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The QURAYSH ( Arabic
Arabic
: قريش‎‎) were a mercantile tribe that historically inhabited and controlled Mecca
Mecca
and its Ka\'aba . The Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
was born into the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraysh
Quraysh
tribe. The Quraysh
Quraysh
staunchly opposed Muhammad
Muhammad
until converting to Islam
Islam
en masse in 630 CE. Afterward, leadership of the Muslim community traditionally passed to a member of the Quraysh
Quraysh
as was the case with the Rashidun , Umayyad , and Abbasid caliphs.

CONTENTS

* 1 Name

* 2 History

* 2.1 Origins * 2.2 Establishment in Mecca
Mecca
* 2.3 Leadership of Meccan trade * 2.4 Conflict with Muhammad
Muhammad
* 2.5 Islamic leadership

* 3 Clans * 4 Leaders * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 Bibliography

NAME

Sources differ as to the etymology of Quraysh, with one theory holding that it was the diminutive form of qirsh (shark). The 9th-century genealogist Hisham ibn al-Kalbi asserted that there was no eponymous founder of Quraysh; rather, the name stemmed from taqarrush, an Arabic
Arabic
word meaning "a coming together" or "association". The nisba or surname of the Quraysh
Quraysh
is Qurashī, though in the early centuries of Islam, most Qurayshi tribesmen were denoted by their specific clan instead of the tribe. Later, particularly after the 13th century, claimants of Qurayshi descent used the Qurashī surname.

HISTORY

ORIGINS

The Quraysh's progenitor was Fihr ibn Malik , whose full genealogy, according to traditional Arab sources, was the following: Fihr ibn Mālik ibn al-Naḍr ibn Kināna ibn Khuzayma
Khuzayma
ibn Mudrika ibn Ilyās ibn Muḍar ibn Nizār ibn Maʿadd ibn ʿAdnān. Thus, Fihr belonged to the Kinana tribe and his descent is traced to Adnan
Adnan
, the semi-legendary father of the "northern Arabs
Arabs
". According to the traditional sources, Fihr led the warriors of Kinana and Khuzayma
Khuzayma
in defense of the Ka\'aba , at the time a major pagan sanctuary in Mecca , against tribes from Yemen
Yemen
; however, the sanctuary and the privileges associated with it continued to be in the hands of the Yemeni Khuza\'a tribe. The Quraysh
Quraysh
gained their name when Qusayy ibn Kilab , a sixth-generation descendant of Fihr ibn Malik, gathered together his kinsmen and took control of the Ka'aba. Prior to this, Fihr's offspring lived in scattered, nomadic groups among their Kinana relatives.

ESTABLISHMENT IN MECCA

All medieval Muslim
Muslim
sources agree that Qusayy unified Fihr's descendants, and established the Quraysh
Quraysh
as the dominant power in Mecca. After conquering Mecca, Qusayy assigned quarters to different Qurayshi clans. Those settled around the Ka'aba were known Quraysh al-Biṭāḥ, and included all of the descendants of Ka\'b ibn Lu\'ayy and others. The clans settled in the outskirts of the sanctuary were known as Quraysh
Quraysh
al-Ẓawāhīr. According to historian Ibn Ishaq , Qusayy's younger son, \'Abd Manaf , had grown prominent during his father's lifetime and was chosen by Qusayy to be his successor as the guardian of the Ka'aba. He also gave other responsibilities related to the Ka'aba to his other sons \'Abd al-\'Uzza and 'Abd, while ensuring that all decisions by the Quraysh had to be made in the presence of his eldest son \'Abd al-Dar ; the latter was also designated ceremonial privileges such as keeper of the Qurayshi war banner and supervisor of water and provisions to the pilgrims visiting the Ka'aba.

According to historian F. E. Peters , Ibn Ishaq's account reveals that Mecca
Mecca
in the time of Qusayy and his immediate offspring was not yet a commercial center; rather, the city's economy was based on pilgrimage to the Ka'aba, and "what pass for municipal offices have to do only with military operations and with control of the shrine". During that time, the tribesmen of Quraysh
Quraysh
were not traders; instead, they were entrusted with religious services, from which they significantly profited. They also profited from taxes collected from incoming pilgrims. Though Qusayy appeared to be the strongman of Quraysh, he was not officially a king of the tribe, but one of many leading sheikhs (tribal chieftains).

