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The QUEBEC CITY–WINDSOR CORRIDOR is the most densely populated and heavily industrialized region of Canada
Canada
. As its name suggests, the region extends between Quebec
Quebec
City in the northeast and Windsor, Ontario
Ontario
in the southwest, spanning 1,150 kilometres (710 mi). With more than 18 million people, it contains over half of the country's population and three of Canada's five largest metropolitan areas according to the 2016 Census . In its relative importance to Canada's economic and political infrastructure, it has many similarities to the Northeast megalopolis in the United States
United States
. The name was first popularized by Via Rail , which runs frequent passenger rail service in the Quebec
Quebec
City–Windsor Corridor in its service area known as "The Corridor ".

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography * 2 Population

* 3 History

* 3.1 Early history * 3.2 American Revolutionary War * 3.3 Colonial Canada
Canada
* 3.4 Canada
Canada

* 4 Transportation

* 4.1 Waterways * 4.2 Roadways * 4.3 Rail * 4.4 Airports

* 5 See also * 6 References

GEOGRAPHY

Via Rail Corridor Train.

The corridor extends from Quebec
Quebec
City , Quebec
Quebec
in the northeast to Windsor , Ontario
Ontario
in the southwest, running north of the Saint Lawrence River , Lake Ontario
Ontario
and Lake Erie . For most of its length, the corridor runs through a narrow strip of farmland with the Canadian Shield to the north and the Appalachian Mountains or the Great Lakes to the south. A drive of only a few minutes north from many of the corridor's cities or towns will show an abrupt change from flat farmland and limestone bedrock to the granite hills of the shield. The highways often run right on the boundary of the shield, and it is possible to observe the frequent change from limestone to granite in rockcuts along the way. There are, however, several wider areas of flat farmland, including the southwestern Ontario
Ontario
peninsula between Lake Huron and Lake Erie , the eastern Ontario
Ontario
delta from Ottawa to the junction of the Ottawa and St. Lawrence Rivers at Montreal
Montreal
, and the Eastern Townships southeast of Montreal. There is also a minor Great Lakes
Great Lakes
corridor of stratified limestone called the Niagara Escarpment .

Because of the moderating influence of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
and the frequent influx of warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico , the corridor—particularly the western half—has a markedly warmer climate than the rest of central Canada
Canada
. The rich soil and the warm climate mean that the flora and fauna in the corridor are similar to those in the deciduous forests of the eastern United States
United States
as far south as Virginia
Virginia
, rather than the evergreen boreal forest that covers most of central Canada
Canada
up to the Arctic
Arctic
. The forest in southwestern Ontario
Ontario
is often referred to as Carolinian forest .

POPULATION

According to the 2006 Canadian Census , more than 67% of Ontario's population lives in its portion of the corridor. Similarly, nearly half of Quebec's population lives in or close to Montreal
Montreal
and Quebec City. About half of Canada's total population live between Quebec
Quebec
City and Windsor.

The three major census metropolitan areas (CMAs) in the Corridor are:

* Toronto-Mississauga-Markham (5,928,040) * Montreal-Laval-Brossard (4,098,927) * Ottawa-Gatineau (1,323,783)

The remaining census metropolitan areas along the corridor are:

* Quebec
Quebec
City (800,296) * Hamilton (747,545) * Kitchener-Cambridge-Waterloo (523,894) * London (494,069) * St. Catharines -Niagara (406,074) * Oshawa (379,848) * Windsor (329,144) * Sherbrooke (212,105) * Barrie
Barrie
(197,059) * Kingston (161,175) * Trois-Rivières
Trois-Rivières
(156,042) * Guelph (151,984) * Brantford (134,203) * Peterborough (121,721)

Other significant urban areas along the corridor include: Belleville , Brockville
Brockville
, Chatham–Kent
Chatham–Kent
, Cornwall , and Sarnia . 400-series freeways are the major road transportation system in Southern Ontario.

Cities located in neighbouring American regions (such as Western New York and Southeast Michigan ) are not considered part of the corridor but have many significant cultural, economic, and political ties with urban areas on or near the border such as the Detroit–Windsor
Detroit–Windsor
area.

