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RAKSHA BANDHAN, also RAKSHABANDHAN, or simply RAKHI, is an annual festival affirming the kinship, affection, and mutual interest, between brothers and sisters, and traditionally celebrated by Hindus in northern India, western India, and Nepal
Nepal
. It has, however, gained popularity beyond its traditional regions and celebrants by the dissemination of its rituals through geographical mobility, the movies, social interaction, and religious nationalist promotion. The festival is observed on the last day of the Hindu
Hindu
lunar calendar month of Shraavana , which typically falls in August. On this day, sisters of all ages tie a talisman, or amulet, called the rakhi, around the wrists of their brothers, ritually renewing their bonds as siblings and traditionally reinvesting the brothers with a share of the responsibility of their sisters' future care. The expression "Raksha Bandhan," Sanskrit
Sanskrit
, lit., "the bond of protection, obligation, or care," speaks to this expectation.

A ritual of significance to married women, Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
is rooted in the practice of territorial exogamy , in which a bride marries out of her natal village or town, and her parents, by custom, do not visit her in her married home. In rural north India, where territorial exogamy is strongly prevalent, large numbers of married Hindu
Hindu
women travel back to their parents' homes every year for the ceremony. Many younger married women arrive earlier at their natal homes and stay until the ceremony. Their brothers, who typically live with the parents or near them, often travel to their sister's married home to escort her back. The brothers serve as life-long intermediaries between their sister's married- and parental homes, as well as durable, if secondary, stewards of her security. In urban India, where families are increasingly nuclear , and marriages not always traditional, the festival has become more symbolic, but continues to be highly popular.

The rakhi ritual, performed by married and unmarried sisters alike, consists of tying the amulet around the right wrist of the brother; performing an aarti in which a wick soaked in ghee , lighted, and placed on a tray, is moved in a series of vertical circles in his presence as an aspect of honouring him; and making a tilak, a mark made with kumkum powder, on the brother's forehead as a form of blessing him. In return, the brother presents his sister with a gift, which is often money. In many regions, he touches her feet, regardless of her age, as an aspect of returning the honour. The ritual is usually performed in the presence of the whole family. Among women and men who are not bood relatives , there is also a transformed tradition of voluntary kin relations, achieved through the tying of rakhi amulets, which have cut across caste and class lines, and Hindu
Hindu
and Muslim divisions. In some communities or contexts, other figures, such as a matriarch, or a person in authority, can be included in the ceremony in ritual acknowledgement of their benefaction.

Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
is also celebrated by some Jains and Sikhs, and by Hindu
Hindu
communities in other parts of the world. In Nepal, the festival is called JANAI PURNIMA or RISHITARPANI, involving a sacred thread ceremony, one observed by Hindus
Hindus
and Newar Buddhist communities. Although rooted in Hindu
Hindu
culture, the festival has no traditional prayers unambiguously associated with it. The religious myths claimed for it are disputed, and the historical stories associated with it considered apocryphal by some historians. More recently, after enactment of more gender-neutral inheritance laws in India, it has been suggested that in some communities the festival has seen a resurgence of celebration, which is serving to indirectly pressure women to abstain from fully claiming their inheritance.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 Regions * 3 Traditions

* 4 Myths and legends

* 4.1 Indra
Indra
Dev * 4.2 King Bali and Goddess Laxmi * 4.3 Santoshi Maa * 4.4 Krishna
Krishna
and Draupadi
Draupadi
* 4.5 Yama
Yama
and the Yamuna

* 5 History

* 5.1 Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
and King Puru * 5.2 Rani Karnavati and Emperor Humayun
Humayun
* 5.3 Rabindranath Tagore
Rabindranath Tagore
and the Bengal partition of 1905 * 5.4 Sikh history * 5.5 Multi-culturalism and activism

* 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links

ETYMOLOGY

Rajendra Prasad
Rajendra Prasad
, the first president of the Republic of India celebrating Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
at the presidential palace, Rashtrapati Bhawan in New Delhi
New Delhi
, 24 August 1953

According to R. S. McGregor 's Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary, 1993, the name of the festival, the masculine Hindi
Hindi
noun RAKśāBANDHAN is composed of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
loanword RAKśā, a feminine noun, which means, "protection," "preservation," or "care." and a second Sanskrit loanword BANDHAN, a masculine noun, which means "fastening," or "tying together." According to V. S. Apte 's Revised Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary, 1957–1959, रक्षा pronounced rakṣā means, "protection," "preservation," or "guarding;" बन्धन pronounced, "bandhana," means "The act of binding, fastening, tying."

According to McGregor, the Hindi
Hindi
feminine noun, RāKHī, (which is compared etymologically to rakśā described above) is a "protective talisman: a piece of thread etc., with a rosette , tied ceremoniously round a protector or patron's wrist on the full moon of the month Srāvan: especially by a sister round a brother's wrist, when the brother gives a small gift of money." In contrast, Apte defines one of the secondary meaning of रक्षा (rakṣā) to be: "A piece of silk or thread fastened round the wrist on particular occasions, especially on the full-moon day of Śrāvaṇa, as an amulet or preservative; (रक्षी (rakṣī) also in this sense).

According to Jack Goody , rakśābandhan is "cognate with the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
name for marriage, saṃbandhan, where the common element bandhan (Sanskrit: bandhá) refers to the act of tying. The ceremonies are complementary. Marriage (sam, reciprocally) ties spouses; rakśābandhan ties brother and sister."

REGIONS

A girl is tying a rakhi (a Rakshasutra) around her mother's wrist as part of the celebration Rakshbandhan in a village Lahree, Jabalpur district
Jabalpur district
, Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
, India.

