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Ursus lotor Linnaeus, 1758

The raccoon (/rəˈkuːn/ or US: /ræˈkuːn/ ( listen), Procyon
Procyon
lotor), sometimes spelled racoon,[3] also known as the common raccoon,[4] North American raccoon,[5] northern raccoon,[6] colloquially as coon or trash panda[7] is a medium-sized mammal native to North America. The raccoon is the largest of the procyonid family, having a body length of 40 to 70 cm (16 to 28 in) and a body weight of 5 to 26 kg (11 to 57 lb).[8] Its grayish coat mostly consists of dense underfur which insulates it against cold weather. Three of the raccoon's most distinctive features are its extremely dexterous front paws, its facial mask, and its ringed tail, which are themes in the mythologies of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. Raccoons are noted for their intelligence, with studies showing that they are able to remember the solution to tasks for up to three years.[9] The diet of the omnivorous raccoon, which is usually nocturnal, consists of about 40% invertebrates, 33% plant foods, and 27% vertebrates. The original habitats of the raccoon are deciduous and mixed forests, but due to their adaptability they have extended their range to mountainous areas, coastal marshes, and urban areas, where some homeowners consider them to be pests. As a result of escapes and deliberate introductions in the mid-20th century, raccoons are now also distributed across mainland Germany, France, Denmark, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Caucasia, and Japan. Though previously thought to be generally solitary, there is now evidence that raccoons engage in gender-specific social behavior. Related females often share a common area, while unrelated males live together in groups of up to four animals to maintain their positions against foreign males during the mating season, and other potential invaders. Home range sizes vary anywhere from 3 hectares (7.4 acres) for females in cities to 5,000 hectares (12,000 acres) for males in prairies. After a gestation period of about 65 days, two to five young, known as "kits", are born in spring. The kits are subsequently raised by their mother until dispersal in late fall. Although captive raccoons have been known to live over 20 years, their life expectancy in the wild is only 1.8 to 3.1 years. In many areas, hunting and vehicular injury are the two most common causes of death.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Taxonomy

2.1 Evolution 2.2 Subspecies

3 Description

3.1 Physical characteristics 3.2 Senses 3.3 Intelligence

4 Behavior

4.1 Social behavior 4.2 Diet 4.3 Dousing 4.4 Reproduction 4.5 Life expectancy

5 Range

5.1 Habitat 5.2 Distribution in North America 5.3 Distribution outside North America

5.3.1 Distribution in Japan 5.3.2 Distribution in Germany 5.3.3 Distribution in the former USSR

5.4 Urban raccoons

6 Health 7 Raccoons and humans

7.1 Conflicts 7.2 Mythology, arts, and entertainment 7.3 Hunting
Hunting
and fur trade 7.4 Pet
Pet
raccoons 7.5 Local and indigenous names

8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links

Etymology[edit]

The mask of a raccoon is often interrupted by a brown-black streak that extends from forehead to nose.[10]

The word "raccoon" was adopted into English from the native Powhatan term, as used in the Colony of Virginia. It was recorded on John Smith's list of Powhatan words as aroughcun, and on that of William Strachey as arathkone.[11] It has also been identified as a reflex of a Proto-Algonquian root *ahrah-koon-em, meaning "[the] one who rubs, scrubs and scratches with its hands".[12] Similarly, Spanish colonists adopted the Spanish word mapache from the Nahuatl
Nahuatl
mapachitli of the Aztecs, meaning "[the] one who takes everything in its hands".[13] In many languages, the raccoon is named for its characteristic dousing behavior in conjunction with that language's term for bear, for example Waschbär in German, Huan Xiong (浣熊) in Chinese, orsetto lavatore in Italian, and araiguma (アライグマ) in Japanese. Alternatively, only the washing behavior might be referred to, as in Russian poloskun (полоскун, "rinser"). The colloquial abbreviation coon is used in words like coonskin for fur clothing and in phrases like old coon as a self-designation of trappers.[14][15] In the 1830s, the United States Whig Party used the raccoon as an emblem, causing them to be pejoratively known as 'coons' by their political opponents, who saw them as too sympathetic to African-Americans. Soon after that the term became an ethnic slur,[16] especially in use between 1880 and 1920 (see coon song), and the term is still considered offensive.[17] Taxonomy[edit]

Skins of P. lotor and P. cancrivorus

Skulls of P. lotor and P. cancrivorus

In the first decades after its discovery by the members of the expedition of Christopher Columbus, who was the first person to leave a written record about the species, taxonomists thought the raccoon was related to many different species, including dogs, cats, badgers and particularly bears.[18] Carl Linnaeus, the father of modern taxonomy, placed the raccoon in the genus Ursus, first as Ursus cauda elongata ("long-tailed bear") in the second edition of his Systema Naturae (1740), then as Ursus Lotor ("washer bear") in the tenth edition (1758–59).[19][20] In 1780, Gottlieb Conrad Christian Storr placed the raccoon in its own genus Procyon, which can be translated as either "before the dog" or "doglike".[21][22] It is also possible that Storr had its nocturnal lifestyle in mind and chose the star Procyon
Procyon
as eponym for the species.[23][24] Evolution[edit] Based on fossil evidence from Russia and Bulgaria, the first known members of the family Procyonidae
Procyonidae
lived in Europe in the late Oligocene
Oligocene
about 25 million years ago.[25] Similar tooth and skull structures suggest procyonids and weasels share a common ancestor, but molecular analysis indicates a closer relationship between raccoons and bears.[26] After the then-existing species crossed the Bering Strait at least six million years later in the early Miocene, the center of its distribution was probably in Central America.[27] Coatis ( Nasua
Nasua
and Nasuella) and raccoons (Procyon) have been considered to share common descent from a species in the genus Paranasua present between 5.2 and 6.0 million years ago.[28] This assumption, based on morphological comparisons of fossils, conflicts with a 2006 genetic analysis which indicates raccoons are more closely related to ringtails.[29] Unlike other procyonids, such as the crab-eating raccoon ( Procyon
Procyon
cancrivorus), the ancestors of the common raccoon left tropical and subtropical areas and migrated farther north about 2.5 million years ago, in a migration that has been confirmed by the discovery of fossils in the Great Plains
Great Plains
dating back to the middle of the Pliocene.[30][28] Its most recent ancestor was likely Procyon rexroadensis, a large Blancan raccoon from the Rexroad Formation characterized by its narrow back teeth and large lower jaw.[31] Subspecies[edit]

A Torch Key raccoon (P. l. incautus) in Cudjoe Key, Florida. Subspecies
Subspecies
inhabiting the Florida Keys
Florida Keys
are characterized by their small size and very pale fur.

As of 2005, Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World recognizes 22 subspecies.[32] Four of these subspecies living only on small Central American and Caribbean
Caribbean
islands were often regarded as distinct species after their discovery. These are the Bahamian raccoon
Bahamian raccoon
and Guadeloupe raccoon, which are very similar to each other; the Tres Marias raccoon, which is larger than average and has an angular skull; and the extinct Barbados raccoon. Studies of their morphological and genetic traits in 1999, 2003 and 2005 led all these island raccoons to be listed as subspecies of the common raccoon in Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World's third edition. A fifth island raccoon population, the Cozumel raccoon, which weighs only 3 to 4 kg (6.6 to 8.8 lb) and has notably small teeth, is still regarded as a separate species.[33][34][35][36] The four smallest raccoon subspecies, with a typical weight of 1.8 to 2.7 kg (4.0 to 6.0 lb), live along the southern coast of Florida
Florida
and on the adjacent islands; an example is the Ten Thousand Islands raccoon ( Procyon
Procyon
lotor marinus).[37] Most of the other 15 subspecies differ only slightly from each other in coat color, size and other physical characteristics.[38][39] The two most widespread subspecies are the eastern raccoon ( Procyon
Procyon
lotor lotor) and the Upper Mississippi Valley raccoon ( Procyon
Procyon
lotor hirtus). Both share a comparatively dark coat with long hairs, but the Upper Mississippi Valley raccoon is larger than the eastern raccoon. The eastern raccoon occurs in all U.S. states and Canadian provinces to the north of South Carolina and Tennessee. The adjacent range of the Upper Mississippi Valley raccoon covers all U.S. states and Canadian provinces to the north of Louisiana, Texas
Texas
and New Mexico.[40] The taxonomic identity of feral raccoons inhabiting Central Europe, Causasia and Japan
Japan
is unknown, as the founding populations consisted of uncategorized specimens from zoos and fur farms.[41]

