thread is offered, though not tied and higher caste men customarily give some money in return. ^ Guyanese in London, NY observed Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
Guyana Chronicle (August 2013) ^ "Rakhi festival celebrated in Taxila". Dawn. Com. 12 August 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2012.  ^ Pomeroy, Arthur J. (2017), A Companion to Ancient Greece and Rome on Screen, Wiley, p. 428, ISBN 978-1-118-74144-3  Quote: "In Sikandar a very daring Roxane follows Alexander incognito to India and manages to gain admission to King Porus
Porus
(in the Indian version: Puru). From a conversation with a young, friendly Indian village woman named Surmaniya, Roxane learns about the Indian feast of Rakhi which is being celebrated at that very moment with the purpose of strengthening the bond between sister and brother (0:25-0:30). On this occasion, sisters tie a ribbon (i.e. rakhi) to their brothers' arms to symbolize their close relationships, and brothers offer presents and assistance in return. Besides, Roxane is also told that the relationship need not be one of consanguinity; every girl can choose a brother. Therefore, she decides to offer the rakhi to King Porus, who accepts the relationship after some hesitation, because he feels the need to apologize to Roxane, Darius's (a.k.a. Dara's) daughter, for not having helped her father when he asked for assistance against Alexander. As a result of their bond, he offers her gifts befitting her rank and promises not to harm Alexander (0:32-35). Later, when Porus
Porus
comes into hand-to-hand combat with the Greek king, he stands by his promise and spares him (1:31). Interestingly, the rakhi episode with Porus
Porus
is still to this day very popular in India and is cited as very early historical evidence for the origin of the authentic Hindu festival called Raksha Bandhan. Although examples of that legend can be traced in internet forums, Indian newspapers, a children's book and an educational video, I was not able to find its ancient origin. ^ Chandra, Satish (2003), Essays on Medieval Indian History, Oxford University Press, p. 369, ISBN 978-0-19-566336-5  Quote: "The tradition that the Rana's mother, Rani Karmavati, sent a bracelet to Humayun
Humayun
on the occasion, and that Humayun
Humayun
responded by marching to Gwaliyar cannot be relied upon as it is first referred to in a late 17th century gossipy account. However, if the story of the rakhi is accepted as genuine, it has to be accepted in full. Some modern writers have accepted the legend about the Rani sending a rakhi, but have rejected the latter part of the story which states that Humayun
Humayun
had responded gallantly. They argue that Humayun
Humayun
betrayed her trust by doing nothing to help her. None of the Persian histories of the period refer to any such appeal. Although Humayun
Humayun
moved to Gwaliyar in order to warn Bahadur Shah that the Mughal emperor would not watch with complacency the growth of Gujarati power in eastern Rajputana, the move itself cannot be considered a proof that the Rani had appealed to Humayun
Humayun
personally. ^ Chowdhry, Prem (2000), "Enforcing cultural codes: Gender and violence in northern India", in Nair, Janaki; John, Mary E., A Question of Silence: The Sexual Economies of Modern India, Zed Books, p. 356, ISBN 978-1-85649-892-0  Quote: Rural patriarchal forces have been anxiously devising means to stem the progressive fallout of this Act through a variety of means. One way has been to oppose the inheritance rights of a daughter or a sister to those of the brother. Except in cases where there are no brothers, the sisters either sign away their in favour of their brother or sell it to him at a nominal price. This code of conduct is observed knowingly by both the natal and conjugal families. Brother-sister bonds of love have also been greatly encouraged, visible in the noticeable revival of the Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