Scholars who have written about the ritual, have usually described the traditional region of its observance as north India; however, also included are: central India, western India and Nepal, as well other regions of India, and overseas Hindu
Hindu
communities such as in Fiji. Anthropologist Jack Goody , whose field study was conducted in Nandol , in Gujarat, describes Rakshabandhan as an "annual ceremony ... of northern and western India." Anthropologist Michael Jackson , writes, "While traditional North Indian families do not have a Father's or Mother's Day, or even the equivalent of Valentine's Day, there is a Sister's Day, called Raksha Bandhan, ..." Religious scholar J. Gordon Melton describes it as "primarily a North Indian festival." Leona M. Anderson and Pamela D. Young describe it as "one of the most popular festivals of North India." Anthropologist David G. Mandelbaum has described it as "an annual rite observed in northern and western India." Other descriptions of primary regions are of development economist Bina Agarwal
Bina Agarwal
("In Northern India and Nepal
Nepal
this is ritualized in festivals such as raksha-bandhan." ), scholar and activist Ruth Vanita ("a festival widely celebrated in north India." ), anthropologist James D. Faubion ("In north India this brother-sister relationship is formalized in the ceremony of 'Rakshabandhan.'" ), and social scientist Prem Chowdhry ("... in the noticeable revival of the Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
festival and the renewed sanctity is has claimed in North India." ).

TRADITIONS

Women shopping for rakhi Performing the aarti Applying the tika Tying the rakhi Feeding mithai to the brother Brother offers gift (including money) to sister

Anthropologist McKim Marriott in his "Little Communities in an Indigenous Civilization," (1955) describes an "Indian-wide" tradition of Rakhi-bandhan, or Raksha-bandhan, in which a priest ties charms around their patrons' wrists, and a local tradition of Saluno in the village, Kishan Garhi, of his field study in Aligarh district
Aligarh district
of North India, where sisters place ears of sacred grains on the heads and behind the ears of their brother in reaffirmation of the brother's role in their security. Marriott's work also describes the field study of anthropologist Alan R. Beals in Namhalli, a village near Bangalore
Bangalore
, who notes changes in the rakhi tradition brought on by modern technology. On the morning of Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
the brothers and sisters get together, often in nice dress in the presence of surviving parents, grandparents and other family members. If the sister and brother are geographically separated, the sister may mail the rakhi ahead of the Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
day, along with a greeting card or letter wishing her brother well. The ritual typically begins in front of a lighted lamp (diya) or candle, which signifies fire deity. The sister and brother face each other. The sister ties the rakhi on her brother's wrist.

Once the rakhi has been tied, the sister says a prayer for the well being of her brother – good health, prosperity and happiness. This ritual sometimes involves an aarti, where a tray with lighted lamp or candle is ritually rotated around the brother's face, along with the prayer and well wishes. The rituals of Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
(from top left): 1. Tie the rakhi, 2. tilak (prayer and promise), 3. She feeds him with her hands, 4. Hugs and gifts.

The prayer is a self composed note, or one of many published Rakhi poems and prose. One of the earliest examples of a Rakhi prayer is found in Book V, Chapter V of Vishnu Purana
Vishnu Purana
; it is the prayer that Yasoda says while tying a Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
amulet on Krishna's wrist. An abridged form of this prayer is:

May the lord of all beings protect you, May the one who creates, preserves and dissolves life protect thee,

May Govinda guard thy head; Kesava, thy neck; Vishnu, thy belly; the eternal Narayana, thy face, thine arms, thy mind, and faculties of sense;

May all negativity and fears, spirits malignant and unfriendly, flee thee; May Rishikesa keep you safe in the sky; and Mahidhara, upon earth.

After the prayer, the sister applies a tilak (tikka), a colorful mark on the forehead of the brother. After the tilak , the brother pledges to protect her and take care of his sister under all circumstances.

The sister then feeds the brother, with her hands, one or more bites of sweets (desserts), dry fruits and other seasonal delicacies.

The brother gives his sister(s) gifts such as cards, clothes, money or something thoughtful. The brother may also feed his sister, with his hands, one or more bites of sweets, dry fruits and other seasonal delicacies. They hug, and the larger family ritually congratulate the festive celebration of brother-sister love and protection.

The brothers wear the rakhi for the entire day, at school or work, as a reminder of their sisters and to mark the festival of Raksha Bandhan. Rakhi tied to a man's wrist in Mauritius
Mauritius
.

While Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
is celebrated in various parts of South Asia, different regions mark the day in different ways.

In the state of West Bengal
West Bengal
and Odisha
Odisha
, this day is also called Jhulan Purnima. Prayers and puja of Lord Krishna
Krishna
and Radha
Radha
are performed there. Sisters tie rakhi to brothers and wish immortality. Political parties, offices, friends, schools to colleges, street to palace celebrate this day with a new hope for a good relationship. Gujarat Chief Minister Anandiben Patel ties a rakhi on Narendra Modi .

In Maharashtra
Maharashtra
, the festival of Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
is celebrated along with Narali Poornima (coconut day festival). Kolis are the fishermen community of the coastal state. The fishermen offer prayers to Lord Varuna, the Hindu
Hindu
god of Sea, to invoke his blessings. As part of the rituals, coconuts were thrown into the sea as offerings to Lord Varuna. The girls and women tie rakhi on their brother's wrist, as elsewhere.