Subspecies Image Trinomial authority Description Range Synonyms

Eastern raccoon P. l. lotor Nominate subspecies

Linnaeus, 1758 A small and dark subspecies with long, soft fur.[42] Nova Scotia, southern New Brunswick, southern Quebec, and southern Ontario south through the eastern United States to North Carolina, and from the Atlantic coast west to Lake Michigan, Indiana, southern Illinois, western Kentucky, and probably eastern Tennessee. annulatus (G. Fischer, 1814) brachyurus (Wiegmann, 1837) fusca (Burmeister, 1850) gularis (C. E. H. Smith, 1848) melanus (J. E. Gray, 1864) obscurus (Wiegmann, 1837) rufescens (de Beaux, 1910) vulgaris (Tiedemann, 1808)

Key Vaca raccoon P. l. auspicatus

Nelson, 1930 A very small and pale-furred subspecies.[43] Key Vaca and doubtless closely adjoining keys of the Key Vaca Group, a central section of the main chain off the southern coast of Florida.

Florida
Florida
raccoon P. l. elucus

Bangs, 1898 Generally a medium-sized and dark-colored subspecies with a prominent rusty rufous nuchal patch.[44] Peninsular Florida, except southwestern part inhabited by P. l. marinus, north to extreme southern Georgia; grading into P. l. varius in northwest Florida.

Snake River Valley raccoon P. l. excelsus

Nelson and Goldman, 1930 A very large and pale subspecies.[45] Snake River drainage in southeastern Washington, eastern Oregon, and southern Idaho, the Humboldt River Valley, Nev., and river valleys of northeastern California.

Texas
Texas
raccoon P. l. fuscipes

Mearns, 1914 A large, dark grayish subspecies.[46] Texas, except extreme northern and western parts, southern Arkansas, Louisiana, except delta region of Mississippi, and south into northeastern Mexico, including Coahuila and Nuevo León, to southern Tamaulipas.

† Barbados raccoon P. l. gloveralleni

Nelson and Goldman, 1930 A small, dark-furred subspecies with a lightly built skull.[47] Known only from the Island of Barbados. solutus (Nelson and Goldman, 1931)

Baja California
California
raccoon P. l. grinnelli

Nelson and Goldman, 1930 A large, pale-furred subspecies with high and broad skull.[48] Southern Baja California
California
from the Cape region north at least to San Ignacio.

Mexican plateau raccoon P. l. hernandezii

Wagler, 1831 A large and dark grayish subspecies with a flattish skull and heavy dentition.[49] Southern part of tableland or plateau region of Mexico
Mexico
and adjoining coasts, from Nayarit, Jalisco, and San Luis Potosí, south to near the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. crassidens (Hollister, 1914) dickeyi (Nelson and Goldman, 1931) mexicana (Baird, 1858) shufeldti (Nelson and Goldman, 1931)

Upper Mississippi Valley raccoon P. l. hirtus

Nelson and Goldman, 1930 A large and dark-furred subspecies, whose pelage is usually suffused with ochraceous buff.[50] Upper Mississippi and Missouri River drainage areas from the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains east to Lake Michigan, and from southern Manitoba
Manitoba
and probably southwestern Ontario and southeastern Alberta south to southern Oklahoma and Arkansas.

Torch Key raccoon P. l. incautus

Nelson, 1930 A small subspecies with very pale fur (the palest of the Florida raccoons).[51] Big Pine Key Group, near southwestern end of chain of Florida
Florida
Keys.

Matecumbe Key raccoon P. l. inesperatus

Nelson, 1930 Similar to P. l. elucus, but smaller and grayer and with a flatter skull.[52] Key Largo Group, embracing fringing keys along the south-east coast of Florida, from Virginia Key
Virginia Key
south to Lower Matecumbe Key.

Tres Marias raccoon P. l. insularis

Merriam, 1898 A large, massive-skulled subspecies with short and coarse fur.[53] Tres Marías Islands, off west coast of Nayarit, Mexico. vicinus (Nelson and Goldman, 1931)

Saint Simon Island raccoon P. l. litoreus

Nelson and Goldman, 1930 Similar to P. l. elucus, being of medium size and having dark fur.[54] Coastal strip and islands of Georgia.

Ten Thousand Islands raccoon P. l. marinus

Nelson, 1930 A very small subspecies with heavy dentition.[55] Keys of the Ten Thousand Islands Group, and adjoining mainland of southwestern Florida
Florida
from Cape Sable
Sable
north through the Everglades to Lake Okeechobee. maritimus (Dozier, 1948)

Bahamian raccoon P. l. maynardi

Bangs, 1898 A small and slightly dark subspecies with a lightly built skull and dentition.[56] Known only from New Providence Island, Bahamas. flavidus (de Beaux, 1910) minor (Miller, 1911) varius (Nelson and Goldman, 1930)

Mississippi Delta raccoon P. l. megalodous

Lowery, 1943 A medium-sized subspecies, with a massive skull and pale yellow fur suffused above with black.[57] Coast region of southern Louisiana
Louisiana
from St. Bernard Parish west to Cameron Parish.

Pacific Northwest raccoon P. l. pacificus

Merriam, 1899 A dark-furred subspecies with a relatively broad, flat skull.[58] Southwestern British Columbia, except Vancouver Island, northern, central, and western Washington, western Oregon, and extreme northwestern California. proteus (Brass, 1911)

Colorado Desert raccoon P. l. pallidus

Merriam, 1900 One of the palest subspecies, around the same size as P. l. mexicanus.[59] Colorado and Gila River Valleys and adjoining territory from the delta north to northeastern Utah, and east to western Colorado and northwestern New Mexico. ochraceus (Mearns, 1914)

California
California
raccoon P. l. psora

Gray, 1842 A large and moderately dark subspecies with a broad, rather flat skull.[60] California, except extreme northwest coastal strip, the northeastern corner and southeastern desert region, ranging south through northwestern Baja California
California
to San Quintin; extreme westcentral Nevada. californicus (Means, 1914)

Isthmian raccoon P. l. pumilus

Miller, 1911 Similar to P. l. crassidens in color, but has a shorter, broader and flatter skull.[61] Panama
Panama
and the Canal Zone from Porto Bello west to Boqueron, Chiriqui, though the limits of its range are unknown.

† Short-faced raccoon P. l. simus

Gidley, 1906 A Pleistocene
Pleistocene
subspecies similar to P. l. excelsus, but with a deeper lower jaw and a more robust dentition.[62][63] California.

Vancouver Island
Vancouver Island
raccoon P. l. vancouverensis

Nelson and Goldman, 1930 A dark-furred subspecies, similar to P. l. pacificus but smaller.[64] Known only from Vancouver Island.