According to historian Gerald R. Hawting , if the traditional sources are to be believed, Qusayy's children, "must have lived in the second half of the fifth century". However, historian W. Montgomery Watt asserts that Qusayy himself likely died in the second half of the 6th century. The issue of succession between Qusayy's natural successor, 'Abd al-Dar, and his chosen successor, 'Abd Manaf, led to the division of Quraysh
Quraysh
into two factions; those who backed the \'Abd al-Dar clan , including the clans of Banu Sahm , Banu \'Adi , Banu Makhzum and Banu Jumah , became known as al-Aḥlāf (the Confederates), while those who backed the \'Abd Manaf clan , including the Banu Taym
Banu Taym
, Banu Asad , Banu Zuhra and Banu al-Harith ibn Fihr , were known as al-Muṭayyabūn (the Perfumed).

LEADERSHIP OF MECCAN TRADE

Toward the end of the 6th century, the Fijar War broke out between the Quraysh
Quraysh
and the Kinana one side and various Qaysi tribes on the other, including the Hawazin
Hawazin
, Banu Thaqif , Banu \'Amir and Banu Sulaym . The war was precipitated by a Kinani tribesman's slaying of an 'Amiri tribesman escorting a Lakhmid
Lakhmid
caravan to the Hejaz. The attack took place during the holy season when fighting was typically forbidden. The Kinani tribesman's patron was Harb ibn Umayya, a Qurayshi chief. This patron and other chiefs were ambushed by the Hawazin
Hawazin
at Nakhla, but were able to escape. In the battles that occurred in the following two years, the Qays were victorious, but in the fourth year, the tide turned in favor of the Quraysh
Quraysh
and Kinana. After a few more clashes, peace was reestablished. According to Watt, the actual aim in the Fijar War was control of the trade routes of Najd
Najd
. Despite particularly tough resistance by the Quraysh's main trade rivals, the Thaqif of Ta\'if , and the Banu Nasr clan of Hawazin, the Quraysh
Quraysh
ultimately held sway over western Arabian trade. The Quraysh
Quraysh
gained control over Ta'if's trade and many Qurayshi individuals purchased estates in Ta'if, where the climate was cooler.

The sanctuary village of Mecca
Mecca
had since become a major Arabian trade hub. According to Watt, by 600 CE, the leaders of Quraysh
Quraysh
"were prosperous merchants who had obtained something like a monopoly of the trade between the Indian Ocean and East Africa on the one hand and the Mediterranean on the other". Furthermore, the Quraysh
Quraysh
commissioned trade caravans to Yemen
Yemen
in the winter and caravans to Gaza , Bosra
Bosra
, Damascus
Damascus
and al-Arish in the summer. The Quraysh
Quraysh
established networks with merchants in these Syrian cities. They also formed political or economic alliances with many of the Bedouin
Bedouin
(nomadic Arab) tribes in the northern and central Arabian deserts to ensure the safety of their trade caravans. The Quraysh
Quraysh
invested their revenues in building their trading ventures, and shared profits with tribal allies to translate financial fortune into significant political power in the Hejaz
Hejaz
, i.e. western Arabia. In the words of Fred Donner :

Meccan commerce was flourishing as never before, and the leaders in this trade had developed from mere merchants into true financiers. They were no longer interested in "buying cheap and selling dear," but also with organizing money and men to realize their commercial objectives. There was emerging, in short, a class of men with well-developed managerial and organizational skills. It was a development unheralded, and almost unique, in central Arabia.

The Banu Makhzum and Banu Umayya , in particular, acquired vast wealth from trade and held the most influence among the Quraysh
Quraysh
in Meccan politics. The Banu Umayya and the Banu Nawfal , another clan descending from 'Abd Manaf that had become wealthy from their commercial enterprise, split from the Muṭayyabūn faction in 605 and engaged in business with the Aḥlāf. Their financial fortunes had enabled them to become a force of their own. The Muṭayyabūn was consequently replaced by the al-Fuḍūl alliance, which consisted of the Banu Hashim and Banu Muttalib , descendants of 'Abd Manaf, and the Taym, Asad, Zuhra and al-Harith ibn Fihr clans. The Banu Hashim held the hereditary rights surrounding the pilgrimage to the Ka'aba, though the Banu Umayya were ultimately the strongest Qurayshi clan. According to Watt, "In all the stories of the pre-Islamic period there is admittedly a legendary element, but the main outline of events appears to be roughly correct, even if most of the dating is uncertain."