In the regions of North India
North India
, mostly Jammu , it is a common practice to fly kites on the nearby occasions of Janamashtami and Raksha Bandhan. It's not unusual to see the sky filled with kites of all shapes and sizes, on and around these two dates. The locals buy kilometres of strong kite string, commonly called as "gattu door" in the local language, along with a multitude of kites.

In Haryana
Haryana
, in addition to celebrating Raksha Bandhan, people observe the festival of Salono. Salono is celebrated by priests solemnly tying amulets against evil on people's wrists. As elsewhere, sisters tie threads on brothers with prayers for their well being, and the brothers give her gifts promising to safeguard her.

In Nepal, Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
is referred to as Janai Purnima or Rishitarpani, and involves a sacred thread ceremony. It is observed by both Hindus
Hindus
and Buddhists of Nepal. The Hindu
Hindu
men change the thread they wear around their chests (janai), while in some parts of Nepal girls and women tie rakhi on their brother's wrists. The Raksha Bandhan-like brother sister festival is observed by other Hindus
Hindus
of Nepal
Nepal
during one of the days of the Tihar (or Diwali
Diwali
) festival.

The festival is observed by the Shaiva Hindus, and is popularly known in Newar community as Gunhu Punhi.

MYTHS AND LEGENDS

A rakhi band

The scriptures, epics of Hinduism
Hinduism
is peppered with stories of rakhi and Raksha Bandhan. Some of these include:

INDRA DEV

According to Bhavishya Purana
Bhavishya Purana
, in the war between Gods and demons, Indra
Indra
– the deity of sky, rains and thunderbolts – was disgraced by the powerful demon King Bali . Indra’s wife Sachi consulted Vishnu
Vishnu
, who gave her a bracelet made of cotton thread, calling it holy. Sachi tied the holy thread around Indra
Indra
wrist, blessed with her prayers for his well being and success. Indra
Indra
successfully defeated the Bali and recovered Amaravati. This story inspired the protective power of holy thread. The story also suggests that the Raksha Bandhan thread in ancient India were amulets , used by women as prayers and to guard men going to war, and that these threads were not limited to sister-brother like relationships.

KING BALI AND GODDESS LAXMI

According to Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
and Vishnu Purana
Vishnu Purana
, after Vishnu
Vishnu
won the three worlds from the demon King Bali, Bali asked Vishnu
Vishnu
to stay with him in his palace, a request Vishnu
Vishnu
granted. Vishnu's wife, Goddess Lakshmi
Lakshmi
did not like the palace or his new found friendship with Bali, and preferred that her husband and she return to Vaikuntha . So she went to Bali, tied a rakhi and made him a brother to her. Bali asked her what gift she desired. Lakshmi
Lakshmi
asked that Vishnu
Vishnu
be freed from the request that he live in Bali's palace. Bali consented, as well accepted her as his sister.

SANTOSHI MAA

Ganesha
Ganesha
had two sons, Shubha and Labha. The two boys become frustrated that they have no sister to celebrate Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
with. They ask their father Ganesha
Ganesha
for a sister, but to no avail. Finally, saint Narada appears who persuades Ganesha
Ganesha
that a daughter will enrich him as well as his sons. Ganesha
Ganesha
agreed, and created a daughter named Santoshi Maa by divine flames that emerged from Ganesh's wives, Riddhi (Amazing) and Siddhi (Perfection). Thereafter, Shubha Labha (literally "Holy Profit") had a sister named Santoshi Maa (literally "Goddess of Satisfaction"), to tie Rakhi over Raksha Bandhan.

KRISHNA AND DRAUPADI

In the epic Mahabharat
Mahabharat
, Draupadi
Draupadi
tied a rakhi on Krishna
Krishna
, while Kunti
Kunti
tied her rakhi on her grandson Abhimanyu
Abhimanyu
, before the great war.

YAMA AND THE YAMUNA

According to another legend, Yama
Yama
, the god of Death, had not visited his sister Yamuna for 12 years. Yamuna was sad and consulted Ganga . Ganga reminded Yama
Yama
of his sister, upon which Yama
Yama
visits her. Yamuna was overjoyed to see her brother, and prepared a bounty of food for Yama. The god Yama
Yama
was delighted, and asked Yamuna what she wanted for a gift. She wished that he, her brother should return and see her again soon. Yama
Yama
was moved by his sister's love, agreed and to be able to see her again, and made river Yamuna immortal. This legend is the basis for a Raksha Bandhan-like festival called Bhai Duj in some parts of India, which also celebrates brother-sister love, but near Diwali
Diwali
.

HISTORY

Rakhi threads for sale in India

Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
is an ancient festival of the Indian subcontinent, and its history dates back thousands of years.

ALEXANDER THE GREAT AND KING PURU

According to one legendary narrative, when Alexander the Great invaded India in 326 BCE, Roxana (or Roshanak, his wife) sent a sacred thread to Porus, asking him not to harm her husband in battle. In accordance with tradition, Porus , the king of Kaikeya kingdom , gave full respect to the rakhi. In the Battle of the Hydaspes
Battle of the Hydaspes
, when Porus saw the rakhi on his own wrist and restrained himself from attacking Alexander personally.

RANI KARNAVATI AND EMPEROR HUMAYUN

Another controversial historical account is that of Rani Karnavati of Chittor
Chittor
and Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Humayun
Humayun
, which dates to 1535 CE. When Rani Karnavati, the widowed queen of the king of Chittor, realised that she could not defend against the invasion by the Sultan of Gujarat, Bahadur Shah , she sent a rakhi to Emperor Humayun
Humayun
. The Emperor, according to one version of the story, set off with his troops to defend Chittor. He arrived too late, and Bahadur Shah had already captured the Rani's fortress. Alternative accounts from the period, including those by historians in Humayun's Mughal court, do not mention the rakhi episode and some historians have expressed skepticism whether it ever happened. Humayun's own memoirs never mention this, and give different reasons for his war with Sultan Bahadur Shah of Gujarat
Bahadur Shah of Gujarat
in 1535.