Description[edit]

Skull with dentition: 2/2 molars, 4/4 premolars, 1/1 canines, 3/3 incisors

Skeleton

Baculum
Baculum
or penis bone

Lower side of front paw with visible vibrissae on the tips of the digits

Physical characteristics[edit] Head to hindquarters, raccoons measure between 40 and 70 cm (16 and 28 in), not including the bushy tail which can measure between 20 and 40 cm (8 and 16 in), but is usually not much longer than 25 cm (10 in).[65][66][67] The shoulder height is between 23 and 30 cm (9 and 12 in).[68] The body weight of an adult raccoon varies considerably with habitat, making the raccoon one of the most variably sized mammals. It can range from 5 to 26 kilograms (10 to 60 lb), but is usually between 5 and 12 kilograms (10 and 30 lb). The smallest specimens live in southern Florida, while those near the northern limits of the raccoon's range tend to be the largest (see Bergmann's rule).[69] Males are usually 15 to 20% heavier than females.[70] At the beginning of winter, a raccoon can weigh twice as much as in spring because of fat storage.[71][72][73] The largest recorded wild raccoon weighed 28.4 kg (62.6 lb) and measured 140 cm (55 in) in total length, by far the largest size recorded for a procyonid.[74][75] The most characteristic physical feature of the raccoon is the area of black fur around the eyes, which contrasts sharply with the surrounding white face coloring. This is reminiscent of a "bandit's mask" and has thus enhanced the animal's reputation for mischief.[76][77] The slightly rounded ears are also bordered by white fur. Raccoons are assumed to recognize the facial expression and posture of other members of their species more quickly because of the conspicuous facial coloration and the alternating light and dark rings on the tail.[78][79][80] The dark mask may also reduce glare and thus enhance night vision.[79][80] On other parts of the body, the long and stiff guard hairs, which shed moisture, are usually colored in shades of gray and, to a lesser extent, brown.[81] Raccoons with a very dark coat are more common in the German population because individuals with such coloring were among those initially released to the wild.[82] The dense underfur, which accounts for almost 90% of the coat, insulates against cold weather and is composed of 2 to 3 cm (0.8 to 1.2 in) long hairs.[81] The raccoon, whose method of locomotion is usually considered to be plantigrade, can stand on its hind legs to examine objects with its front paws.[83][84] As raccoons have short legs compared to their compact torso, they are usually not able either to run quickly or jump great distances.[85][86] Their top speed over short distances is 16 to 24 km/h (10 to 15 mph).[87][88] Raccoons can swim with an average speed of about 5 km/h (3 mph) and can stay in the water for several hours.[89][86] For climbing down a tree headfirst—an unusual ability for a mammal of its size—a raccoon rotates its hind feet so they are pointing backwards.[90][86] Raccoons have a dual cooling system to regulate their temperature; that is, they are able to both sweat and pant for heat dissipation.[91][92] Raccoon
Raccoon
skulls have a short and wide facial region and a voluminous braincase. The facial length of the skull is less than the cranial, and their nasal bones are short and quite broad. The auditory bullae are inflated in form, and the sagittal crest is weakly developed.[93] The dentition — 40 teeth with the dental formula:3.1.4.23.1.4.2 — is adapted to their omnivorous diet: the carnassials are not as sharp and pointed as those of a full-time carnivore, but the molars are not as wide as those of a herbivore.[94] The penis bone of males is about 10 cm (4 in) long and strongly bent at the front end.[95][96] Juvenile males are distinguished from mature males by the shape and extrusibility of their penis bones.[97][98][99] Seven of the thirteen identified vocal calls are used in communication between the mother and her kits, one of these being the birdlike twittering of newborns.[100][101][92] Senses[edit] The most important sense for the raccoon is its sense of touch.[102][103][104] The "hyper sensitive"[103] front paws are protected by a thin horny layer that becomes pliable when wet.[105][106] The five digits of the paws have no webbing between them, which is unusual for a carnivoran.[107] Almost two-thirds of the area responsible for sensory perception in the raccoon's cerebral cortex is specialized for the interpretation of tactile impulses, more than in any other studied animal.[108] They are able to identify objects before touching them with vibrissae located above their sharp, nonretractable claws.[83][104] The raccoon's paws lack an opposable thumb; thus, it does not have the agility of the hands of primates.[106][104] There is no observed negative effect on tactile perception when a raccoon stands in water below 10 °C (50 °F) for hours.[109] Raccoons are thought to be color blind or at least poorly able to distinguish color, though their eyes are well-adapted for sensing green light.[110][111][112] Although their accommodation of 11 dioptre is comparable to that of humans and they see well in twilight because of the tapetum lucidum behind the retina, visual perception is of subordinate importance to raccoons because of their poor long-distance vision.[113][114][115] In addition to being useful for orientation in the dark, their sense of smell is important for intraspecific communication. Glandular secretions (usually from their anal glands), urine and feces are used for marking.[116][117][118] With their broad auditory range, they can perceive tones up to 50–85 kHz as well as quiet noises, like those produced by earthworms underground.[119][120] Intelligence[edit] Zoologist Clinton Hart Merriam
Clinton Hart Merriam
described raccoons as "clever beasts", and that "in certain directions their cunning surpasses that of the fox." The animal's intelligence gave rise to the epithet "sly coon".[121] Only a few studies have been undertaken to determine the mental abilities of raccoons, most of them based on the animal's sense of touch. In a study by the ethologist H. B. Davis in 1908, raccoons were able to open 11 of 13 complex locks in fewer than 10 tries and had no problems repeating the action when the locks were rearranged or turned upside down. Davis concluded they understood the abstract principles of the locking mechanisms and their learning speed was equivalent to that of rhesus macaques.[122] Studies in 1963, 1973, 1975 and 1992 concentrated on raccoon memory showed they can remember the solutions to tasks for up to three years.[123] In a study by B. Pohl in 1992, raccoons were able to instantly differentiate between identical and different symbols three years after the short initial learning phase.[9] Stanislas Dehaene
Stanislas Dehaene
reports in his book The Number Sense raccoons can distinguish boxes containing two or four grapes from those containing three.[124] In research by Suzana Herculano-Houzel and other neuroscientists, raccoons have been found to be comparable to primates in density of neurons in the cerebral cortex, a neuroanatomical indicator of intelligence.[125][126] Behavior[edit] Social behavior[edit]

Eastern raccoons (P. l. lotor) in a tree: The raccoon's social structure is grouped into what Ulf Hohmann calls a "three class society".

Studies in the 1990s by the ethologists Stanley D. Gehrt and Ulf Hohmann suggest that raccoons engage in gender-specific social behaviors and are not typically solitary, as was previously thought.[127][128] Related females often live in a so-called "fission-fusion society", that is, they share a common area and occasionally meet at feeding or resting grounds.[129][130] Unrelated males often form loose male social groups to maintain their position against foreign males during the mating season—or against other potential invaders.[131] Such a group does not usually consist of more than four individuals.[132][133] Since some males show aggressive behavior towards unrelated kits, mothers will isolate themselves from other raccoons until their kits are big enough to defend themselves.[134] With respect to these three different modes of life prevalent among raccoons, Hohmann called their social structure a "three class society".[135] Samuel I. Zeveloff, professor of zoology at Weber State University
Weber State University
and author of the book Raccoons: A Natural History, is more cautious in his interpretation and concludes at least the females are solitary most of the time and, according to Erik K. Fritzell's study in North Dakota
North Dakota
in 1978, males in areas with low population densities are solitary as well.[136] The shape and size of a raccoon's home range varies depending on age, sex, and habitat, with adults claiming areas more than twice as large as juveniles.[137] While the size of home ranges in the inhospitable habitat of North Dakota's prairies lie between 7 and 50 km2 (3 and 20 sq mi) for males and between 2 and 16 km2 (1 and 6 sq mi) for females, the average size in a marsh at Lake Erie was 0.5 km2 (0.19 sq mi).[138] Irrespective of whether the home ranges of adjacent groups overlap, they are most likely not actively defended outside the mating season if food supplies are sufficient.[139] Odor marks on prominent spots are assumed to establish home ranges and identify individuals.[118] Urine and feces left at shared raccoon latrines may provide additional information about feeding grounds, since raccoons were observed to meet there later for collective eating, sleeping and playing.[140] Concerning the general behavior patterns of raccoons, Gehrt points out that "typically you'll find 10 to 15 percent that will do the opposite"[141] of what is expected.

