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The Quraysh
Quraysh
(Arabic: قريش‎) were a mercantile Arab
Arab
tribe that historically inhabited and controlled Mecca
Mecca
and its Ka'aba. The Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
was born into the Banu Hashim
Banu Hashim
clan of the Quraysh
Quraysh
tribe. The Quraysh
Quraysh
staunchly opposed Muhammad
Muhammad
until converting to Islam
Islam
en masse in 630 CE. Afterward, leadership of the Muslim community traditionally passed to a member of the Quraysh
Quraysh
as was the case with the Rashidun, Umayyad, and Abbasid caliphs.

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 Origins 2.2 Establishment in Mecca 2.3 Leadership of Meccan trade 2.4 Conflict with Muhammad 2.5 Islamic leadership

3 Clans 4 Leaders 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Bibliography

Name[edit] Sources differ as to the etymology of Quraysh, with one theory holding that it was the diminutive form of qirsh (shark).[1] The 9th-century genealogist Hisham ibn al-Kalbi asserted that there was no eponymous founder of Quraysh;[2] rather, the name stemmed from taqarrush, an Arabic
Arabic
word meaning "a coming together" or "association".[1] The nisba or surname of the Quraysh
Quraysh
is Qurashī, though in the early centuries of Islam, most Qurayshi tribesmen were denoted by their specific clan instead of the tribe.[3] Later, particularly after the 13th century, claimants of Qurayshi descent used the Qurashī surname.[3] History[edit] Origins[edit] The Quraysh's progenitor was Fihr ibn Malik, whose full genealogy, according to traditional Arab
Arab
sources, was the following: Fihr ibn Mālik ibn al-Naḍr ibn Kināna ibn Khuzayma
Khuzayma
ibn Mudrika ibn Ilyās ibn Muḍar ibn Nizār ibn Maʿadd ibn ʿAdnān.[1] Thus, Fihr belonged to the Kinana
Kinana
tribe and his descent is traced to Adnan, the semi-legendary father of the "northern Arabs".[1] According to the traditional sources, Fihr led the warriors of Kinana
Kinana
and Khuzayma
Khuzayma
in defense of the Ka'aba, at the time a major pagan sanctuary in Mecca, against tribes from Yemen; however, the sanctuary and the privileges associated with it continued to be in the hands of the Yemeni Khuza'a tribe.[1] The Quraysh
Quraysh
gained their name when Qusayy ibn Kilab, a sixth-generation descendant of Fihr ibn Malik, gathered together his kinsmen and took control of the Ka'aba.[1][note 1] Prior to this, Fihr's offspring lived in scattered, nomadic groups among their Kinana relatives.[1] Establishment in Mecca[edit] All medieval Muslim
Muslim
sources agree that Qusayy unified Fihr's descendants, and established the Quraysh
Quraysh
as the dominant power in Mecca.[4] After conquering Mecca, Qusayy assigned quarters to different Qurayshi clans.[1] Those settled around the Ka'aba
Ka'aba
were known Quraysh
Quraysh
al-Biṭāḥ, and included all of the descendants of Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy and others.[1] The clans settled in the outskirts of the sanctuary were known as Quraysh
Quraysh
al-Ẓawāhīr.[1] According to historian Ibn Ishaq, Qusayy's younger son, 'Abd Manaf, had grown prominent during his father's lifetime and was chosen by Qusayy to be his successor as the guardian of the Ka'aba.[5] He also gave other responsibilities related to the Ka'aba
Ka'aba
to his other sons 'Abd al-'Uzza and 'Abd, while ensuring that all decisions by the Quraysh
Quraysh
had to be made in the presence of his eldest son 'Abd al-Dar; the latter was also designated ceremonial privileges such as keeper of the Qurayshi war banner and supervisor of water and provisions to the pilgrims visiting the Ka'aba.[5] According to historian F. E. Peters, Ibn Ishaq's account reveals that Mecca
Mecca