CONFLICT WITH MUHAMMAD

The polytheistic Quraysh
Quraysh
opposed the monotheistic message preached by the Islamic prophet by Muhammad
Muhammad
, himself a Qurayshi from the Banu Hashim. The tribe harassed members of the nascent Muslim
Muslim
community, and attempted to harm Muhammad, but he was protected by his uncle Abu Talib . To escape persecution, Muhammad
Muhammad
and his companions , including the Qurayshi Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
, immigrated to Medina
Medina
. Muhammad then confronted a Qurayshi caravan returning from Palestine and defeated the Quraysh
Quraysh
at the ensuing Battle of Badr
Battle of Badr
in 624. The Quraysh
Quraysh
later besieged the Muslims at Medina
Medina
in 627, but were defeated in the Battle of the Trench . The Treaty of Hudaybiyya was then signed between Muhammad
Muhammad
and the Quraysh
Quraysh
in 628, but was violated because of a dispute between Bedouin
Bedouin
tribes from each camp. In January 630, Muhammad
Muhammad
moved to finally settle the conflict with Quraysh
Quraysh
and returned with his followers to capture Mecca.

ISLAMIC LEADERSHIP

Muhammad
Muhammad
entered Mecca
Mecca
victoriously in 630, prompting the rest of Quraysh
Quraysh
to embrace Islam. Muhammad
Muhammad
sought to consolidate the unity of his expanding Muslim
Muslim
community by "winning over this powerful group ", according to Donner; to that end, he used several means, including assurances of Qurayshi participation and influence in the nascent Islamic state. Thus, despite their long enmity with Muhammad, the Quraysh
Quraysh
were brought in as political and economic partners and became a key component in the Muslim
Muslim
elite; Indeed, many leading Qurayshi tribesmen were installed in key government positions and in Muhammad's policy-making circle. According to Donner, the inclusion of Quraysh "in the ruling elite of the Islamic state was very probably responsible for what appears to be the more carefully organized and systematic approach to statesmanship practiced by Muhammad
Muhammad
in the closing years of his life, as the organizational skills of the Quraysh were put to use in the service of Islam."

With Muhammad's death in 632, rivalry emerged between the Quraysh
Quraysh
and the two other components of the Muslim
Muslim
elite, the Ansar and the Thaqif, over influence in state matters. The Ansar wanted one of their own to succeed the prophet as caliph , but were persuaded by Umar to agree to Abu Bakr. During the reigns of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
(632–634) and Umar (r. 634–644), some of the Ansar were concerned about their political stake. The Quraysh
Quraysh
apparently held real power during this period marked by the early Muslim
Muslim
conquests . During the First Muslim Civil War , the Ansar, who backed Caliph
Caliph
Ali
Ali
of the Banu Hashim against two factions representing rival Qurayshi clans, were defeated. They were subsequently left out of the political elite, while the Thaqif held a measure of influence by dint of their long relationship with the Quraysh.

A hadith holding that the caliph must be from Quraysh
Quraysh
became almost universally accepted by the Muslims, with the exception of the Kharijites . Indeed, control of the Islamic state essentially devolved into a struggle between various factions of the Quraysh. In the first civil war, these factions included the Banu Umayya represented by Mu\'awiya ibn Abi Sufyan , the Banu Hashim represented by Ali, and other Qurayshi leaders such as al-Zubayr ibn al-Awwam and Talha ibn Ubayd Allah
Talha ibn Ubayd Allah
. Later, during the Second Muslim
Muslim
Civil War , these same factions again fought for control of the caliphate , with the Umayyads victorious at the war's conclusion in 692/93. In 750, the issue of which Qurayshi clan would hold the reins of power was again raised but this time, the Abbasids , a branch of the Banu Hashim, were victorious and slew much of the Banu Umayya. Afterward, Islamic leadership was contested between certain branches of the Banu Hashim.

CLANS

CLAN GENEALOGY NOTABLE MEMBERS

Banu al-Harith Al-Harith ibn Fihr.

Banu 'Amir 'Amir ibn Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr.

