RAIL TRANSPORT is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks . It is also commonly referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport , where vehicles run on a prepared flat surface, rail vehicles (rolling stock ) are directionally guided by the tracks on which they run. Tracks usually consist of steel rails, installed on ties (sleepers) and ballast , on which the rolling stock, usually fitted with metal wheels, moves. Other variations are also possible, such as slab track, where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface.
The oldest, man-hauled railways date back to the 6th century BC, with
In the 1880s, electrified trains were introduced, and also the first
tramways and rapid transit systems came into being. Starting during
the 1940s, the non-electrified railways in most countries had their
steam locomotives replaced by diesel -electric locomotives, with the
process being almost complete by 2000. During the 1960s, electrified
high-speed railway systems were introduced in
* 1 History
* 1.1 Pre-steam
* 1.2 Age of steam
* 1.2.1 Earliest British steam railways * 1.2.2 Early railroads in the US
* 1.3 Steam replacement by electric and diesel * 1.4 Innovations
* 2 Trains
* 2.1 Haulage * 2.2 Motive power * 2.3 Passenger trains * 2.4 Freight train
* 4 Operations
* 4.1 Ownership * 4.2 Financing * 4.3 Safety * 4.4 Maintenance
* 5 Social, economical, and energetic aspects
* 5.1 Energy
* 5.1.1 Energy efficiency
* 5.2 Usage * 5.3 Social and economic benefits * 5.4 Modern rail as economic development indicator
* 5.5 Subsidies
* 5.5.1 Europe * 5.5.2 Russia * 5.5.3 USA * 5.5.4 China * 5.5.5 India
* 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Notes * 9 External links
Main article: History of rail transport
The history of the growth, decline and restoration to use of rail transport can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of motive power used.
The earliest evidence of a railway was a 6-kilometre (3.7 mi) Diolkos
wagonway , which transported boats across the
Railways began reappearing in Europe after the Dark Ages . The
earliest known record of a railway in Europe from this period is a
stained-glass window in the Minster of Freiburg im Breisgau in
Germany, dating from around 1350. In 1515, Cardinal Matthäus Lang
wrote a description of the
Reisszug , a funicular railway at the
By 1550, narrow gauge railways with wooden rails were common in mines
in Europe. By the early 17th century, wooden wagonways were common in
The first iron plate railway, made with wrought iron plates on top of
wooden rails, came into use in 1768. This allowed a variation of
gauge to be used. At first only balloon loops could be used for
turning, but later, movable points were taken into use that allowed
for switching. From the 1790s, iron edge rails began to appear in
Great Britain. In 1803,
William Jessop opened the Surrey
AGE OF STEAM
The development of the steam engine during the Industrial Revolution
in Great Britain by
Thomas Newcomen in 1712, initially for pumping
water, spurred ideas for mobile steam locomotives that could haul
heavy weights on tracks.
Earliest British Steam Railways
John Blenkinsop designed the first successful and practical
railway locomotive —a rack railway worked by a steam locomotive
between Middleton Colliery and
In 1830, the first intercity route, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway , was opened. The gauge was that used for the early wagon-ways, which had been adopted for the Stockton and Darlington Railway, with a 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) width which became known as the international standard gauge , still used by about 60% of the world's railways. This spurred the spread of rail transport outside the British Isles.
By the early 1850s, Great Britain had over 7,000 miles (11,000 km) of railway, a stunning achievement given that only twenty years had elapsed since the opening of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway.
Early Railroads In The US
Railroads (as they are known in the US) were built on a far larger
scale than those in
Continental Europe , both in terms of the
distances covered, and also in the loading gauge adopted, which
allowed for heavier locomotives and double-deck trains. The railroad
era in the
The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad that opened in 1830 was the first to evolve from a single line to a network in the United States. By 1831, a steam railway connected Albany and Schenectady, New York, a distance of 16 miles (26 km), which was covered in 40 minutes.