festival and the renewed sanctity it has claimed in north India. ^ McGregor, Ronald Stuart (1993), The Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-563846-2  Quote: m Hindi
Hindi
raksabandhan held on the full moon of the month of Savan, when sisters tie a talisman (raki q.v.) on the arm of their brothers and receive small gifts of money from them ^ a b Apte, Vaman Shivaram (1959), Revised and enlarged edition of Prin. V. S. Apte's The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary, Poona: Prasad Prakashan, p. 1322, ISBN 978-81-208-0567-5  ^ Apte, Vaman Shivaram (1959), Revised and enlarged edition of Prin. V. S. Apte's The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary, Poona: Prasad Prakashan, p. 1152, ISBN 978-81-208-0567-5  ^ McGregor, Ronald Stuart (1993), The Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, p. 859, ISBN 978-0-19-563846-2  ^ Cite error: The named reference Goody1990 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Goody, Jack (1990), The Oriental, the Ancient and the Primitive: Systems of Marriage and the Family in the Pre-Industrial Societies of Eurasia, Cambridge University Press, p. 222, ISBN 978-0-521-36761-5  ^ Jackson, Michael (2012), Between One and One Another, University of California Press, p. 52, ISBN 978-0-520-95191-4  ^ Melton, J. Gordon (2011), Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations [2 volumes]: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations, ABC-CLIO, pp. 733–, ISBN 978-1-59884-206-7  ^ Anderson, Leona May; Young, Pamela Dickey (2004), Women and Religious Traditions, Oxford University Press, pp. 30–31, ISBN 978-0-19-541754-8  ^ Mandelbaum, David Goodman (1970), Society in India: Continuity and change, University of California Press, pp. 68–69, ISBN 978-0-520-01623-1  ^ Agarwal, Bina (1994), A Field of One's Own: Gender and Land Rights in South Asia, Cambridge University Press, p. 264, ISBN 978-0-521-42926-9  ^ Faubion, James (2001), The Ethics of Kinship: Ethnographic Inquiries, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, pp. 151–, ISBN 978-0-7425-7889-0  ^ Chowdhry, Prem (2000), "Enforcing cultural codes: Gender and violence in northern India", in Nair, Janaki; John, Mary E., A Question of Silence: The Sexual Economies of Modern India, Zed Books, p. 356, ISBN 978-1-85649-892-0  ^ a b Coleman, Leo (2017), A Moral Technology: Electrification as Political Ritual in New Delhi, Cornell University Press, p. 148, ISBN 978-1-5017-0791-9  ^ Victor J. Green (1978). Festivals and saints days: a calendar of festivals for school and home. Blandford. pp. 93–94. ISBN 978-0-7137-0889-9.  ^ B. A. Gupte (2000). Folklore of Hindu
Hindu
Festivals and Ceremonials. Shubhi. pp. 178–179. ISBN 978-81-87226-48-2.  ^ Kumar Suresh Singh, Madan Lal Sharma, A. K. Bhatia, Anthropological Survey of India (1994) Haryana ^ General, India Office of the Registrar (1 January 1965). "Census of India, 1961". Manager of Publications. Retrieved 19 August 2016 – via Google Books.  ^ Gupta, Shakti
Shakti
M. (1991). "Festivals, Fairs, and Fasts of India". Clarion Books. pp. 16, 95–96. ISBN 978-8185120232. Retrieved 19 August 2016 – via Google Books.  ^ Trilok Chandra Majupuria; S. P. Gupta (1981). Nepal, the land of festivals: religious, cultural, social, and historical festivals. S. Chand. p. 78. ; Quote: "JANAI PURNIMA OR RAKSHA BANDHAN OR RISHITARPANI (The Sacred Thread Festival) This festival falls on the full- moon day of Shrawan, and is celebrated by both the Hindus
Hindus
and Buddhists." ^ Michael Wilmore (2008). Developing Alternative Media Traditions in Nepal. Lexington. pp. 196–198. ISBN 978-0-7391-2525-0.  ^ " Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
being observed today". Gorkha Post. Retrieved 28 July 2017.  ^ Sue Penney (2007), Hinduism, Heinemann Library, ISBN 978-1432903145, page 33 ^ Manish Verma (2010), Fasts & Festivals Of India, Diamond Books, ISBN 978-8171820764; pp 40–41 ^ a b The Legends of Rakhi The Society for the Confluence of Festivals in India (2012) ^ Prem Bhalla, Hindu