Banu \'Adi 'Adi ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr. Umar ibn Al-Khattab

Banu Taym
Banu Taym
Taym ibn Murra ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr. Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr

Banu Sahm Sahm ibn 'Amr ibn Husays ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr.

Banu Jumah Jumah ibn 'Amr ibn Husays ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr.

Banu Makhzum Makhzum ibn Yaqaza ibn Murra ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr. Khalid ibn al-Walid
Khalid ibn al-Walid

Banu Zuhra Zuhra ibn Kilab ibn Murra ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr.

Banu \'Abd al-Dar 'Abd al-Dar ibn Qusayy ibn Kilab ibn Murra ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr.

Banu Abd Shams 'Abd Shams ibn 'Abd Manaf ibn Qusayy ibn Kilab ibn Murra ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr. Uthman
Uthman
ibn Affan

Banu Nawfal Nawfal ibn 'Abd Manaf ibn Qusayy ibn Kilab ibn Murra ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr.

Banu Hashim Hashim ibn 'Abd Manaf ibn Qusayy ibn Kilab ibn Murra ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr. Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn \'Abd Allah
Allah
, Abu Lahab ibn \'Abdul Muttalib

Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Thalib

Banu Mutallib Al-Mutallib ibn 'Abd Manaf ibn Qusayy ibn Kilab ibn Murra ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr.

Banu Asad Asad ibn 'Abd al-Uzza ibn Qusayy ibn Kilab ibn Murra ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr.

LEADERS

The leaders of the Quraysh
Quraysh
(Arabic: Sadat Quraysh), who formed Mecca's aristocracy upon the appearance of Muhammad, included:

* Al-\'As ibn Wa\'il ( Banu Sahm ) * Amr ibn Hishām
Amr ibn Hishām
( Banu Makhzum ) * Abu Lahab ibn \'Abdul Muttalib ( Banu Hashim ) * Abu Sufyan ibn Harb ( Banu Umayya ) * Akhnas ibn Shariq ( Banu Zuhrah ) * Hakim ibn Hizam ( Banu Asad ) * Mut‘im ibn ‘Adi ( Banu Nawfal ) * Mughirah ibn Abd-Allah ( Banu Makhzum ) * Nabeeha ibn Hujaj ( Banu Jumah ) * Nazar ibn Harris ( Banu Abd ad-Dar ) * Suhayl ibn Amr * Umayyah ibn Khalaf ( Banu Jumah ) * Utba ibn Rabi\'ah ( Banu Abd-Shams ) * Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
al-Siddiq ibn Abi Quhafah ( Banu Taym
Banu Taym
)

SEE ALSO

Quraysh
Quraysh
is also the name of the 106th Surah of the Qur\'an .

* Islam
Islam
portal

* Alaouite dynasty
Alaouite dynasty
* Awan * Ba \'Alawiyya * Hawk of Quraish * List of expeditions of Muhammad
Muhammad
against the Quraysh
Quraysh

NOTES

* ^ Qusayy's genealogy : Quṣayy ibn Kilāb ibn Murra ibn Kaʿb ibn Luʾayy ibn Ghālib ibn Fihr

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z AA AB Watt 1986, p. 434. * ^ Peters 1994, p. 14. * ^ A B C D E F G H I J Watt 1986, p. 435. * ^ Peters 1994, pp. 14–15. * ^ A B Peters 1994, p. 15. * ^ Peters 1994, pp. 15–16. * ^ A B Peters 1994, p. 16. * ^ A B Hawting 2000, p. 22. * ^ A B C D E F G Fück 1965, p. 883. * ^ A B Fück 1965, p. 884. * ^ A B C D E Donner 1981, p. 51. * ^ Donner 1981, p. 52. * ^ Peters 1994, pp. 51–52. * ^ Peters, p. 58. * ^ Peters 1994, pp. 70–71. * ^ Peters 1994, p. 74. * ^ Peters 1994, pp. 78-79. * ^ A B Peters 1994, p. 81. * ^ A B C D E Donner 1981, p. 77. * ^ Donner 1981, pp. 77–78. * ^ Donner 1981, p. 273. * ^ Donner 1981, pp. 273–274. * ^ A B C D E Donner 1981, p. 274. * ^ Donner 1981, pp. 274–275. * ^ A B C Donner 1981, p. 275. * ^ A B Sahih al-Bukhari , 5:59:286 * ^ A B M Pacuk.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Donner, Fred M. (1981). The Early Islamic Conquests. Princeton: Princeton University Press. * Fück, J. W. (1965). "Fidjār". In Lewis, B; Pellat, Ch; Schacht, J. The Encyclopedia of Islam, Vol. 2, C-G (2nd ed.). Leiden: Brill. pp. 883–884. ISBN 90-04-07026-5 . CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link ) * Hawting, G. R. (2000) . The First Dynasty of Islam: The Umayyad Caliphate
Caliphate
AD 661-750 (2nd ed.). London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-24073-5 . * Peters, F. E. (1994). Mecca: A Literary History of the Muslim
Muslim
Holy Land. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-03267-X . * Watt, W. Montgomery (1986). "Kuraysh". The Encyclopedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume V: Khe–Mahi. Leiden and New York: BRILL. pp. 434–435. ISBN 90-04-07819-3 .