The years between 1850 and 1890 saw phenomenal growth in the US
railroad system, which at its peak constituted one third of the
world's total mileage. Although the
American Civil War
STEAM REPLACEMENT BY ELECTRIC AND DIESEL
Experiments with electrical railways were started by Robert Davidson
in 1838. He completed a battery-powered carriage capable of 6.4 km/h
(4 mph). The
Gross-Lichterfelde Tramway was the first to use
electricity fed to the trains en route, when it opened in 1881.
Overhead wires were taken into use in the Mödling and Hinterbrühl
During the 1890s, many large cities, such as London , Paris and New
York City used the new technology to build rapid transit for urban
commuting. In smaller cities, tramways became common and were often
the only mode of public transport until the introduction of buses in
the 1920s. In North America, interurbans became a common mode to reach
suburban areas. At first, all electric railways used direct current
but, in 1904, the Stubaital Line in
Steam locomotives require large pools of labour to clean, load,
maintain and run. After
World War II
Following the large-scale construction of motorways after the war,
rail transport became less popular for commuting and air transport
started taking large market shares from long-haul passenger trains.
Most tramways were either replaced by rapid transit or buses, while
high transshipment costs caused short-haul freight trains to become
1973 oil crisis led to a change of mind set and
most tram systems that had survived into the 1970s remain today. At
the same time, containerization allowed freight trains to become more
competitive and participate in intermodal freight transport . With the
1964 introduction of the
Many benchmarks in equipment and infrastructure led to the growing use of railways. Some innovative features taking place in the 19th and 20th centuries included wood cars replaced with all-steel cars, which provided better safety and maintenance; iron rails replaced with steel rails, which provided higher speed and capacity with lower weight and cost; stove-heated cars to steam-heating cars, piped from locomotive; gas lighting to electric lighting , with use of battery /alternator unit beneath the car; development of air conditioning with additional underbody equipment and ice compartment. Some innovative rolling stock included the lightweight, diesel-powered streamliner , which was a modernistic, aerodynamically styled train with flowing contours; then came the ultra-lightweight car with internal combustion engine in each train's power car; others included the dome car, turbined-powered trains, bi-level rolling stock, and the high-tech/high-speed electric trains.
Even more, in the first half of the 20th century, infrastructure elements adopted technological changes including the continuously welded rail that was 1⁄4 mile (0.40 km) long; concrete tie usage; double tracking major lines; intermodal terminal and handling technology; advances in diesel-electric propulsion to include AC traction systems and propulsion braking systems; and just-in-time inventory control. Beyond technology, even management of systems saw improvements with the adoption of environmental impact concerns; heightened concern of employee and public safety ; introduction of urban area rail networks and public agencies to manage them; and downsizing of industry employment with greater use of contractors and consultants .
A train is a connected series of rail vehicles that move along the track. Propulsion for the train is provided by a separate locomotive or from individual motors in self-propelled multiple units. Most trains carry a revenue load, although non-revenue cars exist for the railway's own use, such as for maintenance-of-way purposes. The engine driver (engineer in North America) controls the locomotive or other power cars, although people movers and some rapid transits are under automatic control.
Russian 2TE10U Diesel-electric locomotive
Traditionally, trains are pulled using a locomotive. This involves one or more powered vehicles being located at the front of the train, providing sufficient tractive force to haul the weight of the full train. This arrangement remains dominant for freight trains and is often used for passenger trains. A push-pull train has the end passenger car equipped with a driver's cab so that the engine driver can remotely control the locomotive. This allows one of the locomotive-hauled train's drawbacks to be removed, since the locomotive need not be moved to the front of the train each time the train changes direction. A railroad car is a vehicle used for the haulage of either passengers or freight.
A multiple unit has powered wheels throughout the whole train. These are used for rapid transit and tram systems, as well as many both short- and long-haul passenger trains. A railcar is a single, self-powered car, and may be electrically-propelled or powered by a diesel engine . Multiple units have a driver's cab at each end of the unit, and were developed following the ability to build electric motors and engines small enough to fit under the coach. There are only a few freight multiple units, most of which are high-speed post trains.