in the time of Qusayy and his immediate offspring was not yet a commercial center; rather, the city's economy was based on pilgrimage to the Ka'aba, and "what pass[ed] for municipal offices [designated by Qusayy] have to do only with military operations and with control of the shrine".[6] During that time, the tribesmen of Quraysh
Quraysh
were not traders; instead, they were entrusted with religious services, from which they significantly profited.[7] They also profited from taxes collected from incoming pilgrims. Though Qusayy appeared to be the strongman of Quraysh, he was not officially a king of the tribe, but one of many leading sheikhs (tribal chieftains).[7] According to historian Gerald R. Hawting, if the traditional sources are to be believed, Qusayy's children, "must have lived in the second half of the fifth century".[8] However, historian W. Montgomery Watt asserts that Qusayy himself likely died in the second half of the 6th century.[3] The issue of succession between Qusayy's natural successor, 'Abd al-Dar, and his chosen successor, 'Abd Manaf, led to the division of Quraysh
Quraysh
into two factions; those who backed the 'Abd al-Dar clan, including the clans of Banu Sahm, Banu 'Adi, Banu Makhzum and Banu Jumah, became known as al-Aḥlāf (the Confederates), while those who backed the 'Abd Manaf clan, including the Banu Taym, Banu Asad, Banu Zuhra and Banu al-Harith ibn Fihr, were known as al-Muṭayyabūn (the Perfumed).[3] Leadership of Meccan trade[edit] Toward the end of the 6th century, the Fijar War broke out between the Quraysh
Quraysh
and the Kinana
Kinana
one side and various Qaysi tribes on the other, including the Hawazin, Banu Thaqif, Banu 'Amir
Banu 'Amir
and Banu Sulaym.[9] The war was precipitated by a Kinani tribesman's slaying of an 'Amiri tribesman escorting a Lakhmid
Lakhmid
caravan to the Hejaz.[9] The attack took place during the holy season when fighting was typically forbidden.[9] The Kinani tribesman's patron was Harb ibn Umayya, a Qurayshi chief.[9] This patron and other chiefs were ambushed by the Hawazin
Hawazin
at Nakhla, but were able to escape.[9] In the battles that occurred in the following two years, the Qays were victorious, but in the fourth year, the tide turned in favor of the Quraysh
Quraysh
and Kinana.[9] After a few more clashes, peace was reestablished.[9] According to Watt, the actual aim in the Fijar War was control of the trade routes of Najd.[10] Despite particularly tough resistance by the Quraysh's main trade rivals, the Thaqif of Ta'if, and the Banu Nasr clan of Hawazin, the Quraysh
Quraysh
ultimately held sway over western Arabian trade.[10] The Quraysh
Quraysh
gained control over Ta'if's trade and many Qurayshi individuals purchased estates in Ta'if, where the climate was cooler.[1] The sanctuary village of Mecca
Mecca
had since become a major Arabian trade hub. According to Watt, by 600 CE, the leaders of Quraysh
Quraysh
"were prosperous merchants who had obtained something like a monopoly of the trade between the Indian Ocean and East Africa on the one hand and the Mediterranean on the other".[1] Furthermore, the Quraysh
Quraysh
commissioned trade caravans to Yemen
Yemen
in the winter and caravans to Gaza, Bosra, Damascus
Damascus
and al-Arish in the summer.[1][11] The Quraysh
Quraysh
established networks with merchants in these Syrian cities.[11] They also formed political or economic alliances with many of the Bedouin
Bedouin
(nomadic Arab) tribes in the northern and central Arabian deserts to ensure the safety of their trade caravans.[11] The Quraysh
Quraysh
invested their revenues in building their trading ventures, and shared profits with tribal allies to translate financial fortune into significant political power in the Hejaz, i.e. western Arabia.[11] In the words of Fred Donner:

[By the end of the 6th century,] Meccan commerce was flourishing as never before, and the leaders in this trade [the Quraysh] had developed from mere merchants into true financiers. They were no longer interested in "buying cheap and selling dear," but also with organizing money and men to realize their commercial objectives. There was emerging, in short, a class of men with well-developed managerial and organizational skills. It was a development unheralded, and almost unique, in central Arabia.[12]

The Banu Makhzum and Banu Umayya, in particular, acquired vast wealth from trade and held the most influence among the Quraysh
Quraysh
in Meccan politics.[11] The Banu Umayya and the Banu Nawfal, another clan descending from 'Abd Manaf that had become wealthy from their commercial enterprise, split from the Muṭayyabūn faction in 605 and engaged in business with the Aḥlāf.[3] Their financial fortunes had enabled them to become a force of their own.[3] The Muṭayyabūn was consequently replaced by the al-Fuḍūl alliance, which consisted of the Banu Hashim
Banu Hashim
and Banu Muttalib, descendants of 'Abd Manaf, and the Taym, Asad, Zuhra and al-Harith ibn Fihr clans.[3] The Banu Hashim held the hereditary rights surrounding the pilgrimage to the Ka'aba, though the Banu Umayya were ultimately the strongest Qurayshi clan.[8] According to Watt, "In all the stories of the pre-Islamic period there is admittedly a legendary element, but the main outline of events appears to be roughly correct, even if most of the dating is uncertain."[3] Conflict with Muhammad[edit] The polytheistic Quraysh
Quraysh
opposed the monotheistic message preached by the Islamic prophet Muhammad, himself a Qurayshi from the Banu Hashim. The tribe harassed members of the nascent Muslim
Muslim
community, and attempted to harm Muhammad, but he was protected by his uncle Abu Talib.[13] To escape persecution, Muhammad
Muhammad
and his companions, including the Qurayshi Abu Bakr, immigrated to Medina.[14] Muhammad then confronted a Qurayshi caravan returning from Palestine and defeated the Quraysh
Quraysh
at the ensuing Battle of Badr
Battle of Badr
in 624.[15] The Quraysh
Quraysh
later besieged the Muslims at Medina
Medina
in 627, but were defeated in the Battle of the Trench.[16] The Treaty of Hudaybiyya
Treaty of Hudaybiyya
was then signed between Muhammad
Muhammad
and the Quraysh
Quraysh
in 628,[17] but was violated because of a dispute between Bedouin
Bedouin
tribes from each camp.[18] In January 630, Muhammad
Muhammad
moved to finally settle the conflict with Quraysh
Quraysh
and returned with his followers to capture Mecca.[18] Islamic leadership[edit] Muhammad
Muhammad
entered Mecca
Mecca
victoriously in 630, prompting the rest of Quraysh
Quraysh
to embrace Islam.[19] Muhammad
Muhammad
sought to consolidate the unity of his expanding Muslim
Muslim
community by "winning over this powerful group [the Quraysh]", according to Donner;[19] to that end, he used several means, including assurances of Qurayshi participation and influence in the nascent Islamic state.[19] Thus, despite their long enmity with Muhammad, the Quraysh
Quraysh
were brought in as political and economic partners and became a key component in the Muslim
Muslim
elite;[19] Indeed, many leading Qurayshi tribesmen were installed in key government positions and in Muhammad's policy-making circle.[19] According to Donner, the inclusion of Quraysh
Quraysh
"in the ruling elite of the Islamic state was very probably responsible for what appears to be the more carefully organized and systematic approach to statesmanship practiced by Muhammad
Muhammad
in the closing years of his life, as the organizational skills of the Quraysh
Quraysh
were put to use in the service of Islam."[20] With Muhammad's death in 632, rivalry emerged between the Quraysh
Quraysh
and the two other components of the Muslim
Muslim
elite, the Ansar and the Thaqif, over influence in state matters.[21] The Ansar wanted one of their own to succeed the prophet as caliph, but were persuaded by Umar to agree to Abu Bakr.[3] During the reigns of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
(632–634) and Umar
Umar
(r. 634–644), some of the Ansar were concerned about their political stake.[22] The Quraysh
Quraysh
apparently held real power during this period marked by the early Muslim
Muslim
conquests.[23] During the First Muslim
Muslim
Civil War, the Ansar, who backed Caliph
Caliph
Ali
Ali
of the Banu Hashim against two factions representing rival Qurayshi clans,[23] were defeated.[23] They were subsequently left out of the political elite, while the Thaqif held a measure of influence by dint of their long relationship with the Quraysh.[23] A hadith holding that the caliph must be from Quraysh
Quraysh
became almost universally accepted by the Muslims, with the exception of the Kharijites.[3] Indeed, control of the Islamic state essentially devolved into a struggle between various factions of the Quraysh.[23] In the first civil war, these factions included the Banu Umayya represented by Mu'awiya ibn Abi Sufyan, the Banu Hashim
Banu Hashim
represented by Ali, and other Qurayshi leaders such as al-Zubayr ibn al-Awwam and Talha ibn Ubayd Allah.[24] Later, during the Second Muslim
Muslim
Civil War, these same factions again fought for control of the caliphate, with the Umayyads victorious at the war's conclusion in 692/93.[25] In 750, the issue of which Qurayshi clan would hold the reins of power was again raised but this time, the Abbasids, a branch of the Banu Hashim, were victorious and slew much of the Banu Umayya.[25] Afterward, Islamic leadership was contested between certain branches of the Banu Hashim.[25] Clans[edit]