Hindu
Rites, Rituals, Customs and Traditions: A to Z on the Hindu
Hindu
Way of Life, Pustak Mahal, ISBN 978-8122309027 ^ Lawrence Cohen (1991), Robert L. Brown, ed., Ganesh: studies of an Asian god, State University of New York Press, 1991, p. 130, ISBN 978-0-7914-0656-4, retrieved 16 August 2011, ...The boys are jealous, as they, unlike their father, have no sister with whom to tie the rakhi. They and the other women plead with their father, but to no avail; but then Narada appears and convinces Ganesha
Ganesha
that the creation of an illustrious daughter ... a flame that engenders Santoshi Maa...  ^ Mark Fox and Olga Fox, Time to Celebrate: Identity, Diversity and Belief, ISBN 978-1-86366-703-6, Curriculum Corporation ^ Roshen Dalal (2011), Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide, Penguin, ISBN 978-0143414216, page 64 ^ India cultures quarterly, Volume 25, School of Research, Leonard Theological College, 1968, 1 January 1968, retrieved 16 August 2011, ... They themselves took her to Porus
Porus
and there she performed the ceremony of raksha bandhan ...  ^ Satish Chandra
Satish Chandra
(2005), Medieval India: from Sultanat to the Mughals, Volume 2, Har-Anand Publications, ISBN 978-81-241-1066-9, retrieved 16 August 2011, ... According to a mid-seventeenth century Rajasthani account, Rani Karnavati, the Rana's mother, sent a bracelet as rakhi to Humayun, who gallantly responded and helped. Since none of the contemporary sources mention this, little credit can be given to this story ...  ^ Humayun; Jauhar (Trans) (2013). The Tezkereh Al Vakiat; Or, Private Memoirs of the Moghul Emperor Humayun: Written in the Persian Language, by Jouher, a Confidential Domestic of His Majesty. Cambridge University Press. pp. 67–69. ISBN 978-1-108-05603-8.  ^ a b "Rakhi: Symbol of secularism". The Economic Times. Raksha Bandhan is a secular festival, say liberal Muslims who have no qualms about celebrating it within and outside the community.  ^ Misbah Nayeem Quadri (5 August 2009), "Rakhi strengthens communal ties", DNA India, ISBN 978-0-85229-760-5, retrieved 16 August 2011  ^ Gaurav Pradhan, Rabindranath Tagore: Literary Concepts, APH Publishing, ISBN 978-8176482790, page 33 ^ K. S. Bharathi, Encyclopedia of Eminent Thinkers, see Tagore, ISBN 81-7022-684-8, page 14 ^ AP Sharma, Famous Festivals of India, ISBN 978-81-87057-50-5, see Raksha Bandhan ^ Rabindranath Tagore, The Jewel that is Best: Collected Brief Poems, Penguin, ISBN 978-0-143415-633, page 118 ^ Arvind-Pal Singh Mandair (2013). Sikhism: A Guide for the Perplexed. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 70–71. ISBN 978-1-4411-0231-7.  ^ Khushwant Singh (2008). Ranjit Singh. Penguin Books. p. xxiii. ISBN 978-0-14-306543-2.  ^ Hari Ram Gupta (1978) History of the Sikhs: The Sikh lion of Lahore, Maharaja Ranjit Singh, 1799–1839 ^ Indian Information, Volume 22 (1948) ^ Prem Hari Har Lal (1993) The Doon Valley Down the Ages, page 72-76 ^ Kristen Haar; Sewa Singh Kalsi (2009). Sikhism. Infobase Publishing. pp. 101–102. ISBN 978-1-4381-0647-2.  ^ McLeod, W. H. (1997). "Sikhism". Penguin Books. p. 153. Retrieved 19 August 2016.  ^ Nesbitt, Eleanor (22 September 2005). "Sikhism: A Very Short Introduction". OUP Oxford. Retrieved 19 August 2016 – via Google Books.  ^ "The Sikh Review". Sikh Cultural Centre. 1 January 2001. Retrieved 19 August 2016 – via Google Books.  ^ Singh, Nikky-Guninder Kaur (15 March 2011). Sikhism: An Introduction. I.B.Tauris. p. 94. ISBN 9781848853218.  ^ Varma, Pavan K. (2008). Ghalib. Penguin Books India. p. 50. ISBN 9780143064817.  ^ Randhir, G.S. (2016 Sikh Shrines in India. Publications Division Ministry of Information & Broadcasting[1] ^ Sahay, K.N. (1986). Christianity And Culture Change In India. Inter-India Publications. ISBN 9788121001731. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ TNN (30 August 2015). "On Rakhi, a unique gender twist" (Kolkata). The Times of India. Retrieved 7 September 2015. 