Muslim commentators in modern era publications mention this story as evidence of Muslim- Hindu
Hindu
communal ties in the past.

RABINDRANATH TAGORE AND THE BENGAL PARTITION OF 1905

Rabindranath Tagore
Rabindranath Tagore
, the Indian Nobel Laureate for literature, invoked Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
and rakhi as concepts to inspire love, respect and a vow of mutual protection between Hindus
Hindus
and Muslims during India's colonial era. In 1905, the British empire divided Bengal , a province of British India on the basis of religion. Rabindra Nath Tagore arranged a ceremony to celebrate Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
to strengthen the bond of love and togetherness between Hindus
Hindus
and Muslims of Bengal, and urge them to together protest the British empire. He used the idea of Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
to spread the feeling of brotherhood. In 1911, British colonial empire reversed the partition and unified Bengal, a unification that was opposed by Muslims of Bengal. Ultimately, Tagore's Raksha Bandhan-based appeals were unsuccessful. Bengal not only was split during the colonial era, one part became modern Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and predominantly Muslim country, the other a largely Hindu
Hindu
Indian state of West Bengal
West Bengal
. Rabindranath Tagore started Rakhi Mahotsavas as a symbol of Bengal unity, and as a larger community festival of harmony. In parts of West Bengal, his tradition continues as people tie rakhis to their neighbors and close friends.

One of Tagore's poem invoking rakhi is:

The love in my body and heart For the earth's shadow and light Has stayed over years.

With its cares and its hope it has thrown A language of its own Into blue skies.

It lives in my joys and glooms In the spring night's buds and blooms Like a Rakhi-band On the Future's hand.

SIKH HISTORY

In the 18th century, states Arvind-Pal Singh Mandair, Sikh Khalsa armies introduced the term Rakhi (Raksha Bandhan) as a promise of protection to farmers from Muslim armies such as those of the Mughals and Afghans, in exchange for sharing a small cut of their produce.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
was the founder and ruler of the Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
, and he observed Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
festival. His wife Maharani Jindan sent a Rakhi to the ruler of Nepal, who accepted her as sister and gave her refuge in the Hindu
Hindu
kingdom of Nepal
Nepal
in 1849 after the collapse of the Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
and annexation of its territories by the British.

Sikhs have observed Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
festival, and has sometimes been referred to as Rakhardi (literally, wristband) or Rakhari in historic Sikh texts. Like the Hindu
Hindu
tradition, the festival has involved the tying of the rakhi and giving of gifts.

MULTI-CULTURALISM AND ACTIVISM

Some Muslims in India view it a secular, multicultural festival. Raksha bandhan has also been adopted by the Christian community in India who view it as a festival of historical and social importance.

In 2015, men tied rakhis on women seeking protection from the ‘misuse’ of section 498A of the Indian Penal Code . "Society has gone through massive changes in the last few decades and men are now considered on the same platform with women. Why should laws show a discrimination against them?" asked Amartya Talukdar, founder member of Hridaya, an NGO working for gender neutrality.

SEE ALSO

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* Jatakarma
Jatakarma
* Namakarana
Namakarana
* Nishkramana
Nishkramana
* Annaprashana
Annaprashana
* Chudakarana
Chudakarana
* Karnavedha
Karnavedha
* Vidyarambha
Vidyarambha
* Upanayana
Upanayana
* Keshanta
Keshanta
* Ritushuddhi
Ritushuddhi
* Samavartana
Samavartana
* Vivaha
Vivaha
* Antyeshti
Antyeshti

ASHRAMA DHARMA

* Ashrama : Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
* Grihastha
Grihastha
* Vanaprastha
Vanaprastha
* Sannyasa
Sannyasa

FESTIVALS

* Diwali
Diwali
* Holi
Holi
* Shivaratri
Shivaratri

* Navaratri

* Durga
Durga
Puja * Ramlila
Ramlila
* Vijayadashami-Dussehra

* Raksha Bandhan * Ganesh Chaturthi
Ganesh Chaturthi
* Vasant Panchami
Vasant Panchami
* Rama
Rama
Navami * Janmashtami
Janmashtami
* Onam
Onam
* Makar Sankranti
Makar Sankranti
* Kumbha Mela
Kumbha Mela
* Pongal
Pongal
* Ugadi
Ugadi

* Vaisakhi
Vaisakhi

* Bihu
Bihu
* Puthandu
Puthandu
* Vishu
Vishu

* Ratha Yatra

Gurus, saints, philosophers ANCIENT

* Agastya
Agastya
* Angiras * Aruni
Aruni
* Ashtavakra
Ashtavakra
* Atri
Atri
* Bharadwaja
Bharadwaja
* Gotama * Jamadagni
Jamadagni
* Jaimini
Jaimini
* Kanada * Kapila
Kapila
* Kashyapa
Kashyapa
* Pāṇini
Pāṇini
* Patanjali
Patanjali
* Raikva
Raikva
* Satyakama Jabala
Satyakama Jabala
* Valmiki
Valmiki
* Vashistha
Vashistha
* Vishvamitra
Vishvamitra
* Vyasa
Vyasa
* Yajnavalkya
Yajnavalkya