Steam locomotives are locomotives with a steam engine that provides
Electric locomotives draw power from a stationary source via an overhead wire or third rail . Some also or instead use a battery . In locomotives that are powered by high voltage alternating current , a transformer in the locomotive converts the high voltage, low current power to low voltage, high current used in the traction motors that power the wheels. Modern locomotives may use three-phase AC induction motors or direct current motors. Under certain conditions, electric locomotives are the most powerful traction. They are also the cheapest to run and provide less noise and no local air pollution. However, they require high capital investments both for the overhead lines and the supporting infrastructure, as well as the generating station that is needed to produce electricity. Accordingly, electric traction is used on urban systems, lines with high traffic and for high-speed rail.
Diesel locomotives use a diesel engine as the prime mover . The energy transmission may be either diesel-electric , diesel-mechanical or diesel-hydraulic but diesel-electric is dominant. Electro-diesel locomotives are built to run as diesel-electric on unelectrified sections and as electric locomotives on electrified sections.
Alternative methods of motive power include magnetic levitation , horse-drawn, cable , gravity, pneumatics and gas turbine .
Interior view of the top deck of a VR InterCity2 double-deck carriage
A passenger train travels between stations where passengers may embark and disembark. The oversight of the train is the duty of a guard/train manager/conductor . Passenger trains are part of public transport and often make up the stem of the service, with buses feeding to stations. Passenger trains provide long-distance intercity travel, daily commuter trips, or local urban transit services. They even include a diversity of vehicles, operating speeds, right-of-way requirements, and service frequency. Passenger trains usually can be divided into two operations: intercity railway and intracity transit. Whereas as intercity railway involve higher speeds, longer routes, and lower frequency (usually scheduled), intracity transit involves lower speeds, shorter routes, and higher frequency (especially during peak hours).
Intercity trains are long-haul trains that operate with few stops
between cities. Trains typically have amenities such as a dining car .
Some lines also provide over-night services with sleeping cars . Some
long-haul trains have been given a specific name . Regional trains are
medium distance trains that connect cities with outlying, surrounding
areas, or provide a regional service, making more stops and having
lower speeds. Commuter trains serve suburbs of urban areas, providing
a daily commuting service.
High-speed rail are special inter-city trains that operate at much
higher speeds than conventional railways, the limit being regarded at
200 to 320 kilometres per hour (120 to 200 mph). High-speed trains are
used mostly for long-haul service and most systems are in Western
Europe and East Asia. The speed record is 574.8 km/h (357.2 mph), set
by a modified French
Their high kinetic energy translates to higher horsepower-to-ton
ratios (e.g. 20 horsepower per short ton or 16 kilowatts per tonne);
this allows trains to accelerate and maintain higher speeds and
negotiate steep grades as momentum builds up and recovered in
downgrades (reducing cut, fill, and tunnelling requirements). Since
lateral forces act on curves, curvatures are designed with the highest
possible radius. All these features are dramatically different from
freight operations, thus justifying exclusive high-speed rail lines if
it is economically feasible. Rail network in Paris,
Higher-speed rail services are intercity rail services that have top speeds higher than conventional intercity trains but the speeds are not as high as those in the high-speed rail services. These services are provided after improvements to the conventional rail infrastructure in order to support trains that can operate safely at higher speeds.
A freight train hauls cargo using freight cars specialized for the type of goods. Freight trains are very efficient, with economy of scale and high energy efficiency. However, their use can be reduced by lack of flexibility, if there is need of transshipment at both ends of the trip due to lack of tracks to the points of pick-up and delivery. Authorities often encourage the use of cargo rail transport due to its environmental profile.