Works cited[edit]

Agarwal, Bina (1994), A Field of One's Own: Gender and Land Rights in South Asia, Cambridge University Press, p. 264, ISBN 978-0-521-42926-9  Anderson, Leona May; Young, Pamela Dickey (2004), Women and Religious Traditions, Oxford University Press, pp. 30–31, ISBN 978-0-19-541754-8  Apte, Vaman Shivaram (1959), Revised and enlarged edition of Prin. V. S. Apte's The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary, Poona: Prasad Prakashan, p. 1152, ISBN 978-81-208-0567-5  Chandra, Satish (2003), Essays on Medieval Indian History, Oxford University Press, p. 369, ISBN 978-0-19-566336-5  Chowdhry, Prem (1994), The Veiled Women: Shifting Gender Equations in Rural Haryana, Oxford University Press, pp. 312–313, ISBN 978-0-19-567038-7  Chowdhry, Prem (2000), "Enforcing cultural codes: Gender and violence in northern India", in Nair, Janaki; John, Mary E., A Question of Silence: The Sexual Economies of Modern India, Zed Books, p. 356, ISBN 978-1-85649-892-0  Coleman, Leo (2017), A Moral Technology: Electrification as Political Ritual in New Delhi, Cornell University Press, p. 127, ISBN 978-1-5017-0791-9  Faubion, James (2001), The Ethics of Kinship: Ethnographic Inquiries, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, pp. 151–, ISBN 978-0-7425-7889-0  Gnanambal, K. (1969), Festivals of India, Anthropological Survey of India, Government of India, p. 10  Hess, Linda (2015), Bodies of Song: Kabir
Kabir
Oral Traditions and Performative Worlds in North India, Oxford University Press, p. 61, ISBN 978-0-19-937416-8  Jackson, Michael (2012), Between One and One Another, University of California Press, p. 52, ISBN 978-0-520-95191-4  Gokulsing, K. Moti; Dissanayake, Wimal, eds. (2009), Popular Culture in a Globalised India, Routledge, p. xix, ISBN 978-1-134-02307-3  Goody, Jack (1990), The Oriental, the Ancient and the Primitive: Systems of Marriage and the Family in the Pre-Industrial Societies of Eurasia, Cambridge University Press, p. 222, ISBN 978-0-521-36761-5  Mayer, Adrian C. (2003), Caste and Kinship in Central India, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-17567-8  McGregor, Ronald Stuart (1993), The Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-563846-2  Marriott, McKim (1955), "Little Communities in an Indigenous Civilization", in McKim Marriott, Village India: Studies in the Little Community, University of Chicago Press, pp. 198–202  McGregor, Ronald Stuart (1993), The Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-563846-2  Prasad, Leela (2012), "Anklets on the pyal", in Leela Prasad; Ruth B. Bottigheimer; Lalita Handoo, Gender and Story in South India, SUNY Press, p. 9, ISBN 978-0-7914-8125-7  Pandit, Vaijayanti (2003), BUSINESS @ HOME, Vikas Publishing House, p. 234, ISBN 978-81-259-1218-7  Khandekar, Renuka N. (2003), Faith: filling the God-sized hole, Penguin Books, p. 180  Joshy, P. M.; Seethi, K. M. (2015), State and Civil Society under Siege: Hindutva, Security and Militarism in India, SAGE Publications, p. 112, ISBN 978-93-5150-383-5  Jaffrelot, Christophe (1999), The Hindu
Hindu
Nationalist Movement and Indian Politics: 1925 to the 1990s : Strategies of Identity-building, Implantation and Mobilisation (with Special Reference to Central India), Penguin Books, p. 39, ISBN 978-0-14-024602-5  Agarwal, Bina (1994), A Field of One's Own: Gender and Land Rights in South Asia, Cambridge University Press, p. 264, ISBN 978-0-521-42926-9  Wadley, Susan Snow (2005), Essays on North Indian Folk Traditions, Orient Blackswan, p. 66, ISBN 978-81-8028-016-0  Heitzman, James; Worden, Robert L. (1996), India: A Country Study, Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, p. 246, ISBN 978-0-8444-0833-0  Vanita, Ruth (2002), "Dosti and Tamanna: Male-Male Love, Difference, and Normativity in Hindi
Hindi
Cinema", in Diane P. Mines; Sarah Lamb, Everyday Life in South Asia, Indiana University Press, pp. 146–158, 157, ISBN 0-253-34080-2  Pomeroy, Arthur J. (2017), A Companion to Ancient Greece and Rome on Screen, Wiley, p. 428, ISBN 978-1-118-74144-3  McGregor, Ronald Stuart (1993), The Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-563846-2  Apte, Vaman Shivaram (1959), Revised and enlarged edition of Prin. V. S. Apte's The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary, Poona: Prasad Prakashan, p. 1322, ISBN 978-81-208-0567-5  McGregor, Ronald Stuart (1993), The Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, p. 859, ISBN 978-0-19-563846-2  Goody, Jack (1990), The Oriental, the Ancient and the Primitive: Systems of Marriage and the Family in the Pre-Industrial Societies of Eurasia, Cambridge University Press, p. 222, ISBN 978-0-521-36761-5  Melton, J. Gordon (2011), Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations [2 volumes]: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations, ABC-CLIO, pp. 733–, ISBN 978-1-59884-206-7  Anderson, Leona May; Young, Pamela Dickey (2004), Women and Religious Traditions, Oxford University Press, pp. 30–31, ISBN 978-0-19-541754-8  Mandelbaum, David Goodman (1970), Society in India: Continuity and change, University of California Press, pp. 68–69, ISBN 978-0-520-01623-1 