On an apple tree

Diet[edit] Though usually nocturnal, the raccoon is sometimes active in daylight to take advantage of available food sources.[142][143] Its diet consists of about 40% invertebrates, 33% plant material and 27% vertebrates.[144] Since its diet consists of such a variety of different foods, Zeveloff argues the raccoon "may well be one of the world's most omnivorous animals".[145] While its diet in spring and early summer consists mostly of insects, worms, and other animals already available early in the year, it prefers fruits and nuts, such as acorns and walnuts, which emerge in late summer and autumn, and represent a rich calorie source for building up fat needed for winter.[146][147] Contrary to popular belief, raccoons only occasionally eat active or large prey, such as birds and mammals. They prefer prey that is easier to catch, specifically fish, amphibians and bird eggs.[148] When food is plentiful, raccoons can develop strong individual preferences for specific foods.[72] In the northern parts of their range, raccoons go into a winter rest, reducing their activity drastically as long as a permanent snow cover makes searching for food impossible.[149] Dousing[edit]

Captive raccoons often douse their food before eating.

One aspect of raccoon behavior is so well known that it gives the animal part of its scientific name, Procyon
Procyon
lotor; "lotor" is neo-Latin for "washer". In the wild, raccoons often dabble for underwater food near the shore-line. They then often pick up the food item with their front paws to examine it and rub the item, sometimes to remove unwanted parts. This gives the appearance of the raccoon "washing" the food. The tactile sensitivity of raccoons' paws is increased if this rubbing action is performed underwater, since the water softens the hard layer covering the paws.[103][150] However, the behavior observed in captive raccoons in which they carry their food to water to "wash" or douse it before eating has not been observed in the wild.[151][152] Naturalist Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, believed that raccoons do not have adequate saliva production to moisten food thereby necessitating dousing, but this hypothesis is now considered to be incorrect.[153][151][154][150] Captive raccoons douse their food more frequently when a watering hole with a layout similar to a stream is not farther away than 3 m (10 ft).[154] The widely accepted theory is that dousing in captive raccoons is a fixed action pattern from the dabbling behavior performed when foraging at shores for aquatic foods.[155][156][154][150] This is supported by the observation that aquatic foods are doused more frequently. Cleaning dirty food does not seem to be a reason for "washing".[154] Experts have cast doubt on the veracity of observations of wild raccoons dousing food.[157][158][159] Reproduction[edit] Raccoons usually mate in a period triggered by increasing daylight between late January and mid-March.[160][161][162] However, there are large regional differences which are not completely explicable by solar conditions. For example, while raccoons in southern states typically mate later than average, the mating season in Manitoba
Manitoba
also peaks later than usual in March and extends until June.[162] During the mating season, males restlessly roam their home ranges in search of females in an attempt to court them during the three- to four-day period when conception is possible. These encounters will often occur at central meeting places.[163][164][165] Copulation, including foreplay, can last over an hour and is repeated over several nights.[166] The weaker members of a male social group also are assumed to get the opportunity to mate, since the stronger ones cannot mate with all available females.[167] In a study in southern Texas during the mating seasons from 1990 to 1992, about one third of all females mated with more than one male.[168] If a female does not become pregnant or if she loses her kits early, she will sometimes become fertile again 80 to 140 days later.[169][170][171]

An eastern raccoon (P. l. lotor) kit

After usually 63 to 65 days of gestation (although anywhere from 54 to 70 days is possible), a litter of typically two to five young is born.[172][173] The average litter size varies widely with habitat, ranging from 2.5 in Alabama
Alabama
to 4.8 in North Dakota.[174][175] Larger litters are more common in areas with a high mortality rate, due, for example, to hunting or severe winters.[176][175] While male yearlings usually reach their sexual maturity only after the main mating season, female yearlings can compensate for high mortality rates and may be responsible for about 50% of all young born in a year.[177][178][179] Males have no part in raising young.[132][180][181] The kits (also called "cubs") are blind and deaf at birth, but their mask is already visible against their light fur.[182][183] The birth weight of the about 10 cm (4 in)-long kits is between 60 and 75 g (2.1 and 2.6 oz).[183] Their ear canals open after around 18 to 23 days, a few days before their eyes open for the first time.[184] Once the kits weigh about 1 kg (2 lb), they begin to explore outside the den, consuming solid food for the first time after six to nine weeks.[185][186] After this point, their mother suckles them with decreasing frequency; they are usually weaned by 16 weeks.[187] In the fall, after their mother has shown them dens and feeding grounds, the juvenile group splits up.[188] [189] While many females will stay close to the home range of their mother, males can sometimes move more than 20 km (12 mi) away.[190][191] This is considered an instinctive behavior, preventing inbreeding.[192][193] However, mother and offspring may share a den during the first winter in cold areas.[189] Life expectancy[edit]

Young Florida
Florida
raccoon (P. l. elucus) crossing a road

Captive raccoons have been known to live for more than 20 years.[76] However, the species' life expectancy in the wild is only 1.8 to 3.1 years, depending on the local conditions in terms of traffic volume, hunting, and weather severity.[194] It is not unusual for only half of the young born in one year to survive a full year.[177][195] After this point, the annual mortality rate drops to between 10% and 30%.[177] Young raccoons are vulnerable to losing their mother and to starvation, particularly in long and cold winters.[196] The most frequent natural cause of death in the North American raccoon population is distemper, which can reach epidemic proportions and kill most of a local raccoon population.[197] In areas with heavy vehicular traffic and extensive hunting, these factors can account for up to 90% of all deaths of adult raccoons.[198] Due to a broad range of range overlap with these predators, the most important natural predators of the raccoon are bobcats, coyotes, and great horned owls, the latter mainly preying on young raccoons but capable of killing adults in some cases.[199][200][201][202][203][204] In Florida, they have been reported to fall victim to larger carnivores like American black bear
American black bear
and cougars and these species may also be a threat on occasion in other areas.[205][206][207] Also in the southeast, they are among the favored prey for adult American alligators.[208][209] On occasion, both bald and golden eagles will prey on raccoons.[210][211] In rare cases of overlap, they may fall victim from carnivores ranging from species averaging smaller than themselves such as fishers to those as large and formidable as jaguars in Mexico.[212][213] In their introduced range in the former Soviet Union, their main predators are wolves, lynxes and eagle owls.[214] However, predation is not a significant cause of death, especially because larger predators have been exterminated in many areas inhabited by raccoons.[215] Range[edit]

Mississippi Delta raccoon (P. l. megaloudus) searching for food on a lake shore

Habitat[edit] Although they have thrived in sparsely wooded areas in the last decades, raccoons depend on vertical structures to climb when they feel threatened.[216][217] Therefore, they avoid open terrain and areas with high concentrations of beech trees, as beech bark is too smooth to climb.[218] Tree hollows in old oaks or other trees and rock crevices are preferred by raccoons as sleeping, winter and litter dens. If such dens are unavailable or accessing them is inconvenient, raccoons use burrows dug by other mammals, dense undergrowth or tree crotches.[219][220] In a study in the Solling
Solling
range of hills in Germany, more than 60% of all sleeping places were used only once, but those used at least ten times accounted for about 70% of all uses.[221] Since amphibians, crustaceans, and other animals around the shore of lakes and rivers are an important part of the raccoon's diet, lowland deciduous or mixed forests abundant with water and marshes sustain the highest population densities.[222][223] While population densities range from 0.5 to 3.2 animals per square kilometer (1.3 to 8.3 animals per square mile) in prairies and do not usually exceed 6 animals per square kilometer (15.5 animals per square mile) in upland hardwood forests, more than 20 raccoons per square kilometer (51.8 animals per square mile) can live in lowland forests and marshes.[222][224] Distribution in North America[edit]