Container trains have become the dominant type in the US for non-bulk haulage. Containers can easily be transshipped to other modes, such as ships and trucks, using cranes. This has succeeded the boxcar (wagon-load), where the cargo had to be loaded and unloaded into the train manually. The intermodal containerization of cargo has revolutionized the supply chain logistics industry, reducing ship costs significantly. In Europe, the sliding wall wagon has largely superseded the ordinary covered wagons . Other types of cars include refrigerator cars , stock cars for livestock and autoracks for road vehicles. When rail is combined with road transport, a roadrailer will allow trailers to be driven onto the train, allowing for easy transition between road and rail.
Bulk handling represents a key advantage for rail transport. Low or even zero transshipment costs combined with energy efficiency and low inventory costs allow trains to handle bulk much cheaper than by road. Typical bulk cargo includes coal, ore, grains and liquids. Bulk is transported in open-topped cars , hopper cars and tank cars .
Left: Railway turnouts; Right: Chicago Transit Authority control tower 18 guides elevated Chicago \'L\' north and southbound Purple and Brown lines intersecting with east and westbound Pink and Green lines and the looping Orange line above the Wells and Lake street intersection in the loop at an elevated right of way.
RIGHT OF WAY
Railway tracks are laid upon land owned or leased by the railway company. Owing to the desirability of maintaining modest grades, rails will often be laid in circuitous routes in hilly or mountainous terrain. Route length and grade requirements can be reduced by the use of alternating cuttings , bridges and tunnels—all of which can greatly increase the capital expenditures required to develop a right of way, while significantly reducing operating costs and allowing higher speeds on longer radius curves. In densely urbanized areas, railways are sometimes laid in tunnels to minimize the effects on existing properties.
Trackage Map of railways in Europe with main
operational lines shown in black, heritage railway lines in green and
former routes in light blue Long freight train crossing the
Stoney Creek viaduct on the
Canadian Pacific Railway in southern
Track consists of two parallel steel rails, anchored perpendicular to members called ties (sleepers) of timber, concrete, steel, or plastic to maintain a consistent distance apart, or rail gauge . Rail gauges are usually categorized as standard gauge (used on approximately 54.8% of the world's existing railway lines), broad gauge , and narrow gauge . In addition to the rail gauge, the tracks will be laid to conform with a Loading gauge which defines the maximum height and width for railway vehicles and their loads to ensure safe passage through bridges, tunnels and other structures.
The track guides the conical, flanged wheels, keeping the cars on the track without active steering and therefore allowing trains to be much longer than road vehicles. The rails and ties are usually placed on a foundation made of compressed earth on top of which is placed a bed of ballast to distribute the load from the ties and to prevent the track from buckling as the ground settles over time under the weight of the vehicles passing above.
The ballast also serves as a means of drainage. Some more modern track in special areas is attached by direct fixation without ballast. Track may be prefabricated or assembled in place. By welding rails together to form lengths of continuous welded rail , additional wear and tear on rolling stock caused by the small surface gap at the joints between rails can be counteracted; this also makes for a quieter ride (passenger trains).
On curves the outer rail may be at a higher level than the inner rail. This is called superelevation or cant . This reduces the forces tending to displace the track and makes for a more comfortable ride for standing livestock and standing or seated passengers. A given amount of superelevation is most effective over a limited range of speeds.
Turnouts , also known as points and switches, are the means of directing a train onto a diverging section of track. Laid similar to normal track, a point typically consists of a frog (common crossing), check rails and two switch rails. The switch rails may be moved left or right, under the control of the signalling system, to determine which path the train will follow.
Spikes in wooden ties can loosen over time, but split and rotten ties may be individually replaced with new wooden ties or concrete substitutes. Concrete ties can also develop cracks or splits, and can also be replaced individually. Should the rails settle due to soil subsidence, they can be lifted by specialized machinery and additional ballast tamped under the ties to level the rails.
Periodically, ballast must be removed and replaced with clean ballast to ensure adequate drainage. Culverts and other passages for water must be kept clear lest water is impounded by the trackbed, causing landslips. Where trackbeds are placed along rivers, additional protection is usually placed to prevent streambank erosion during times of high water. Bridges require inspection and maintenance, since they are subject to large surges of stress in a short period of time when a heavy train crosses.