MEDIEVAL

* Nayanars
Nayanars
* Alvars
Alvars
* Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
* Basava
Basava
* Akka Mahadevi
Akka Mahadevi
* Allama Prabhu
Allama Prabhu
* Siddheshwar
Siddheshwar
* Jñāneśvar
Jñāneśvar
* Chaitanya * Gangesha Upadhyaya * Gaudapada
Gaudapada
* Gorakshanath
Gorakshanath
* Jayanta Bhatta * Kabir
Kabir
* Kumarila Bhatta * Matsyendranath
Matsyendranath
* Mahavatar Babaji
Mahavatar Babaji
* Madhusudana * Madhva * Haridasa Thakur
Haridasa Thakur
* Namdeva * Nimbarka * Prabhakara * Raghunatha Siromani * Ramanuja
Ramanuja
* Sankardev
Sankardev
* Purandara Dasa
Purandara Dasa
* Kanaka Dasa
Kanaka Dasa
* Ramprasad Sen
Ramprasad Sen
* Jagannatha Dasa * Vyasaraya
Vyasaraya
* Sripadaraya
Sripadaraya
* Raghavendra Swami
Raghavendra Swami
* Gopala Dasa
Gopala Dasa
* Śyāma Śastri * Vedanta
Vedanta
Desika * Tyagaraja
Tyagaraja
* Tukaram
Tukaram
* Tulsidas
Tulsidas
* Vachaspati Mishra * Vallabha * Vidyaranya

MODERN

* Aurobindo * Coomaraswamy * Bhaktivinoda Thakur
Bhaktivinoda Thakur
* Chinmayananda
Chinmayananda
* Dayananda Saraswati
Saraswati
* Mahesh Yogi * Krishnananda Saraswati
Saraswati
* Narayana Guru
Narayana Guru
* Prabhupada * Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
* Ramana Maharshi
Ramana Maharshi
* Radhakrishnan * Sarasvati * Sivananda * U. G. Krishnamurti * Sai Baba * Vivekananda * Nigamananda * Yogananda * Ramachandra Dattatrya Ranade
Ramachandra Dattatrya Ranade
* Tibbetibaba
Tibbetibaba
* Trailanga
Trailanga

Other topics

* Balinese Hinduism
Hinduism
* Calendar * Criticism * Denominations * Iconography * Mythology * Nationalism ( Hindutva
Hindutva
) * Persecution * Pilgrimage sites

* Hinduism
Hinduism
and Jainism / and Judaism

* Hinduism
Hinduism
by country

* Glossary of Hinduism
Hinduism
terms * Hinduism
Hinduism
portal

* v * t * e

* India portal * Hinduism
Hinduism
portal * Bhau-beej
Bhau-beej
* Other festivals observed on the day of Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
* Siblings Day * Friendship bracelet
Friendship bracelet