An albino Florida
Florida
raccoon (P. l. elucus) in Virginia
Virginia
Key, Florida

Raccoons are common throughout North America from Canada to Panama, where the subspecies Procyon
Procyon
lotor pumilus coexists with the crab-eating raccoon ( Procyon
Procyon
cancrivorus).[225][226] The population on Hispaniola
Hispaniola
was exterminated as early as 1513 by Spanish colonists who hunted them for their meat.[227] Raccoons were also exterminated in Cuba
Cuba
and Jamaica, where the last sightings were reported in 1687.[228] When they were still considered separate species, the Bahamas raccoon, Guadeloupe raccoon
Guadeloupe raccoon
and Tres Marias raccoon
Tres Marias raccoon
were classified as endangered by the IUCN
IUCN
in 1996.[229] There is archeological evidence that in pre-Columbian times raccoons were numerous only along rivers and in the woodlands of the Southeastern United States.[230] As raccoons were not mentioned in earlier reports of pioneers exploring the central and north-central parts of the United States,[231] their initial spread may have begun a few decades before the 20th century. Since the 1950s, raccoons have expanded their range from Vancouver Island—formerly the northernmost limit of their range—far into the northern portions of the four south-central Canadian provinces.[232] New habitats which have recently been occupied by raccoons (aside from urban areas) include mountain ranges, such as the Western Rocky Mountains, prairies and coastal marshes.[233] After a population explosion starting in the 1940s, the estimated number of raccoons in North America in the late 1980s was 15 to 20 times higher than in the 1930s, when raccoons were comparatively rare.[234] Urbanization, the expansion of agriculture, deliberate introductions, and the extermination of natural predators of the raccoon have probably caused this increase in abundance and distribution.[235] Distribution outside North America[edit] As a result of escapes and deliberate introductions in the mid-20th century, the raccoon is now distributed in several European and Asian countries. Sightings have occurred in all the countries bordering Germany, which hosts the largest population outside of North America.[236] Another stable population exists in northern France, where several pet raccoons were released by members of the U.S. Air Force near the Laon-Couvron Air Base
Laon-Couvron Air Base
in 1966.[237] Furthermore, raccoons have been known to be in the area around Madrid
Madrid
since the early 1970s. In 2013 the city authorized "the capture and death of any specimen".[238] It is also present in Italy, with one reproductive population in Lombardy.[239] About 1,240 animals were released in nine regions of the former Soviet Union between 1936 and 1958 for the purpose of establishing a population to be hunted for their fur. Two of these introductions were successful — one in the south of Belarus
Belarus
between 1954 and 1958, and another in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
between 1941 and 1957. With a seasonal harvest of between 1,000 and 1,500 animals, in 1974 the estimated size of the population distributed in the Caucasus
Caucasus
region was around 20,000 animals and the density was four animals per square kilometer (10 animals per square mile).[240] Distribution in Japan[edit] In Japan, up to 1,500 raccoons were imported as pets each year after the success of the anime series Rascal the Raccoon
Rascal the Raccoon
(1977). In 2004, the descendants of discarded or escaped animals lived in 42 of 47 prefectures.[241][242][243] The population of raccoons in Japan
Japan
grew from 17 prefectures in 2000 to all 47 prefectures in 2008.[244] It is estimated that raccoons cause thirty million yen of agricultural damage on Hokkaido alone.[245]

Distribution in Germany: Raccoons killed or found dead by hunters in the hunting years 2000–2001, 2001–2002 and 2002–2003 in the administrative districts of Germany

Distribution in Germany[edit] In Germany—where the raccoon is called the Waschbär (literally, "wash-bear" or "washing bear") due to its habit of "dousing" food in water—two pairs of pet raccoons were released into the German countryside at the Edersee
Edersee
reservoir in the north of Hesse
Hesse
in April 1934 by a forester upon request of their owner, a poultry farmer.[246] He released them two weeks before receiving permission from the Prussian hunting office to "enrich the fauna."[247] Several prior attempts to introduce raccoons in Germany
Germany
were not successful.[248][249] A second population was established in eastern Germany
Germany
in 1945 when 25 raccoons escaped from a fur farm at Wolfshagen (today district of Altlandsberg), east of Berlin, after an air strike. The two populations are parasitologically distinguishable: 70% of the raccoons of the Hessian population are infected with the roundworm Baylisascaris procyonis, but none of the Brandenburgian population has the parasite.[250] The estimated number of raccoons was 285 animals in the Hessian region in 1956, over 20,000 animals in the Hessian region in 1970 and between 200,000 and 400,000 animals in the whole of Germany
Germany
in 2008.[197][248] By 2012 it was estimated that Germany
Germany
now had more than a million raccoons.[251] The raccoon was a protected species in Germany, but has been declared a game animal in 14 of the 16 states since 1954.[252] Hunters and environmentalists argue the raccoon spreads uncontrollably, threatens protected bird species and supersedes domestic carnivorans.[82] This view is opposed by the zoologist Frank-Uwe Michler, who finds no evidence a high population density of raccoons has negative effects on the biodiversity of an area.[82] Hohmann holds that extensive hunting cannot be justified by the absence of natural predators, because predation is not a significant cause of death in the North American raccoon population.[253] Distribution in the former USSR[edit] Experiments in acclimatising raccoons into the USSR began in 1936, and were repeated a further 25 times until 1962. Overall, 1,222 individuals were released, 64 of which came from zoos and fur farms (38 of them having been imports from western Europe). The remainder originated from a population previously established in Transcaucasia. The range of Soviet raccoons was never single or continuous, as they were often introduced to different locations far from each other. All introductions into the Russian Far East
Russian Far East
failed; melanistic raccoons were released on Petrov Island near Vladivostok
Vladivostok
and some areas of southern Primorsky Krai, but died. In Middle Asia, raccoons were released in Kyrgyzstan's Jalal-Abad Province, though they were later recorded as "practically absent" there in January 1963. A large and stable raccoon population (yielding 1000–1500 catches a year) was established in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
after an introduction to the area in 1937. Raccoons apparently survived an introduction near Terek, along the Sulak River
Sulak River
into the Dagestani lowlands. Attempts to settle raccoons on the Kuban River's left tributary and Kabardino-Balkaria
Kabardino-Balkaria
were unsuccessful. A successful acclimatization occurred in Belarus, where three introductions (consisting of 52, 37 and 38 individuals in 1954 and 1958) took place. By January 1, 1963, 700 individuals were recorded in the country.[254] Urban raccoons[edit]

On the roof of a house in Albertshausen, Germany

Due to its adaptability, the raccoon has been able to use urban areas as a habitat. The first sightings were recorded in a suburb of Cincinnati
Cincinnati
in the 1920s. Since the 1950s, raccoons have been present in metropolitan areas like Washington, DC, Chicago, and Toronto.[255] Since the 2010s, a nuisance population of raccoons has been present in Albuquerque, New Mexico.[256] Since the 1960s, Kassel
Kassel
has hosted Europe's first and densest population in a large urban area, with about 50 to 150 animals per square kilometer (130 to 390 animals per square mile), a figure comparable to those of urban habitats in North America.[255][257] Home range sizes of urban raccoons are only 3 to 40 hectares (7.5 to 100 acres) for females and 8 to 80 hectares (20 to 200 acres) for males.[258] In small towns and suburbs, many raccoons sleep in a nearby forest after foraging in the settlement area.[255][259] Fruit and insects in gardens and leftovers in municipal waste are easily available food sources.[260] Furthermore, a large number of additional sleeping areas exist in these areas, such as hollows in old garden trees, cottages, garages, abandoned houses, and attics. The percentage of urban raccoons sleeping in abandoned or occupied houses varies from 15% in Washington, DC
Washington, DC
(1991) to 43% in Kassel
Kassel
(2003).[259][257] Health[edit]