TRAIN INSPECTION SYSTEMS
A Hot bearing detector w/ dragging equipment unit
The inspection of railway equipment is essential for the safe movement of trains. Many types of defect detectors are in use on the world's railroads. These devices utilize technologies that vary from a simplistic paddle and switch to infrared and laser scanning, and even ultrasonic audio analysis . Their use has avoided many rail accidents over the 70 years they have been used.
Railway signalling is a system used to control railway traffic safely to prevent trains from colliding. Being guided by fixed rails which generate low friction, trains are uniquely susceptible to collision since they frequently operate at speeds that do not enable them to stop quickly or within the driver's sighting distance; road vehicles, which encounter a higher level of friction between their rubber tyres and the road surface, have much shorter braking distances. Most forms of train control involve movement authority being passed from those responsible for each section of a rail network to the train crew. Not all methods require the use of signals, and some systems are specific to single track railways.
The signalling process is traditionally carried out in a signal box , a small building that houses the lever frame required for the signalman to operate switches and signal equipment. These are placed at various intervals along the route of a railway, controlling specified sections of track. More recent technological developments have made such operational doctrine superfluous, with the centralization of signalling operations to regional control rooms. This has been facilitated by the increased use of computers, allowing vast sections of track to be monitored from a single location. The common method of block signalling divides the track into zones guarded by combinations of block signals, operating rules, and automatic-control devices so that only one train may be in a block at any time.
The electrification system provides electrical energy to the trains, so they can operate without a prime mover on board. This allows lower operating costs, but requires large capital investments along the lines. Mainline and tram systems normally have overhead wires, which hang from poles along the line. Grade-separated rapid transit sometimes use a ground third rail .
Power may be fed as direct or alternating current . The most common DC voltages are 600 and 750 V for tram and rapid transit systems, and 1,500 and 3,000 V for mainlines. The two dominant AC systems are 15 kV AC and 25 kV AC .
A railway station serves as an area where passengers can board and alight from trains. A goods station is a yard which is exclusively used for loading and unloading cargo. Large passenger stations have at least one building providing conveniences for passengers, such as purchasing tickets and food. Smaller stations typically only consist of a platform . Early stations were sometimes built with both passenger and goods facilities.
Platforms are used to allow easy access to the trains, and are connected to each other via underpasses , footbridges and level crossings. Some large stations are built as culs-de-sac , with trains only operating out from one direction. Smaller stations normally serve local residential areas, and may have connection to feeder bus services. Large stations, in particular central stations , serve as the main public transport hub for the city, and have transfer available between rail services, and to rapid transit, tram or bus services.
In the United States, railroads such as the Union Pacific traditionally own and operate both their rolling stock and infrastructure, with the company itself typically being privately owned.
Since the 1980s, there has been an increasing trend to split up
railway companies, with companies owning the rolling stock separated
from those owning the infrastructure. This is particularly true in
Europe, where this arrangement is required by the European Union. This
has allowed open access by any train operator to any portion of the
European railway network. In the UK, the railway track is state owned,
with a public controlled body (
Network Rail ) running, maintaining and
developing the track, while
In the U.S., virtually all rail networks and infrastructure outside
Northeast Corridor are privately owned by freight lines. Passenger
The main source of income for railway companies is from ticket revenue (for passenger transport) and shipment fees for cargo. Discounts and monthly passes are sometimes available for frequent travellers (e.g. season ticket and rail pass ). Freight revenue may be sold per container slot or for a whole train. Sometimes, the shipper owns the cars and only rents the haulage. For passenger transport, advertisement income can be significant.