REFERENCES

* ^ McGregor, Ronald Stuart (1993), The Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-563846-2 Quote: m Hindi
Hindi
rakśābandhan held on the full moon of the month of Savan
Savan
, when sisters tie a talisman (rakhi q.v.) on the arm of their brothers and receive small gifts of money from them. * ^ Prasad, Leela (2012), "Anklets on the pyal", in Leela Prasad, Ruth B. Bottigheimer, Lalita Handoo (editors), Gender and Story in South India, SUNY Press, p. 9, ISBN 978-0-7914-8125-7 CS1 maint: Multiple names: editors list (link )CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link ) Quote: While women-centered narratives cherish brotherly love, heroism, and chivalry (celebrated in festivals like nagapanchami in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh and rakshabandhan in north India), they are all too aware of the fragility of sibling ties. * ^ Anderson, Leona May; Young, Pamela Dickey (2004), Women and Religious Traditions, Oxford University Press, pp. 30–31, ISBN 978-0-19-541754-8 Quote: "One of the most popular festivals in North India is the festival of Raksabandhana, observed in July or August. * ^ Gokulsing, K. Moti (editor); Dissanayake, Wimal (editor) (2009), Popular Culture in a Globalised India, Routledge, p. xix, ISBN 978-1-134-02307-3 CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) Quote: Glossary and acronyms: Raksha Bandhan: A popular Hindu
Hindu
festival of north India where sister ties a thread on brother's wrist, seeking protection. (page xix)" * ^ Goody, Jack (1990), The Oriental, the Ancient and the Primitive: Systems of Marriage and the Family in the Pre-Industrial Societies of Eurasia, Cambridge University Press, p. 222, ISBN 978-0-521-36761-5 Quote: "That relation is celebrated and epitomised in the annual ceremony of Rakshābandhan in northern and western India," * ^ Agarwal, Bina (1994), A Field of One\'s Own: Gender and Land Rights in South Asia, Cambridge University Press, p. 264, ISBN 978-0-521-42926-9 Quote: "Brothers (even younger ones), and natal kin in general, are seen as women's potential protectors. In northern India and Nepal, this is ritualized in festivals such as raksha-bandhan (literally the tie of protection) and symbolized by sisters tying a thread (rakhi) on the brother's wrist. * ^ Pandit , Vaijayanti (2003), BUSINESS @ HOME, Vikas Publishing House, p. 234, ISBN 978-81-259-1218-7 Quote: "Quote: Raksha Bandhan traditionally celebrated in North India
North India
has acquired greater importance due to Hindi
Hindi
films. Lightweight and decorative rakhis, which are easy to post, are needed in large quantities by the market to cater to brothers and sisters living in different parts of the country or abroad." * ^ Khandekar, Renuka N. (2003), Faith: filling the God-sized hole, Penguin Books, p. 180 Quote: "But since independence and the gradual opening up of Indian society, Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
as celebrated in North India has won the affection of many South Indian families. For this festival has the peculiar charm of renewing sibling bonds." * ^ Joshy, P. M.; Seethi, K. M. (2015), State and Civil Society under Siege: Hindutva, Security and Militarism in India, SAGE Publications, p. 112, ISBN 978-93-5150-383-5 Quote:(p 111) The RSS employs a cultural strategy to mobilise people through festivals. It observes six major festivals in a year. ... Till 20 years back, festivals like Raksha Bandhan' were unknown to South Indians. Through shakha's intense campaign, now they have become popular in the southern India. In colleges and schools tying `Rakhi'—the thread that is used in the `Raksha Bandhan'—has become a fashion and this has been popularised by the RSS and ABVP cadres. * ^ Jaffrelot, Christophe (1999), The Hindu
Hindu
Nationalist Movement and Indian Politics: 1925 to the 1990s : Strategies of Identity-building, Implantation and Mobilisation (with Special Reference to Central India), Penguin Books, p. 39, ISBN 978-0-14-024602-5 Quote: Even today, the daily session of the shakhas opens with the volunteers saluting the flag. They are also called upon to render to it each year a guru dakshina which is supposed to finance the movement, and is so named in reference to the traditional offering made by a pupil to his master in recognition of his teaching. This ceremony occurs in a cycle of six annual festivals which often coincides with those observed in Hindu
Hindu
society, and which Hedgewar inscribed in the ritual calendar of his movement: Varsha Pratipada (the Hindu
Hindu
new year), Shivajirajyarohonastava (the coronation of Shivaji), guru dakshina, Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
(a North Indian festival in which sisters tie ribbons round the wrists of their brothers to remind them of their duty as protectors, a ritual which the RSS has re-interpreted in such a way that the leader of the shakha ties a ribbon around the pole of the saffron flag, after which swayamsevaks carry out this ritual for one another as a mark of brotherhood), .... * ^ A B C S. Sehgal (1999), Encyclopaedia of Hinduism, Vol 3, ISBN 978-8176250641 , pp. 536–537 * ^ " Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
Being Celebrated Across India". HINDUISM TODAY. 24 August 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2016. * ^ Agarwal, Bina (1994), A Field of One\'s Own: Gender and Land Rights in South Asia, Cambridge University Press, p. 264, ISBN 978-0-521-42926-9 Quote: "A man's tie with his sister is accounted very close. The two have grown up together, at an age when there is no distinction made between the sexes. And later, when the sister marries, the brother is seen as her main protector, for when her father has died to whom else can she turn if there is trouble in her conjugal household. The parental home, and after the parents' death the brother's home, often offers the only possibility of temporary or longer-term support in case of divorce, desertion, and even widowhood, especially but not only for a woman without adult sons." * ^ Coleman, Leo (2017), A Moral Technology: Electrification as Political Ritual in New Delhi, Cornell University Press, p. 127, ISBN 978-1-5017-0791-9 Quote: Rakhi and its local performances in Kishan Garhi were part of a festival in which connections between out-marrying sisters and village-resident brothers were affirmed. In the "traditional" form of this rite, according to Marriott, sisters exchanged with their brothers to ensure their ability to have recourse—at a crisis, or during childbearing—to their natal village and their relatives there even after leaving for their husband's home. For their part, brothers engaging in these exchanges affirmed the otherwise hard-to-discern moral solidarity of the natal family, even after their sister's marriage. * ^ Goody, Jack (1990), The Oriental, the Ancient and the Primitive: Systems of Marriage and the Family in the Pre-Industrial Societies of Eurasia, Cambridge University Press, p. 222, ISBN 978-0-521-36761-5 Quote: "... the heavy emphasis placed on the continuing nature of brother-sister relations despite the fact that in the North marriage requires them to live in different villages. That relation is celebrated and epitomised in the annual ceremony of Rakśābandhan in northern and western India. ... The ceremony itself involves the visit of women to their brothers (that is, to the homes of their own fathers, their natal homes) * ^ Hess, Linda (2015), Bodies of Song: Kabir