Raccoon
Raccoon
roundworm Baylisascaris procyonis
Baylisascaris procyonis
larvae

Raccoons can carry rabies, a lethal disease caused by the neurotropic rabies virus carried in the saliva and transmitted by bites. Its spread began in Florida
Florida
and Georgia in the 1950s and was facilitated by the introduction of infected individuals to Virginia
Virginia
and North Dakota in the late 1970s.[261] Of the 6,940 documented rabies cases reported in the United States in 2006, 2,615 (37.7%) were in raccoons.[262] The U.S. Department of Agriculture, as well as local authorities in several U.S. states and Canadian provinces, has developed oral vaccination programs to fight the spread of the disease in endangered populations.[263][264][265] Only one human fatality has been reported after transmission of the rabies virus strain commonly known as "raccoon rabies".[266] Among the main symptoms for rabies in raccoons are a generally sickly appearance, impaired mobility, abnormal vocalization, and aggressiveness.[267] There may be no visible signs at all, however, and most individuals do not show the aggressive behavior seen in infected canids; rabid raccoons will often retire to their dens instead.[82][250][267] Organizations like the U.S. Forest Service encourage people to stay away from animals with unusual behavior or appearance, and to notify the proper authorities, such as an animal control officer from the local health department.[268][269] Since healthy animals, especially nursing mothers, will occasionally forage during the day, daylight activity is not a reliable indicator of illness in raccoons.[142][143] Unlike rabies and at least a dozen other pathogens carried by raccoons, distemper, an epizootic virus, does not affect humans.[270][271] This disease is the most frequent natural cause of death in the North American raccoon population and affects individuals of all age groups.[197] For example, 94 of 145 raccoons died during an outbreak in Clifton, Ohio, in 1968.[272] It may occur along with a following inflammation of the brain (encephalitis), causing the animal to display rabies-like symptoms.[261] In Germany, the first eight cases of distemper were reported in 2007.[197] Some of the most important bacterial diseases which affect raccoons are leptospirosis, listeriosis, tetanus, and tularemia. Although internal parasites weaken their immune systems, well-fed individuals can carry a great many roundworms in their digestive tracts without showing symptoms.[273][271] The larvae of the roundworm Baylisascaris procyonis, which can be contained in the feces and seldom causes a severe illness in humans, can be ingested when cleaning raccoon latrines without wearing breathing protection.[274] While not endemic, the worm Trichinella
Trichinella
does infect raccoons,[275] and undercooked raccoon meat has caused trichinosis in humans.[276] Trematode Metorchis conjunctus
Metorchis conjunctus
can also infect raccoons.[277] Raccoons and humans[edit] Conflicts[edit]

A skunk and a California
California
raccoon (P. s. psora) share cat food morsels in a Hollywood, California, back yard

The increasing number of raccoons in urban areas has resulted in diverse reactions in humans, ranging from outrage at their presence to deliberate feeding.[278] Some wildlife experts and most public authorities caution against feeding wild animals because they might become increasingly obtrusive and dependent on humans as a food source.[279] Other experts challenge such arguments and give advice on feeding raccoons and other wildlife in their books.[280][281] Raccoons without a fear of humans are a concern to those who attribute this trait to rabies, but scientists point out this behavior is much more likely to be a behavioral adjustment to living in habitats with regular contact to humans for many generations.[282][250] Raccoons usually do not prey on domestic cats and dogs, but isolated cases of killings have been reported.[283] Attacks on pets may also target their owners.[284]

A Florida
Florida
raccoon (P. l. elucus) in the Florida
Florida
Everglades approaches a group of humans, hoping to be fed.

While overturned waste containers and raided fruit trees are just a nuisance to homeowners, it can cost several thousand dollars to repair damage caused by the use of attic space as dens.[285] Relocating or killing raccoons without a permit is forbidden in many urban areas on grounds of animal welfare. These methods usually only solve problems with particularly wild or aggressive individuals, since adequate dens are either known to several raccoons or will quickly be rediscovered.[269][176][286] Loud noises, flashing lights and unpleasant odors have proven particularly effective in driving away a mother and her kits before they would normally leave the nesting place (when the kits are about eight weeks old).[269][287] Typically, though, only precautionary measures to restrict access to food waste and den sites are effective in the long term.[269][288][289] Among all fruits and crops cultivated in agricultural areas, sweet corn in its milk stage is particularly popular among raccoons.[290][291] In a two-year study by Purdue University researchers, published in 2004, raccoons were responsible for 87% of the damage to corn plants.[292] Like other predators, raccoons searching for food can break into poultry houses to feed on chickens, ducks, their eggs, or food.[269][144][293] Since raccoons in high mortality areas have a higher rate of reproduction, extensive hunting may not solve problems with raccoon populations. Older males also claim larger home ranges than younger ones, resulting in a lower population density. Mythology, arts, and entertainment[edit]

Stylized raccoon skin as depicted on the Raccoon
Raccoon
Priests Gorget found at Spiro Mounds

See also: List of fictional raccoons In the mythology of the indigenous peoples of the Americas, the raccoon is the subject of folk tales.[294] Stories such as "How raccoons catch so many crayfish" from the Tuscarora centered on its skills at foraging.[295] In other tales, the raccoon played the role of the trickster which outsmarts other animals, like coyotes and wolves.[296] Among others, the Dakota Sioux
Dakota Sioux
believe the raccoon has natural spirit powers, since its mask resembled the facial paintings, two-fingered swashes of black and white, used during rituals to connect to spirit beings.[297] The Aztecs linked supernatural abilities especially to females, whose commitment to their young was associated with the role of wise women in their society.[298] The raccoon also appears in Native American art across a wide geographic range. Petroglyphs with engraved raccoon tracks were found in Lewis Canyon, Texas;[299] at the Crow Hollow petroglyph site in Grayson County, Kentucky;[300] and in river drainages near Tularosa, New Mexico
New Mexico
and San Francisco, California.[301] A true-to-detail figurine made of quartz, the Ohio Mound Builders' Stone Pipe, was found near the Scioto River. The meaning and significance of the Raccoon
Raccoon
Priests Gorget, which features a stylized carving of a raccoon and was found at the Spiro Mounds, Oklahoma, remains unknown.[302][303] In Western culture, several autobiographical novels about living with a raccoon have been written, mostly for children. The best-known is Sterling North's Rascal, which recounts how he raised a kit during World War I. In recent years, anthropomorphic raccoons played main roles in the animated television series The Raccoons, the computer-animated film Over the Hedge, the live action film Guardians of the Galaxy (and the comics that it was based upon) and the video game series Sly Cooper.

Coonskin cap

Hunting
Hunting
and fur trade[edit]

Automobile coat made out of raccoon fur (1906, U.S.)