Governments may choose to give subsidies to rail operation, since rail transport has fewer externalities than other dominant modes of transport. If the railway company is state-owned, the state may simply provide direct subsidies in exchange for increased production. If operations have been privatized, several options are available. Some countries have a system where the infrastructure is owned by a government agency or company—with open access to the tracks for any company that meets safety requirements. In such cases, the state may choose to provide the tracks free of charge, or for a fee that does not cover all costs. This is seen as analogous to the government providing free access to roads. For passenger operations, a direct subsidy may be paid to a public-owned operator, or public service obligation tender may be helt, and a time-limited contract awarded to the lowest bidder. Total EU rail subsidies amounted to €73 billion in 2005.
According to Eurostat and European Railway Agency , on European railways, there is a fatality risk for passengers and occupants 28 times lower compared with car usage. Based on data by EU-27 member nations, 2008-2010.
Trains can travel at very high speed, but they are heavy, are unable
to deviate from the track and require a great distance to stop.
Possible accidents include derailment (jumping the track), a collision
with another train or collision with automobiles, other vehicles or
pedestrians at level crossings . The last accounts for the majority of
rail accidents and casualties. The most important safety measures to
prevent accidents are strict operating rules, e.g. railway signalling
and gates or grade separation at crossings.
An important element in the safety of many high-speed inter-city
networks such as Japan's
As in any infrastructure asset, railways must keep up with periodic inspection and maintenance in order to minimize effect of infrastructure failures that can disrupt freight revenue operations and passenger services. Because passengers are considered the most crucial cargo and usually operate at higher speeds, steeper grades, and higher capacity/frequency, their lines are especially important. Inspection practices include track geometry cars or walking inspection. Curve maintenance especially for transit services includes gauging, fastener tightening, and rail replacement.
Rail corrugation is a common issue with transit systems due to the high number of light-axle, wheel passages which result in grinding of the wheel/rail interface. Since maintenance may overlap with operations, maintenance windows (nighttime hours, off-peak hours, altering train schedules or routes) must be closely followed. In addition, passenger safety during maintenance work (inter-track fencing, proper storage of materials, track work notices, hazards of equipment near states) must be regarded at all times. At times, maintenance access problems can emerge due to tunnels, elevated structures, and congested cityscapes. Here, specialized equipment or smaller versions of conventional maintenance gear are used.
Unlike highways or road networks where capacity is disaggregated into unlinked trips over individual route segments, railway capacity is fundamentally considered a network system. As a result, many components are causes and effects of system disruptions. Maintenance must acknowledge the vast array of a route's performance (type of train service, origination/destination, seasonal impacts), line's capacity (length, terrain, number of tracks, types of train control), trains throughput (max speeds, acceleration/deceleration rates), and service features with shared passenger-freight tracks (sidings, terminal capacities, switching routes, and design type).
SOCIAL, ECONOMICAL, AND ENERGETIC ASPECTS
where: R denotes total resistance a denotes initial constant resistance b denotes velocity-related constant c denotes constant that is function of shape, frontal area, and sides of vehicle v denotes velocity v2 denotes velocity, squared
Essentially, resistance differs between vehicle's contact point and surface of roadway. Metal wheels on metal rails have a significant advantage of overcoming resistance compared to rubber-tyred wheels on any road surface (railway – 0.001g at 10 miles per hour (16 km/h) and 0.024g at 60 miles per hour (97 km/h); truck – 0.009g at 10 miles per hour (16 km/h) and 0.090 at 60 miles per hour (97 km/h)). In terms of cargo capacity combining speed and size being moved in a day:
* human – can carry 100 pounds (45 kg) for 20 miles (32 km) per day, or 1 tmi /day (1.5 tkm /day) * horse and wheelbarrow – can carry 4 tmi/day (5.8 tkm/day) * horse cart on good pavement – can carry 10 tmi/day (14 tkm/day) * fully utility truck – can carry 20,000 tmi/day (29,000 tkm/day) * long-haul train – can carry 500,000 tmi/day (730,000 tkm/day) Most trains take 250–400 trucks off the road, thus making the road more safe.