Clan Genealogy Notable members

Banu al-Harith Al-Harith ibn Fihr.[1]

Banu 'Amir 'Amir ibn Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr.[1]

Banu 'Adi 'Adi ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr.[1] Umar
Umar
ibn Al-Khattab

Banu Taym Taym ibn Murra ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr.[1] Abu Bakr

Banu Sahm Sahm ibn 'Amr ibn Husays ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr.[1]

Banu Jumah Jumah ibn 'Amr ibn Husays ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr.[1]

Banu Makhzum Makhzum ibn Yaqaza ibn Murra ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr.[1] Amr ibn Hishām, Khalid ibn al-Walid

Banu Zuhra Zuhra ibn Kilab ibn Murra ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr.[1]

Banu 'Abd al-Dar 'Abd al-Dar ibn Qusayy ibn Kilab ibn Murra ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr.[1]

Banu Abd Shams 'Abd Shams ibn 'Abd Manaf ibn Qusayy ibn Kilab ibn Murra ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr.[1] Uthman
Uthman
ibn Affan, Muawiyah ibn Abi Safyan

Banu Nawfal Nawfal ibn 'Abd Manaf ibn Qusayy ibn Kilab ibn Murra ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr.[1]

Banu Hashim Hashim ibn 'Abd Manaf ibn Qusayy ibn Kilab ibn Murra ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr.[1] Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn 'Abd Allah, Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib, the rest of the 12 Imams, Fatimah, Ja’far ibn Abi Talib, Al Abbas ibn Ali
Ali
etc.

Banu Mutallib Al-Mutallib ibn 'Abd Manaf ibn Qusayy ibn Kilab ibn Murra ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr.[1]

Banu Asad Asad ibn 'Abd al-Uzza ibn Qusayy ibn Kilab ibn Murra ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr.[1]

Leaders[edit] The leaders of the Quraysh
Quraysh
(Arabic: Sadat Quraysh), who formed Mecca's aristocracy upon the appearance of Muhammad, included:

Al-'As ibn Wa'il (Banu Sahm) Amr ibn Hishām
Amr ibn Hishām
(Banu Makhzum)[26] Abu Lahab ibn 'Abdul Muttalib
Abu Lahab ibn 'Abdul Muttalib
(Banu Hashim) Abu Sufyan ibn Harb
Abu Sufyan ibn Harb
(Banu Umayya) Akhnas ibn Shariq (Banu Zuhrah)[27] Hakim ibn Hizam (Banu Asad) Mut‘im ibn ‘Adi (Banu Nawfal) Mughirah ibn Abd-Allah (Banu Makhzum) Nabeeha ibn Hujaj (Banu Jumah) Nazar ibn Harris (Banu Abd ad-Dar) Suhayl ibn Amr[27] Umayyah ibn Khalaf (Banu Jumah)[26] Utba ibn Rabi'ah (Banu Abd-Shams) Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
al-Siddiq ibn Abi Quhafah (Banu Taym)

See also[edit] Quraysh
Quraysh
is also the name of the 106th Surah of the Qur'an.

Islam
Islam
portal

Alaouite dynasty Awan Ba 'Alawiyya Hawk of Quraish List of expeditions of Muhammad
Muhammad
against the Quraysh

Notes[edit]

^ Qusayy's genealogy: Quṣayy ibn Kilāb ibn Murra ibn Kaʿb ibn Luʾayy ibn Ghālib ibn Fihr[1]