* v * t * e

People and things in the Quran
Quran

CHARACTERS

GOD IN ISLAM (ALLAH )

* Names of God found in the Quran
Quran

ANGELS

* Israfil
Israfil
* Izra\'il/Azrael (Malak al-Mawt) * Jibra\'il/Gabriel (Al-Ruh al-Amin) and Holy Spirit (Al-Ruh al-Qudus) and Al-Ruh (The Spirit) * Maalik * Mika\'il * Harut and Marut

JINNS

* Iblīs/Devil * Shaitan/Satan * Ifrit (and Marid ) * Qareen

IN HEAVEN (JANNAH)

* Ghilman and Wildan * Houri

IN HELL (JAHANNAM)

* Zabaniyya * Zaqqum

Prophets and apostles (messengers) of God

MENTIONED

* Ādam/Adam * Alyasa\'/Elisha * Ayyub/Job * Dawud/David * Dhul-Kifl/Ezekiel? * Harun/Aaron * Hud/Eber? * Ibrahim/Abraham (Khalilullah) * Idris/Enoch? * Ilyas/Elijah * Imran/Joachim (father of Maryam) * Isa/Jesus * Isḥaq/Isaac

* Isma\'il/Ishmael

* Dhabih Ullah

* Lut/Lot * Muhammad
Muhammad
or Ahmad
Ahmad
/Paraclete * Musa/Moses (Kalimullah) * Nuh/Noah * Saleh/Shelah? * Shuaib/Jethro * Sulayman/Solomon * Uzair/Ezra? * Yahya/John the Baptist * Yaqub/Jacob (Israel) * Yunus/Jonah (Dhul-Nun, Sahib al-Hut) * Yūsuf/Joseph * Zakariya/Zechariah

IMPLIED

* Ermia/Jeremiah * Samuel * Yusha\' ibn Nūn/Joshua

Good people (before Islam)

MENTIONED

* Dhul-Qarnayn * Luqman * Maryam/Mary (mother of Isa) * Talut/Saul

Implicitly mentioned

* Asiyah bint Muzahim /Bithiah? (wife of Fir\'aun) * Asif ibn Barkhiya * Bilquis (Queen of Saba/Sheba) * Believer of Fir\'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura) * Beniamin/Benjamin * Habib the Carpenter
Habib the Carpenter
(believer of Ya-Sin) * Kaleb/Caleb * Khidr
Khidr
* Magicians of Fir\'aun * Simon Cephas/Simon Peter

Other people (before Islam)

MENTIONED

* Āzar (uncle of Ibrahim) * Fir\'aun/Pharaoh * Haman * Jalut/Goliath * Qarun/Korah * Sāmiri

Implicitly mentioned

* Abraha
Abraha
* Bal\'am/Balaam * Barṣīṣā * Nebuchadnezzar II * Nimrod
Nimrod
* Potiphar (Al-Aziz) * Shaddad * Simeon (son of Ya\'qub) * Slayers of Saleh\'s she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda\' ibn Dahr ) * Valid ibn Rayyan (king of Egypt
Egypt
in the account of Yūsuf) * Zuleika (wife of al-Aziz)

Mentioned people (after inception of Islam)