In terms of the horsepower to weight ratio, a slow-moving barge requires 0.2 horsepower per short ton (0.16 kW/t), a railway and pipeline requires 2.5 horsepower per short ton (2.1 kW/t), and truck requires 10 horsepower per short ton (8.2 kW/t). However, at higher speeds, a railway overcomes the barge and proves most economical.
As an example, a typical modern wagon can hold up to 113 tonnes (125 short tons) of freight on two four-wheel bogies . The track distributes the weight of the train evenly, allowing significantly greater loads per axle and wheel than in road transport, leading to less wear and tear on the permanent way. This can save energy compared with other forms of transport, such as road transport, which depends on the friction between rubber tyres and the road. Trains have a small frontal area in relation to the load they are carrying, which reduces air resistance and thus energy usage.
In addition, the presence of track guiding the wheels allows for very long trains to be pulled by one or a few engines and driven by a single operator, even around curves, which allows for economies of scale in both manpower and energy use; by contrast, in road transport, more than two articulations causes fishtailing and makes the vehicle unsafe.
Main article: Energy efficiency in transportation § Trains
Considering only the energy spent to move the means of transport, and
using the example of the urban area of
Due to these benefits, rail transport is a major form of passenger
and freight transport in many countries. It is ubiquitous in Europe,
with an integrated network covering virtually the whole continent. In
India, China, South Korea and Japan, many millions use trains as
regular transport. In North America, freight rail transport is
widespread and heavily used, but intercity passenger rail transport is
relatively scarce outside the
Northeast Corridor , due to increased
preference of other modes, particularly automobiles and airplanes.
South Africa, northern Africa and
SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC BENEFITS
Railways are central to the formation of modernity and ideas of
progress. Railways contribute to social vibrancy and economic
competitiveness by transporting multitudes of customers and workers to
city centres and inner suburbs .
During much of the 20th century, rail was an invaluable element of military mobilization , allowing for the quick and efficient transport of large numbers of reservists to their mustering-points, and infantry soldiers to the front lines. However, by the 21st century, rail transport - limited to locations on the same continent, and vulnerable to air attack - had largely been displaced by the adoption of aerial transport .
Railways channel growth towards dense city agglomerations and along their arteries, as opposed to highway expansion, indicative of the U.S. transportation policy, which incents development of suburbs at the periphery, contributing to increased vehicle miles travelled , carbon emissions , development of greenfield spaces, and depletion of natural reserves . These arrangements revalue city spaces, local taxes , housing values, and promotion of mixed use development .
MODERN RAIL AS ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT INDICATOR
European development economists have argued that the existence of
modern rail infrastructure is a significant indicator of a country's
economic advancement: this perspective is illustrated notably through
the Basic Rail Transportation
European rail subsidies in euros per passenger-km for 2008 For subsidies in Europe, see European rail subsidies
COUNTRY SUBSIDY IN BILLIONS OF EUROS YEAR
Ireland 0.91 2008
In total, Russian Railways receives 112 billion roubles (around US$1.5 billion) annually from the government.
Current subsidies for
In 2014, total rail spending by China was $130 billion and is likely to remain at a similar rate for the rest of the country's next Five Year Period (2016-2020).
The Indian railways are subsidized by around ₹400 billion (US$6.2 billion), of which around 60% goes to commuter rail and short-haul trips.
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International Union of Railways
* ^ Lewis, M. J. T. "Railways in the Greek and Roman World" (PDF).
Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 11 April
* ^ Hylton, Stuart (2007). The Grand Experiment: The Birth of the
Railway Age 1820–1845. Ian Allan Publishing.
* ^ Kriechbaum, Reinhard (15 May 2004). "Die große Reise auf den
Berg". der Tagespost (in German). Retrieved 22 April 2009.
* ^ "Der Reiszug – Part 1 – Presentation". Funimag. Retrieved
22 April 2009.
* ^ Georgius Agricola (1913).
De re metallica
* ^ According to this source, railways are the safest on both a per-mile and per-hour basis, whereas air transport is safe only on a per-mile basis
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