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Watt 1986, p. 434. ^ Peters 1994, p. 14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Watt 1986, p. 435. ^ Peters 1994, pp. 14–15. ^ a b Peters 1994, p. 15. ^ Peters 1994, pp. 15–16. ^ a b Peters 1994, p. 16. ^ a b Hawting 2000, p. 22. ^ a b c d e f g Fück 1965, p. 883. ^ a b Fück 1965, p. 884. ^ a b c d e Donner 1981, p. 51. ^ Donner 1981, p. 52. ^ Peters 1994, pp. 51–52. ^ Peters, p. 58. ^ Peters 1994, pp. 70–71. ^ Peters 1994, p. 74. ^ Peters 1994, pp. 78-79. ^ a b Peters 1994, p. 81. ^ a b c d e Donner 1981, p. 77. ^ Donner 1981, pp. 77–78. ^ Donner 1981, p. 273. ^ Donner 1981, pp. 273–274. ^ a b c d e Donner 1981, p. 274. ^ Donner 1981, pp. 274–275. ^ a b c Donner 1981, p. 275. ^ a b Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:59:286 ^ a b M Pacuk Archived 2005-02-07 at the Wayback Machine..

Bibliography[edit]

Donner, Fred M. (1981). The Early Islamic Conquests. Princeton: Princeton University Press.  Fück, J. W. (1965). "Fidjār". In Lewis, B; Pellat, Ch; Schacht, J. The Encyclopedia of Islam, Vol. 2, C-G (2nd ed.). Leiden: Brill. pp. 883–884. ISBN 90-04-07026-5. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) Hawting, G. R. (2000) [1986]. The First Dynasty of Islam: The Umayyad Caliphate
Caliphate
AD 661-750 (2nd ed.). London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-24073-5.  Peters, F. E. (1994). Mecca: A Literary History of the Muslim
Muslim
Holy Land. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-03267-X.  Watt, W. Montgomery (1986). "Kuraysh". The Encyclopedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume V: Khe–Mahi. Leiden and New York: BRILL. pp. 434–435. ISBN 90-04-07819-3. 

v t e

People and things in the Quran

Characters

Non-humans

Allâh ("The God")

Names of Allah
Allah
found in the Quran

Beings in Paradise

Ghilmān or Wildān Ḥūr

Animals

Related

The baqarah (cow) of Israelites The dhi’b (wolf) that Jacob
Jacob
feared could attack Joseph The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians) Ḥimār (Domesticated donkey) The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave The nāqaṫ (she-camel) of Saleh The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah

Non-related

Ḥimār (Wild ass) Qaswarah
Qaswarah
('Lion', 'Beast of prey' or 'Hunter')

Jinns

‘Ifrîṫ ("Strong one") Mârid ("Rebellious one")

Iblīs the Shayṭān (Devil)

Qarīn

Prophets

Mentioned

Ādam (Adam) Al-Yasa‘ (Elisha) Ayyūb (Job) Dāwūd (David) Dhūl-Kifl (Ezekiel?) Hārūn (Aaron) Hūd (Eber?) Idrīs (Enoch?) Ilyās (Elijah) ‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam) Is-ḥāq (Isaac) Ismā‘īl (Ishmael)

Dhabih Ullah

Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise) Lūṭ (Lot) Ṣāliḥ Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?) Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd ( Solomon
Solomon
son of David) ‘ Uzair
Uzair
(Ezra?) Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā ( John the Baptist
John the Baptist
the son of Zechariah) Ya‘qūb (Jacob)

Isrâ’îl (Israel)

Yūnus (Jonah)

Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)" or "Owner of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)") Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūṫ ("Companion of the Whale")

Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb ( Joseph
Joseph
son of Jacob) Zakariyyā (Zechariah)

Ulu-l-‘Azm

Muḥammad

Aḥmad Other names and titles of Muhammad

ʿĪsā (Jesus)

Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah) Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary)

Mūsā Kalīmullāh ( Moses
Moses
He who spoke to God) Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh ( Abraham
Abraham
Friend of God) Nūḥ (Noah)

Debatable ones

Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?) Luqmân Maryam (Mary) Ṭâlûṫ (Saul or Gideon?)