External links[edit]

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Onam Pongal Rama
Rama
Navami Thaipusam Vat Purnima Mesha Sankranti Bhratri Dwitiya Dhanteras Ratha-Yatra Dashahara Anant Chaturdashi

Guru Purnima Buddha Jayanti Hanuman
Hanuman
Jayanti

Regional New Year

Bihu
Bihu
(Assamese) Cheti Chand
Cheti Chand
(Sindhi) Gudi Padwa
Gudi Padwa
(Marathi, Konkani) Nyepi
Nyepi
(Bali) Pana Sankranti
Pana Sankranti
(Oriya) Pohela Boishakh
Pohela Boishakh
(Bengali) Puthandu
Puthandu
(Tamil) Ugadi
Ugadi
(Telugu, Kannada) Vaisakhi
Vaisakhi
(North & Central India, Nepal) Vishu
Vishu
(Malayali)

Holy days

Akshaya Tritiya Amalaka Ekadashi Vaikuntha
Vaikuntha
Ekadashi Kamada Ekadashi Shravana Putrada Ekadashi Shayani Ekadashi Pausha Putrada Ekadashi Varuthini Ekadashi Prabodhini Ekadashi Ekadashi Gowri Habba Karva Chauth Mahalakshmi Vrata Nirjala Ekadashi Raksha Bandhan Sankranti Nag Panchami Savitri Brata Amavasya Sharad Purnima Kartik Purnima Datta Jayanti Pradosha

Holy periods

Chaturmas Dhanurmas Pitru Paksha Uttarayana Dakshinayana

Hindu
Hindu
festivals

v t e

Hinduism
Hinduism
topics

Glossary

Philosophy

Concepts

Brahman Om Ishvara Atman Maya Karma Samsara

Purusharthas

Dharma Artha Kama Moksha

Niti

Ahimsa Asteya Aparigraha Brahmacharya Satya Dāna Damah Dayā Akrodha

Schools

Astika: Samkhya Yoga Nyaya Vaisheshika Mimamsa Vedanta

Dvaita Advaita Vishishtadvaita

Nastika: Charvaka

Texts

Classification

Śruti Smriti

Vedas

Rigveda Yajurveda Samaveda Atharvaveda

Divisions

Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishad

Upanishads

Aitareya Kaushitaki Brihadaranyaka Isha Taittiriya Katha Maitri Shvetashvatara Chandogya Kena Mundaka Mandukya Prashna

Upavedas

Ayurveda Dhanurveda Gandharvaveda Sthapatyaveda

Vedanga

Shiksha Chandas Vyakarana Nirukta Kalpa Jyotisha

Other

Bhagavad Gita Agamas Itihasas

Ramayana Mahabharata

Puranas Minor Upanishads Artha
Artha
Shastra Dharma
Dharma
Shastra

Manusmriti Nāradasmṛti Yājñavalkya Smṛti

Sutras Stotras Subhashita Tantras Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali

Deities

Trimurti

Brahma Vishnu Shiva

Ishvara Devi Deva Saraswati Lakshmi Parvati Shakti Durga Kali Ganesha Kartikeya Rama Krishna Hanuman Prajapati Rudra Indra Agni Dyaus Bhumi Varuna Vayu

Practices

Worship

Temple Murti Puja Bhakti Japa Bhajana Naivedhya Yajna Homa Tapa Dhyana Tirthadana

Sanskaras

Garbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha Antyeshti

Varnashrama

Varna

Brahmin Kshatriya Vaishya Shudra

Ashrama

Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha Sanyassa

Festivals

Diwali Holi Shivaratri Raksha Bandhan Navaratri

Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami
Vijayadashami
(Dasara)

Ganesh Chaturthi Rama
Rama
Navami Janmashtami Onam Pongal Makar Sankranti New Year

Bihu Gudi Padwa Pahela Baishakh Puthandu Vaisakhi Vishu Ugadi

Kumbha Mela Ratha Yatra Teej Vasant Panchami Others

Other

Svādhyāya Namaste Bindi Tilaka

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Hindu
studies Iconography Mythology Nationalism

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by country

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