Kabir
Oral Traditions and Performative Worlds in North India, Oxford University Press, p. 61, ISBN 978-0-19-937416-8 Quote: "In August comes Raksha Bandhan, the festival celebrating the bonds between brothers and sisters. Married sisters return, if they can, to their natal villages to be with their brothers. * ^ Wadley, Susan Snow (2005), Essays on North Indian Folk Traditions, Orient Blackswan, p. 66, ISBN 978-81-8028-016-0 Quote: In Savan, greenness abounds as the newly planted crops take root in the wet soil. It is a month of joy and gaiety, with swings hanging from tall trees. Girls and women swing high into the sky, singing their joy. The gaiety is all the more marked because women, especially the young ones, are expected to return to their natal homes for an annual visit during Savan. * ^ Gnanambal, K. (1969), Festivals of India, Anthropological Survey of India, Government of India, p. 10 * ^ Kurane, Anjali; Bhairi, Ashok (2015), "Migration and Adaptation: A Study of the Padmashalis of Bhiwandi", in Chaudhuri, Sumitra (editor), Facets of Urbanisation: Views from Anthropology, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, p. 32, ISBN 978-1-4438-7886-9 CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link ) Quote: "On the occasion of Rakhi Poornima, the Padmashalis celebrate Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
when the men have the sacred thread tied to their wrists by their sisters. In return, they touch their sisters' feet and give them gifts and money." * ^ A B Melton, J. Gordon (2011), Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations : An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations, ABC-CLIO, pp. 733–, ISBN 978-1-59884-206-7 * ^ Heitzman, James; Worden, Robert L. (1996), India: A Country Study, Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, p. 246, ISBN 978-0-8444-0833-0 * ^ Vanita, Ruth (2002), "Dosti and Tamanna: Male-Male Love, Difference, and Normativity in Hindi
Hindi
Cinema", in Diane P. Mines (ed); Sarah Lamb (ed), Everyday Life in South Asia, Indiana University Press, pp. 146–158, 157, ISBN 0-253-34080-2 CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link ) * ^ Chowdhry, Prem (1994), The Veiled Women: Shifting Gender Equations in Rural Haryana, Oxford University Press, pp. 312–313, ISBN 978-0-19-567038-7 Quote: The same symbolic protection is also requested from the high caste men by the low caste women in a work relationship situation. The ritual thread is offered, though not tied and higher caste men customarily give some money in return. * ^ Guyanese in London, NY observed Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
Guyana Chronicle (August 2013) * ^ "Rakhi festival celebrated in Taxila". Dawn. Com. 12 August 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2012. * ^ A B Trilok Chandra Majupuria; S. P. Gupta (1981). Nepal, the land of festivals: religious, cultural, social, and historical festivals. S. Chand. p. 78. ; Quote: "JANAI PURNIMA OR RAKSHA BANDHAN OR RISHITARPANI (The Sacred Thread Festival) This festival falls on the full- moon day of Shrawan, and is celebrated by both the Hindus and Buddhists." * ^ " Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
being observed today". Gorkha Post. Retrieved 28 July 2017. * ^ Pomeroy, Arthur J. (2017), A Companion to Ancient Greece and Rome on Screen, Wiley, p. 428, ISBN 978-1-118-74144-3 Quote: "In Sikandar a very daring Roxane follows Alexander incognito to India and manages to gain admission to King Porus
King Porus
(in the Indian version: Puru). From a conversation with a young, friendly Indian village woman named Surmaniya, Roxane learns about the Indian feast of Rakhi which is being celebrated at that very moment with the purpose of strengthening the bond between sister and brother (0:25-0:30). On this occasion, sisters tie a ribbon (i.e. rakhi) to their brothers' arms to symbolize their close relationships, and brothers offer presents and assistance in return. Besides, Roxane is also told that the relationship need not be one of consanguinity; every girl can choose a brother. Therefore, she decides to offer the rakhi to King Porus, who accepts the relationship after some hesitation, because he feels the need to apologize to Roxane, Darius's (a.k.a. Dara's) daughter, for not having helped her father when he asked for assistance against Alexander. As a result of their bond, he offers her gifts befitting her rank and promises not to harm Alexander (0:32-35). Later, when Porus comes into hand-to-hand combat with the Greek king, he stands by his promise and spares him (1:31). Interestingly, the rakhi episode with Porus is still to this day very popular in India and is cited as very early historical evidence for the origin of the authentic Hindu
Hindu
festival called Raksha Bandhan. Although examples of that legend can be traced in internet forums, Indian newspapers, a children's book and an educational video, I was not able to find its ancient origin. * ^ Chandra, Satish (2003), Essays on Medieval Indian History, Oxford University Press, p. 369, ISBN 978-0-19-566336-5 Quote: "The tradition that the Rana's mother, Rani Karmavati, sent a bracelet to Humayun
Humayun
on the occasion, and that Humayun
Humayun
responded by marching to Gwaliyar cannot be relied upon as it is first referred to in a late 17th century gossipy account. However, if the story of the rakhi is accepted as genuine, it has to be accepted in full. Some modern writers have accepted the legend about the Rani sending a rakhi, but have rejected the latter part of the story which states that Humayun had responded gallantly. They argue that Humayun
Humayun
betrayed her trust by doing nothing to help her. None of the Persian histories of the period refer to any such appeal. Although Humayun
Humayun