Implied

Irmiyā (Jeremiah) Ṣamû’îl (Samuel) Yūsha‘ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)

People of Prophets

Evil ones

Āzar (possibly Terah) Fir‘awn ( Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Moses' time) Hāmān Jâlûṫ (Goliath) Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses) As-Sāmirī Abî Lahab Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr)

Good ones

Adam's immediate relatives

Martyred son Wife

Believer of Ya-Sin Family of Noah

Father Lamech Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos

Luqman's son People of Aaron and Moses

Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura) Imra’aṫ Fir‘awn (Âsiyá bint Muzâḥim or Bithiah) Khidr Magicians of the Pharaoh Moses' wife Moses' sister-in-law Mother Sister

People of Abraham

Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo Ishmael's mother Isaac's mother

People of Jesus

Disciples (including Peter) Mary's mother Zechariah's wife

People of Joseph

Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon) Egyptians

‘Azîz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin) Malik (King Ar-Rayyân ibn Al-Walîd)) Wife of ‘Azîz (Zulaykhah)

Mother

People of Solomon

Mother Queen of Sheba Vizier

Zayd

Implied or not specified

Abrahah Bal'am/Balaam Barsisa Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua Luqman's son Nebuchadnezzar II Nimrod Rahmah the wife of Ayyub Shaddad

Groups

Mentioned

Aş-ḥāb al-Jannah

People of Paradise People of the Burnt Garden

Aş-ḥāb as-Sabṫ (Companions of the Sabbath) Christian
Christian
apostles

Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus)

Companions of Noah's Ark Aş-ḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim? Companions of the Elephant People of al-Ukhdūd People of a township in Surah Ya-Sin People of Yathrib or Medina Qawm Lûṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah) Nation of Noah

Tribes, ethnicities or families

A‘rāb ( Arabs
Arabs
or Bedouins)

ʿĀd (people of Hud) Companions of the Rass Qawm Ṫubba‘ (People of Tubba')

People of Saba’ or Sheba

Quraysh Thamûd (people of Saleh)

Aṣ-ḥâb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland")

Ajam Ar- Rûm (literally "The Romans") Banî Isrâ’îl (Children of Israel) Mu’ṫafikāṫ (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah) People of Ibrahim People of Ilyas People of Nuh People of Shuaib

Ahl Madyan People of Madyan) Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
("Companions of the Wood")

Qawm Yûnus (People of Jonah) Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog Ahl al-Bayṫ ("People of the Household")

Household of Abraham

Brothers of Yūsuf Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.) Progeny of Imran Household of Moses Household of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim

Daughters of Muhammad Wives of Muhammad

Household of Salih

People of Fir'aun Current Ummah of Islam
Islam
(Ummah of Muhammad)

Aṣ-ḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad)

Muhajirun (Emigrants) Anṣār Muslims of Medina
Medina
who helped Muhammad
Muhammad
and his Meccan followers, literally 'Helpers')

People of Mecca

Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab)

Children of Ayyub Dead son of Sulaiman Qabil/Cain (son of Adam) Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh) Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut) Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj (Gog and Magog) Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh)

Implicitly mentioned

Amalek Ahl al-Suffa (People of the Verandah) Banu Nadir Banu Qaynuqa Banu Qurayza Iranian people Umayyad Dynasty Aus & Khazraj People of Quba

Religious groups

Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi) Kâfirûn (Infidels) Zoroastrians Munāfiqūn (Hypocrites) Muslims People of the Book (Ahl al-Kiṫāb)

Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil)

Ruhban ( Christian
Christian
monks) Qissis ( Christian
Christian
priest)

Yahūd (Jews)

Ahbār (Jewish scholars) Rabbani/Rabbi

Sabians

Polytheists

Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of Abraham
Abraham
and Lot

Locations

Mentioned

Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
("The Land The Blessed")

Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Land The Holy")

In the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
(excluding Madyan)

Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills")

Iram dhāṫ al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars)

Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib) ‘Arafāṫ Al-Ḥijr (Hegra) Badr Ḥunayn Makkah (Mecca)

Bakkah Ka‘bah (Kaaba) Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham) Safa and Marwah

Saba’ (Sheba)

‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba)

Rass

Jahannam
Jahannam
(Hell) Jannah
Jannah
(Paradise, literally 'Garden') In Mesopotamia:

Al-Jūdiyy

Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed")

Bābil (Babylon) Qaryaṫ Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh)

Door of Hittah Madyan (Midian) Majma' al-Bahrain Miṣr (Mainland Egypt) Salsabîl (A river in Paradise) Sinai Region or Tīh Desert

Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa)

Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of Tuwa and Mount Sinai)

Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
or Mount Tabor

Implied

Antioch

Antakya

Arabia Ayla Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn Bayt al-Muqaddas
Bayt al-Muqaddas
& 'Ariha Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia) Canaan Cave of Seven Sleepers Dār al-Nadwa Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier")