Pen with climbing facilities, hiding places, and a watering hole (lower-left-side)

The fur of raccoons is used for clothing, especially for coats and coonskin caps. At present, it is the material used for the inaccurately named "sealskin" cap worn by the Royal Fusiliers of Great Britain.[304] Sporrans made of raccoon pelt and hide have sometimes been used as part of traditional Scottish highland men's apparel since the 18th Century, especially in North America. Such sporrans may or may not be of the "full-mask" type.[305] Historically, Native American tribes not only used the fur for winter clothing, but also used the tails for ornament.[306] The famous Sioux leader Spotted Tail
Spotted Tail
took his name from a raccoon skin hat with the tail attached he acquired from a fur trader. Since the late 18th century, various types of scent hounds, called "coonhounds", which are able to tree animals have been bred in the United States.[307] In the 19th century, when coonskins occasionally even served as means of payment, several thousand raccoons were killed each year in the United States.[308][309] This number rose quickly when automobile coats became popular after the turn of the 20th century. In the 1920s, wearing a raccoon coat was regarded as status symbol among college students.[310] Attempts to breed raccoons in fur farms in the 1920s and 1930s in North America and Europe turned out not to be profitable, and farming was abandoned after prices for long-haired pelts dropped in the 1940s.[311][312] Although raccoons had become rare in the 1930s, at least 388,000 were killed during the hunting season of 1934/35.[310][313] After persistent population increases began in the 1940s, the seasonal coon hunting harvest reached about one million animals in 1946/47 and two million in 1962/63.[314] The broadcast of three television episodes about the frontiersman Davy Crockett
Davy Crockett
and the film Davy Crockett, King of the Wild Frontier in 1954 and 1955 led to a high demand for coonskin caps in the United States, although it is unlikely either Crockett or the actor who played him, Fess Parker, actually wore a cap made from raccoon fur.[315] The seasonal hunt reached an all-time high with 5.2 million animals in 1976/77 and ranged between 3.2 and 4.7 million for most of the 1980s. In 1982, the average pelt price was $20.[316] As of 1987, the raccoon was identified as the most important wild furbearer in North America in terms of revenue.[317] In the first half of the 1990s, the seasonal hunt dropped to 0.9 from 1.9 million due to decreasing pelt prices.[318] While primarily hunted for their fur, raccoons were also a source of food for Native Americans and early American settlers.[319][320] According to Ernest Thompson Seton, young specimens killed without a fight are palatable, whereas old raccoons caught after a lengthy battle are inedible.[321] Raccoon
Raccoon
meat was extensively eaten during the early years of California, where it was sold in the San Francisco market for $1–3 apiece.[322] American slaves occasionally ate raccoon at Christmas, but it was not necessarily a dish of the poor or rural. The first edition of The Joy of Cooking, released in 1931, contained a recipe for preparing raccoon, and US President Calvin Coolidge's pet raccoon Rebecca was originally sent to be served at the White House
White House
Thanksgiving Dinner.[323][324][325] Although the idea of eating raccoons seems repulsive to most mainstream consumers since they see them as endearing, cute, and/or vermin, several thousand raccoons are still eaten each year in the United States.[326][327][328][329] Pet
Pet
raccoons[edit] Raccoons are sometimes kept as pets, which is discouraged by many experts because the raccoon is not a domesticated species. Raccoons may act unpredictably and aggressively and it is extremely difficult to teach them to obey commands.[330][331] In places where keeping raccoons as pets is not forbidden, such as in Wisconsin and other U.S. states, an exotic pet permit may be required.[332][333] One notable raccoon pet was Rebecca, kept by US president Calvin Coolidge.[334] Their propensity for unruly behavior exceeds that of captive skunks, and they are even less trustworthy when allowed to roam freely. Because of their intelligence and nimble forelimbs, even inexperienced raccoons are easily capable of unscrewing jars, uncorking bottles and opening door latches, with more experienced specimens having been recorded to open door knobs.[121] Sexually mature raccoons often show aggressive natural behaviors such as biting during the mating season.[330][335] Neutering
Neutering
them at around five or six months of age decreases the chances of aggressive behavior developing.[336] Raccoons can become obese and suffer from other disorders due to poor diet and lack of exercise.[337] When fed with cat food over a long time period, raccoons can develop gout.[338] With respect to the research results regarding their social behavior, it is now required by law in Austria and Germany
Germany
to keep at least two individuals to prevent loneliness.[339][340] Raccoons are usually kept in a pen (indoor or outdoor), also a legal requirement in Austria and Germany, rather than in the apartment where their natural curiosity may result in damage to property.[339][340][330][341][342] When orphaned, it is possible for kits to be rehabilitated and reintroduced to the wild. However, it is uncertain whether they readapt well to life in the wild.[343] Feeding unweaned kits with cow's milk rather than a kitten replacement milk or a similar product can be dangerous to their health.[330][344] Local and indigenous names[edit] See also: Wiktionary:raccoon § Translations

Indigenous names for Procyon
Procyon
lotor

Linguistic group or area Indigenous name

Canadian French Raton[345]

Choco Touaru[346]

Cocopah NYmaṣ[347]

Cree Es'-see-ban[345]

Creek Wot•ko[348]

Lakota wičhítegleǧa, wičhá[349]

Lenape Nahënëm[350]

Mayan Culu[346]

Miskito Suksuk[346]

Nahuatl Mapachitli[13]

Navajo Tábąąh mą'ii[351]

Nez Perce K'ayk'áyoc[352]

Ogallala Sioux Wee'-cha[345]

Ojibwe Es'-see-pan[345]

Pawnee Icat[353]

Spanish Mapache[346] Mapachín[346] Tejón[346] Gato manglatero[346]

Wintu Qari•lit[354]

Yankton Sioux Way-atch-a[345]

See also[edit]

Cozumel raccoon, an endangered species in the Yucatán Peninsula Crab-eating raccoon, of Central and South America, eats crustaceans amongst other things

Notes[edit]