* Abū Lahab
Abū Lahab
* Zayd ibn Harithah

Relatives of prophets

Specified good relatives

* Daughters of Lut/Lot (Ritha, Za\'ura, et al.) * Elizabeth or \'Ishā\' (wife of Zakariya) * Habil/Abel (son of Adam) * Hawwa\'/Eve (wife of Adam) * Kulthum/Miriam (sister of Musa) * Saffurah/ Zipporah (wife of Musa) and Layya (Saffura\'s sister) * Sarah (wife of Ibrahim, mother of Isḥaq) * Yukabed/Jochebed (mother of Musa)

Non-specified good relatives

* Abiona/Amtelai daughter of Karnebo (mother of Ibrahim) * Bathsheba (wife of Dawud) * Muhammad\'s wives * Daughters of Muhammad
Muhammad
* Hājar/Hagar (wife of Ibrahim, mother of Isma\'il) * Hannah/Anne daughter of Faquz (mother of Maryam) * Imran/Amram (father of Musa) * Lamech (father of Nuh) * Rāhil/ Rachel
Rachel
(wife of Ya\'qub) * Rahma/ Dinah
Dinah
(wife of Ayyub) * Shamkha bint Anush/Betenos (mother of Nuh) * Son of Luqman

OTHER RELATIVES

* Brothers of Yūsuf * Children of Ayyub * Dead son of Sulaiman * Qabil/Cain? * Tārah/Terah (father of Ibrahim) * Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab) * Wali\'ah or Wa\'ilah/Waala? (wife of Nuh) * Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut) * Yam or Kan\'an (son of Nuh)

GROUPS AND TRIBES

Tribes and ethnicities

MENTIONED

* \'Ād (people of Hud) * Arabs
Arabs
and Ajam
Ajam
* Children of Israel/ Israelites
Israelites
* Companions of the Rass * People of Saba\'/ Sheba
Sheba
* People of Shu\'aib (people of Madyan and people of Aykah/Wood ) * People of Tubba\' * Quraysh * Romans * Thamud (people of Saleh, companions of Hijr) * Ya\'juj and Ma\'juj/Gog and Magog

Implicitly mentioned

* Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt
* Amalek * Banu Hashim * Banu Nadir
Banu Nadir
* Banu Qaynuqa * Banu Qurayza
Banu Qurayza
* Iranian people * Umayyad Dynasty

GROUPS

MENTIONED

* Christian
Christian
apostles

* Disciples of Jesus

* Companions of Noah\'s Ark * Companions of Sabbath (Aşḥāb al-Sabt) * Companions of the Cave/Seven Sleepers and Companions of al-Raqaim * Companions of the Elephant * People of al-Ukhdūd * People of the City (People of Ya-Sin) * People of the Burned Garden (Aşḥāb al-Jannah) * Ulu\'l azm prophets

Implicitly mentioned

* Ahl al-Suffa (People of the Verandah) * Aus and Khazraj * Copts
Copts
* Hezbollah * Muhajirun (The emigrants) and Ansar (The helpers) * Ummah of Islam
Islam
(Ummah of Muhammad)

RELIGIOUS GROUPS

* Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi) * Christians (People of Injil) * Jews
Jews
* Kafir
Kafir
(Infidels)

* Majus

* Zoroastrians

* Munafiq

* Hypocrites

* Mushrik

* Polytheists

* Muslims * People of the Book (‎′Ahl al-Kitāb) * Sabians * Ahbār (Jewish scholars) * Qissis ( Christian
Christian
priest) * Rabbani/ Rabbi
Rabbi
* Ruhban ( Christian
Christian
monks)

LOCATIONS, ENTITIES AND EVENTS

LOCATIONS

MENTIONED

* Ahqāf * Al-Aqsa Mosque * Arafat and Mash\'ar al-Harām * Bābil / Babylon
Babylon
* Badr * Door of Hittah * Hijr/Hegra * Holy Land
Holy Land
(Palestine and Levant
Levant
) * Hunayn * Iram * Ka\'bah/ Kaaba
Kaaba
(Bayt al-Harām/Sacred House, Bayt al-\'Atīq/Ancient House) * Madyan/ Midian
Midian
* Madinah/ Medina
Medina
(formerly Yathrib ) * Majma\' al-Bahrain * Makkah/ Mecca
Mecca
(Umm al-Qura, Balad al-Amin , Bakkah
Bakkah
) * Maqām Ibrahim * Masjid al-Dirar * Masjid al-Haram
Masjid al-Haram
* Mount Judi * Mu\'tafikat (Sodom) * Rass * Saba\'/ Sheba
Sheba
* Al-Safa and Al-Marwah * Tur Sinā\' / Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
and Jabal al-Tur * Egypt
Egypt
* Valley of Tuwa