moved to Gwaliyar in order to warn Bahadur Shah that the Mughal emperor would not watch with complacency the growth of Gujarati power in eastern Rajputana, the move itself cannot be considered a proof that the Rani had appealed to Humayun
Humayun
personally. * ^ Chowdhry, Prem (2000), "Enforcing cultural codes: Gender and violence in northern India", in Nair, Janaki (editor); John, Mary E. (editor), A Question of Silence: The Sexual Economies of Modern India, Zed Books, p. 356, ISBN 978-1-85649-892-0 CS1 maint: Multiple names: editors list (link )CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link ) Quote: Rural patriarchal forces have been anxiously devising means to stem the progressive fallout of this Act through a variety of means. One way has been to oppose the inheritance rights of a daughter or a sister to those of the brother. Except in cases where there are no brothers, the sisters either sign away their in favour of their brother or sell it to him at a nominal price. This code of conduct is observed knowingly by both the natal and conjugal families. Brother-sister bonds of love have also been greatly encouraged, visible in the noticeable revival of the Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
festival and the renewed sanctity it has claimed in north India. * ^ McGregor, Ronald Stuart (1993), The Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-563846-2 Quote: m Hindi
Hindi
raksabandhan held on the full moon of the month of Savan, when sisters tie a talisman (raki q.v.) on the arm of their brothers and receive small gifts of money from them * ^ A B Apte, Vaman Shivaram (1959), Revised and enlarged edition of Prin. V. S. Apte\'s The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary, Poona: Prasad Prakashan, p. 1322, ISBN 978-81-208-0567-5 * ^ Apte, Vaman Shivaram (1959), Revised and enlarged edition of Prin. V. S. Apte\'s The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary, Poona: Prasad Prakashan, p. 1152, ISBN 978-81-208-0567-5 * ^ McGregor, Ronald Stuart (1993), The Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, p. 859, ISBN 978-0-19-563846-2 * ^ Cite error: The named reference Goody1990 was invoked but never defined (see the help page ). * ^ Goody, Jack (1990), The Oriental, the Ancient and the Primitive: Systems of Marriage and the Family in the Pre-Industrial Societies of Eurasia, Cambridge University Press, p. 222, ISBN 978-0-521-36761-5 * ^ Jackson, Michael (2012), Between One and One Another, University of California Press, p. 52, ISBN 978-0-520-95191-4 * ^ Anderson, Leona May; Young, Pamela Dickey (2004), Women and Religious Traditions, Oxford University Press, pp. 30–31, ISBN 978-0-19-541754-8 * ^ Mandelbaum, David Goodman (1970), Society in India: Continuity and change, University of California Press, pp. 68–69, ISBN 978-0-520-01623-1 * ^ Agarwal, Bina (1994), A Field of One\'s Own: Gender and Land Rights in South Asia, Cambridge University Press, p. 264, ISBN 978-0-521-42926-9 * ^ Vanita, Ruth (2002), "Dosti and Tamanna: Male-Male Love, Difference, and Normativity in Hindi
Hindi
Cinema", in Diane P. Mines (ed); Sarah Lamb (ed), Everyday Life in South Asia, Indiana University Press, pp. 146–158, 157, ISBN 0-253-34080-2 CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link ) * ^ Faubion, James (2001), The Ethics of Kinship: Ethnographic Inquiries, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, pp. 151–, ISBN 978-0-7425-7889-0 * ^ Chowdhry, Prem (2000), "Enforcing cultural codes: Gender and violence in northern India", in Nair, Janaki (editor); John, Mary E. (editor), A Question of Silence: The Sexual Economies of Modern India, Zed Books, p. 356, ISBN 978-1-85649-892-0 CS1 maint: Multiple names: editors list (link )CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link ) * ^ Marriott, McKim (1955), "Little Communities in an Indigenous Civilization", in McKim Marriott (editor), Village India: Studies in the Little Community, University of Chicago Press, pp. 198–202 CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link ) * ^ A B Coleman, Leo (2017), A Moral Technology: Electrification as Political Ritual in New Delhi, Cornell University Press, p. 148, ISBN 978-1-5017-0791-9 * ^ A B C J Gordon Melton (Editor), Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays Festivals Solemn Observances and Spiritual Commemorations, ISBN 978-1598842067 ; pp 733–734 * ^ Satvinder Kaur, Sarojini Naidu's poetry, Sarup & Sons, ISBN 81-7625-428-2 , pp 302–305 * ^ Horace Hayman Wilson (1868), The Vishńu Puráńa: a system of Hindu
Hindu
mythology and tradition, Volume 4, Editor: Fitzedward Hall, Trubner & Co., London, pp 276–278 * ^ Vishnu Purana
Vishnu Purana
– Book 5, Chapter 5, Verses 14–23 * ^ A B C Sue Penney (2007), Hinduism, Heinemann Library, ISBN 978-1432903145 , page 33 * ^ Desiree Webber et al., Travel the Globe: Story Times, Activities, and Crafts for Children, Libraries Unlimited, ISBN 978-1610691246 , pp 132–133 * ^ A B Manish Verma (2010), Fasts pp 40–41 * ^ Roger Whiting, Religions for Today, ISBN 978-0748705863 , Dufour, page 182 * ^ Victor J. Green (1978). Festivals and saints days: a calendar of festivals for school and home. Blandford. pp. 93–94. ISBN 978-0-7137-0889-9 . * ^ B. A. Gupte (2000). Folklore of Hindu
Hindu
Festivals and Ceremonials. Shubhi. pp. 178–179. ISBN 978-81-87226-48-2 . * ^ Kumar Suresh Singh, Madan Lal Sharma, A. K. Bhatia, Anthropological Survey of India (1994) Haryana * ^ General, India Office of the Registrar (1 January 1965). "Census of India, 1961". Manager of Publications. Retrieved 19 August 2016 – via Google Books. * ^ Gupta, Shakti
Shakti
M. (1991). "Festivals, Fairs, and Fasts of India". Clarion Books. pp. 16, 95–96. ISBN 978-8185120232 . Retrieved 19 August 2016 – via Google Books. * ^ Michael Wilmore (2008). Developing Alternative Media Traditions in Nepal. Lexington. pp. 196–198. ISBN 978-0-7391-2525-0 . * ^ " Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
being observed today". Gorkha Post. Retrieved 28 July 2017. * ^ A B The Legends of Rakhi The Society for the Confluence of Festivals in India (2012) * ^ Prem Bhalla, Hindu
Hindu
Rites, Rituals, Customs and Traditions: A to Z on the Hindu
Hindu
Way of Life, Pustak Mahal, ISBN 978-8122309027 * ^ Lawrence Cohen (1991), Robert L. Brown, ed., Ganesh: studies of an Asian god, State University of New York Press, 1991, p. 130, ISBN 978-0-7914-0656-4 , retrieved 16 August 2011, ...The boys are jealous, as they, unlike their father, have no sister with whom to tie the rakhi. They and the other women plead with their father, but to no avail; but then Narada appears and convinces Ganesha
Ganesha
that the creation of an illustrious daughter ... a flame that engenders Santoshi Maa... *