^ " Raccoon
Raccoon
Fossil
Fossil
Procyon" The Virtual Fossil
Fossil
Museum accessed June 2015 ^ Timm, R.; Cuarón, A.D.; Reid, F.; Helgen, K.; González-Maya, J.F. (2016). "Pr". IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2016: e.T41686A45216638. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T41686A45216638.en. Retrieved 24 November 2016.  ^ Seidl, Jennifer; McMordie, W. (1982). Fowler, F.G.; Fowler, H.W.; Sykes, John Bradbury, eds. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 851. ISBN 978-0-19-195872-4.  ^ Zeveloff 2002, p. 42. ^ Zeveloff 2002, p. 1. ^ Larivière, Serge (2004). "Range expansion of raccoons in the Canadian prairies: review of hypotheses". Wildlife Society Bulletin. Lawrence, Kansas: Allen Press. 32 (3): 955–963. doi:10.2193/0091-7648(2004)032[0955:REORIT]2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0091-7648.  ^ Moviefone (2017-05-04), Rocket's Called a Trash Panda in Marvel's 'Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2' (2017), retrieved 2018-03-23  ^ " Animal
Animal
Facts: Raccoon". Canadian Geographic.  ^ a b Hohmann, Bartussek & Böer 2001, pp. 71–72. ^ MacClintock 1981, p. 5. ^ Other attested colonial spellings of the Powhatan word include: racone, arrathcune, arathcoon, aroucoun, and rahaughcun. Vogel, Virgil J. (1962). "Indian Place Names in Illinois". Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society. 55 (4): 400. JSTOR 40190265.  ^ Holmgren 1990, p. 157. ^ a b Holmgren 1990, p. 52. ^ Zeveloff 2002, p. 2. ^ Holmgren 1990, pp. 75–76. ^ Sotiroupoulos, Karen (2006). Staging Race: Black Performers in Turn of the century America. Harvard University Press. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-674-02760-2.  ^ "Radio Talk
Talk
Show Host Fired for Racial Slur Against Condoleezza Rice". FOX News. March 22, 2006. Retrieved March 19, 2010.  ^ Holmgren 1990, pp. 47–67. ^ Holmgren 1990, pp. 64–67. ^ Zeveloff 2002, pp. 4–6. ^ Holmgren 1990, pp. 68–69. ^ Zeveloff 2002, p. 6. ^ Hohmann, Bartussek & Böer 2001, p. 44. ^ Holmgren 1990, p. 68. ^ Zeveloff 2002, p. 19. ^ Zeveloff 2002, pp. 16–18, 26. ^ Zeveloff 2002, pp. 20, 23. ^ a b Zeveloff 2002, p. 24. ^ Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Gompper, Matthew E.; Eizirik, Eduardo; Ho, Cheuk-Chung; Linden, Leif; Maldonado, Jesus E.; Wayne, Robert K. (June 2007). "Phylogeny of the Procyonidae
Procyonidae
(Mammalia: Carnivora): Molecules, morphology and the Great American Interchange" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 43 (3): 1076–1095. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.10.003. ISSN 1055-7903. PMID 17174109. Retrieved December 7, 2008.  ^ Hohmann, Bartussek & Böer 2001, p. 46. ^ Kurtén, Björn (1980). Pleistocene
Pleistocene
Mammals of North America. Columbia University Press. pp. 175–6. ISBN 0-231-03733-3.  ^ Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 627–628. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.  ^ Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 628. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.  ^ Zeveloff 2002, pp. 42–46. ^ Helgen, Kristofer M.; Wilson, Don E. (January 2003). "Taxonomic status and conservation relevance of the raccoons ( Procyon
Procyon
spp.) of the West Indies". Journal of Zoology. Oxford: The Zoological Society of London. 259 (1): 69–76. doi:10.1017/S0952836902002972. ISSN 0952-8369.  ^ Helgen, Kristofer M.; Wilson, Don E. (2005). "A Systematic and Zoogeographic Overview of the Raccoons of Mexico
Mexico
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lotor)" (PDF). Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System: 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 31, 2008. Retrieved December 7, 2008.  ^ Truman, Margaret (2007), The President's House: 1800 to the Present, Random House, p. 150, ISBN 9780307417312  ^ Hohmann, Bartussek & Böer 2001, pp. 185–186. ^ Hohmann, Bartussek & Böer 2001, p. 186. ^ Hohmann, Bartussek & Böer 2001, p. 185. ^ Hohmann, Bartussek & Böer 2001, p. 180. ^ a b Gutachten über Mindestanforderungen an die Haltung von Säugetieren (PDF) (in German). Bonn, Germany: Bundesministerium für Verbraucherschutz, Ernährung und Landwirtschaft. June 10, 1996. pp. 42–43. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 25, 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2009.  ^ a b Mindestanforderungen an die Haltung von Säugetieren (PDF) (in German). Bundesministerium für Gesundheit und Frauen. December 17, 2004. p. 23. Retrieved August 21, 2010.  ^ Hohmann, Bartussek & Böer 2001, pp. 184, 187. ^ MacClintock 1981, pp. 130–131. ^ MacClintock 1981, p. 130. ^ Hohmann, Bartussek & Böer 2001, pp. 175–176. ^ a b c d e Seton 1909, pp. 1010 ^ a b c d e f g Reid, F. A. (2009). A Field Guide to the Mammals of Central America and Southeast Mexico. Oxford University Press. P. 263. ISBN 0-19-534322-0 ^ Crawford, J. M. (1989). Cocopa Dictionary. p. 497. University of California
California
Press. ISBN 0-520-09749-1 ^ Martin, J. P. & Mauldin, M. M. (2004). A Dictionary of Creek/Muskogee. p. 150. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-8302-4 ^ *Ullrich, Jan. (2008). New Lakota Dictionary. Lakota Language Consortium. ISBN 0-9761082-9-1. ^ "nahënëm". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Archived from the original on September 1, 2015.  ^ Neundorf, A. (1983). A Navajo/English Bilingual Dictionary: Áłchíní Bi Naaltsoostsoh. p. 615. UNM Press. ISBN 0-8263-3825-9 ^ Aoki, Haruo (1994). Nez Percé dictionary. p.268. University of California
California
Press. ISBN 0-520-09763-7 ^ Parks, R. P.; Pratt, L. N. (2008). A Dictionary of Skiri Pawnee. p. 252. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-1926-1 ^ Pitkin, H. (1985). Wintu Dictionary. University of California
California
Press. pp. 890. ISBN 0-520-09613-4

References[edit]

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Raccoon". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  Bartussek, Ingo (2004). Die Waschbären kommen (in German). Niedenstein, Germany: Cognitio. ISBN 978-3-932583-10-0.  Goldman, Edward A.; Jackson, Hartley H.T. (1950). Raccoons of North and Middle America. North American Fauna. 60. Washington: U.S. Deptartment of the Interior, Fish
Fish
and Wildlife Service – via Internet Archive.  Heptner, V.G.; Sludskii, A.A. (2002). Mammals of the Soviet Union. Vol. II, part 1b, Carnivores ( Mustelidae
Mustelidae
& Procyonidae). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation. ISBN 90-04-08876-8 – via Internet Archive.  Hohmann, Ulf; Bartussek, Ingo; Böer, Bernhard (2001). Der Waschbär (in German). Reutlingen, Germany: Oertel+Spörer. ISBN 978-3-88627-301-0.  Holmgren, Virginia
Virginia
C. (1990). Raccoons in Folklore, History and Today's Backyards. Santa Barbara, California: Capra Press. ISBN 978-0-88496-312-7.  Lagoni-Hansen, Anke (1981). Der Waschbär (in German). Mainz, Germany: Verlag Dieter Hoffmann. ISBN 3-87341-037-0.  MacClintock, Dorcas (1981). A Natural History of Raccoons. Caldwell, New Jersey: Blackburn Press. ISBN 978-1-930665-67-5.  Seton, Ernest Thompson (1909). Life-histories of northern animals: an account of the mammals of Manitoba. New York City: Scribner – via Internet Archive.  Zeveloff, Samuel I. (2002). Raccoons: A Natural History. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Books. ISBN 978-1-58834-033-7 – via Google Books. 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutRaccoonat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons Taxonomy from Wikispecies

Raccoon
Raccoon
Tracks—general information about raccoons Raccoons – Living with Wildlife—information about dealing with urban raccoons from the Washington Department of Fish
Fish
and Wildlife " Raccoon
Raccoon
Nation". Nature (TV series). PBS. 2012. 

v t e

Extant species of family Procyonidae

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Suborder: Caniformia

Procyoninae

Procyon

Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus) Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) with the subspecies Bahamian raccoon
Bahamian raccoon
(P. l. maynardi) Barbados raccoon
Barbados raccoon
(P. l. gloveralleni) Guadeloupe raccoon
Guadeloupe raccoon
(P. l. minor) Tres Marias raccoon
Tres Marias raccoon
(P. l. insularis)

Nasua

South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua) White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) with the subspecies Cozumel Island coati (N. narica nelsoni)

Nasuella

Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis) Western mountain coati (N. olivacea)

Bassariscus

Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti) Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus)

Potosinae

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Bassaricyon

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Category

v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh
Marsh
mongoose (A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat (F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard cat
Leopard cat
(P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter civet
Otter civet
(C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California
California
sea lion (Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal
(M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon dog
Raccoon dog
(N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox
Bengal fox
(V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech
Beech
marten (M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

v t e

Game animals and shooting in North America

Game birds

Bobwhite quail Chukar Hungarian partridge Prairie
Prairie
chicken Mourning dove Ring-necked pheasant Ptarmigan Ruffed grouse Sharp-tailed grouse Snipe (common snipe) Spruce grouse Turkey Woodcock

Waterfowl

Black duck Canada goose Canvasback Gadwall Greater scaup Lesser scaup Mallard Northern pintail Redhead Ross's goose Snow goose Wood duck

Big game

Bighorn sheep Black bear Razorback Brown bear Bison (buffalo) Caribou Cougar
Cougar
(mountain lion) Elk Moose White-tailed deer Gray wolf Mountain goat Mule deer Pronghorn Muskox Dall sheep Polar bear

Other quarry

American alligator Bobcat Coyote Fox
Fox
squirrel Gray fox Gray squirrel Opossum Rabbit Red fox Snowshoe hare

See also

Bear
Bear
hunting Big game hunting Bison hunting Deer hunting Waterfowl hunting Whaling Fishing Wolf
Wolf
hunting Upland hunting

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q121439 ADW: Procyon_lotor ARKive: procyon-lotor EoL: 328598 EPPO: PROYLO Fauna
Fauna
Europaea: 305355 Fossilworks: 50729 GBIF: 5218786 iNaturalist: 41663 ITIS: 180575 IUCN: 41686 MSW: 14001664 NCBI: 9654

Authority control

GND: 43069

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