Implicitly mentioned

* Antioch
Antioch

* Antakya

* Ayla * Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn * Bayt al-Muqaddas and \'Ariha * Black Stone
Black Stone
(Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) and Al-Hijr of Isma\'il * Canaan
Canaan
* Cave of Hira
Hira
and Cave of Thawr * Cave of Seven Sleepers * Dār al-Nadwa * Hudaybiyyah * Jordan River
Jordan River
* Ma\'rib Dam * Masjid al-Nabawi (Prophet\'s Mosque) * Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
* Nile
Nile
River * Nineveh
Nineveh
* Palestine River * Paradise of Shaddad * Quba Mosque * Sinai Desert and Tīh Desert * Ta\'if

RELIGIOUS LOCATIONS

* Bay\'a (Church) * Mihrab * Monastery
Monastery
* Mosque
Mosque
* Salat (Synagogue)

Non-human physical entities

RELIGIOUS TEXTS

* Injil/Gospel * Quran
Quran
* Suhuf-i Ibrahim (Scrolls of Abraham) * Tawrat/Torah , Suhuf-i-Musa (Scrolls of Moses) and Tablets of Stone * Zabur
Zabur

RELATED ANIMALS

* Cow of Israelites
Israelites
and Golden calf * Dog of Seven Sleepers * Fish of Yunis * Hoopoe of Sulayman * She-Camel of Saleh
Saleh

RELATED OBJECTS

* Forbidden fruit of Adam * Heavenly Food of Christian
Christian
Apostles * Noah\'s Ark * Staff of Musa * Tabut al-Sakina (Casket of Shekhinah) * Throne of Bilqis * Trumpet of Israfil
Israfil

Mentioned idols (cult images)

* Baal * Lāt , \'Uzza and Manāt * Wadd , Suwa\' , Yaghuth , Ya\'uq and Nasr * (Jibt and Taghut * Ansāb )

EVENTS

* Battle of Badr
Battle of Badr
* Battle of Hunayn
Battle of Hunayn
* Battle of Khaybar
Battle of Khaybar
* Battle of Tabouk
Battle of Tabouk
* Battle of the Trench (Battle of the Confederates) * Battle of Uhud
Battle of Uhud
* Conquest of Mecca
Mecca
* Hadith of the pond of Khumm * Incident of Ifk * Layla al-Mabit * Mubahala * The Farewell Pilgrimage
Farewell Pilgrimage
(Hujja al-Wada\') * Treaty of Hudaybiyyah * Umrah al-Qaza * Yawm al-Dār

NOTE: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name / Bibilical name (title or relationship)

* v * t * e

Historical Arab tribes

These prefixes ignored in the alphabetical ordering: Al, Bani, Banu.

* Banu Abbas * Banu Abdul Qays * ʿĀd * Banu al-Akhdari * Banu Amela * Banu \'Amir * Banu Amr * Anmar * Banu Aslam * Banu Aws * Azd * Bahila * Banu Bakr * Banu Bakr ibn Abd Manat * Banu Daws * Banu Dhubyan * Al Fadl
Al Fadl
* Banu Fazara * Ghatafan * Banu Hakam * Hakami * Banu Hamdan * Bani Hamida * Banu Hanifa * Al-Haram * Hawazin
Hawazin
* Banu Hilal * Jarm * Banu Judham * Juhaynah * Jurhum * Banu Ka\'b * Banu Kalb * Banu Kanz * Kahlan * Banu Khazraj * Banu Kilab
Banu Kilab
* Banu Kinanah * Kindah * Banu Khutheer * Banu Lahyan * Banu Lakhm * Madh\'hij * Maqil * Banu Murra * Banu Mustaliq * Banu Muzaina * Nukha * Banu al-Qayn * Qays * Qedarite * Quda\'a * Quraysh * Banu Sad * Banu Shayban * Bani Shehr * Banu Shuja * Banu Sulaym * Taghlib
Taghlib
* Tanukh * Tayy * Banu Thaqif * Banu Umayya * Banu Uqayl * Banu Zayd

Part of Arab tribes

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Quraysh
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