Black Stone
Black Stone
(Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il Cave of Hira
Hira
& Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull) Ta'if

Hudaybiyyah Jordan River Nile
Nile
River Palestine River Paradise
Paradise
of Shaddad

Religious locations

Bay'a (Church) Mihrab Monastery Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration")

Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
("The Monument the Sacred") Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The Place-of-Prostration The Farthest") Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque
Mosque
of Mecca) Masjid al-Dirar A Mosque
Mosque
in the area of Medina, possibly:

Masjid Qubâ’ (Quba Mosque) The Prophet's Mosque

Salat (Synagogue)

Plant
Plant
matter

Fruits

Ḥabb dhul-‘aṣf (Corn of the husk) Rummān (Pomegranate) Ṫīn (Fig) Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba) Zayṫūn (Olive) In Paradise

Forbidden fruit of Adam

Bushes, trees or plants

Plants of Sheba

Athl (Tamarisk) Sidr (lote-tree)

Līnah (Tender palm tree) Nakhl (date palm) Rayḥān (Scented plant) Sidraṫ al-Munṫahā Zaqqūm

Texts

Al-Injîl (The Gospel
Gospel
of Jesus) Al-Qur’ân (The Book of Muhammad) Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrâhîm (Scroll(s) of Abraham) Aṫ-Ṫawrâṫ (The Torah)

Ṣuḥuf-i-Mûsâ (Scroll(s) of Moses) Tablets of Stone

Az-Zabûr (The Psalms
Psalms
of David) Umm al-Kiṫâb ("Mother of the Book(s)")

Objects of people or beings

Heavenly Food of Christian
Christian
Apostles Noah's Ark Staff of Musa Ṫābūṫ as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah) Throne of Bilqis Trumpet of Israfil

Mentioned idols (cult images)

'Ansāb Idols of Israelites:

Baal The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites

Idols of Noah's people:

Nasr Suwā‘ Wadd Yaghūth Ya‘ūq

Idols of Quraysh:

Al-Lāṫ Al-‘Uzzá Manāṫ

Jibṫ and Ṭâghûṫ

Celestial bodies

Maṣābīḥ (literally 'lamps'):

Al-Qamar (The Moon) Kawâkib (Planets)

Al-Arḍ (The Earth)

Nujūm (Stars)

Ash-Shams (The Sun)

Liquids

Mā’ ( Water
Water
or fluid)

Nahr (River) Yamm ( River
River
or sea)

Sharâb (Drink)

Events

Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates") Battle of Badr Battle of Hunayn Battle of Khaybar Battle of Tabouk Battle of Uhud Conquest of Mecca Incident of Ifk Laylat al-Mabit Mubahala Sayl al-‘Arim
Sayl al-‘Arim
(Flood of the Great Dam of Marib
Marib
in Sheba) The Farewell Pilgrimage
Farewell Pilgrimage
(Hujja al-Wada') Treaty of Hudaybiyyah Umrah al-Qaza Yawm al-Dār

Implied

Event of Ghadir Khumm

Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name / Biblical name (title or relationship)

v t e

Historical Arab
Arab
tribes

These prefixes ignored in the alphabetical ordering: Al, Bani, Banu.

Banu Abbas Banu Abdul Qays ʿĀd Banu al-Akhdari Banu Amela Banu 'Amir Banu Amr Anmar Banu Aslam Banu Aws Azd Bahila Banu Bakr Banu Bakr
Banu Bakr
ibn Abd Manat Banu Daws Banu Dhubyan Al Fadl Banu Fazara Ghatafan Banu Hakam Harb Hakami Banu Hamdan Bani Hamida Banu Hanifa Al-Haram Hawazin Banu Hilal Jarm Banu Judham Juhaynah Jurhum Banu Ka'b Banu Kalb Banu Kanz Kahlan Banu Khazraj Banu Kilab Banu Kinanah Kindah Banu Khutheer Banu Lahyan Banu Lakhm Madh'hij Maqil Banu Murra Banu Mustaliq Banu Muzaina Nukha Banu al-Qayn Qays Qedarite Quda'a Quraysh Banu Sad Banu Shayban Bani Shehr Banu Shuja Banu Sulaym Taghlib Tanukh Tayy Banu Thaqif Banu Umayya Banu Uqayl Banu Zayd

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