HISTORY

EARLY HISTORY

During the French colonization , this area of New France was named Canada
Canada
and was a single administrative unit under the governor-general (with regional deputy governors in some cities). However, only the eastern third of the corridor, from Quebec
Quebec
City to Montreal, was heavily settled. The major cross-country route used by voyageurs in the fur trade continued west from Montreal
Montreal
through the Canadian Shield along the Ottawa Valley
Ottawa Valley
to Lake Nipissing and Georgian Bay , passing far to the north of what would later become the Ontario
Ontario
part of the corridor. The lack of good farmland made that route unsuitable for settlement, however, and the frequent portages made transportation in boats larger than canoes difficult.

AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR

When the English-speaking United Empire Loyalists arrived in Canada after the American Revolution , they naturally settled along the narrow strip north of the St. Lawrence River and lower Great Lakes, where good farm land was available and larger boats could be used for transportation, and these people formed the English-speaking nucleus of what would later be Ontario
Ontario
(by contrast, many of the Ontario
Ontario
towns along the old fur-trading and logging route to the north, through the Ottawa Valley
Ottawa Valley
and westward, still have significant French-speaking populations ). Initially, Kingston was the principal city of the English half of the corridor, but eventually Toronto outgrew it.

COLONIAL CANADA

During both the North American part of the Seven Years\' War between Great Britain and France
France
and the War of 1812 between United Kingdom and the United States, settlements along the corridor were at the centre of the conflicts. Ottawa was eventually chosen as Canada's capital by Queen Victoria precisely because it was further inland and thus less vulnerable to attack, though it is now also considered part of the corridor. The Rideau Canal
Rideau Canal
was constructed to provide a way to bypass the most vulnerable part of the corridor, from Cornwall to Kingston, where it lies directly on the U.S. border.

CANADA

The construction of the Saint Lawrence Seaway during the late 1950s made it possible for some ocean-going vessels to travel the full length of the corridor and beyond to the upper Great Lakes, but resulted in the destruction of several villages in the Eastern Ontario portion of the corridor.

TRANSPORTATION

The VIA Rail Corridor train route.

The corridor is held together by a series of major transportation routes—water, road, rail, and air—all running close together and sometimes overlapping each other. These routes are anchored by Ontario Highway 401
Highway 401
, the busiest highway in North America
North America
from Windsor leading into Quebec
Quebec
Autoroute 20 to Montreal
Montreal
and Quebec
Quebec
City.

WATERWAYS

The oldest transportation route is the St. Lawrence River and Great Lakes, where the series of channels and locks that make up the St. Lawrence Seaway allow ocean-going vessels and lake freighters to travel the entire length of the corridor.

ROADWAYS

Autoroute 73 entering Quebec
Quebec
City

The Ontario
Ontario
portion of the corridor was originally joined by Highway 2 (often known locally by names such as " Montreal
Montreal
Road," "Toronto Road," "Dundas Street," or "Kingston Road") following the routes of older stagecoach roads and the paths and trails that predated them. Highway 2 still forms the main street of many of the corridor's Ontario
Ontario
towns and cities (which were built around it), but large parts of the highway are now maintained by counties or municipalities rather than the province. From 1938 to 1968 the province of Ontario
Ontario
built Highway 401
Highway 401
, a freeway that bypasses most of the town and city centres. Highway 401
Highway 401
is now the main transportation route of the corridor up to the Quebec
Quebec
border, where it becomes Autoroute 20 and continues east through the Quebec
Quebec
part of the corridor to Quebec
Quebec
City.

RAIL

Via Rail Ocean Train route.

Both the Canadian National Railway (CN) and the Canadian Pacific Railway (CP) have extensive freight railway lines along the length of the Quebec
Quebec
City – Windsor Corridor. Intercity passenger railway service is provided by Via Rail throughout the region, mostly using CN freight lines. Referred to in Via Rail's published timetables as simply the Corridor , the Quebec
Quebec
City – Windsor Corridor is the busiest portion of the Via system, accounting for the majority of Canada's intercity passenger trains and ridership. About 67% of Via Rail's total revenue is earned on the Quebec
Quebec
City – Windsor Corridor.

Other inter-city trains from outside the region originate and terminate at cities in the Corridor, such as Via's Canadian , Montreal – Gaspé train and Ocean . Amtrak
Amtrak
offers two international inter-city passenger railway lines that starts in New York City
New York City
with one that ends in Toronto and the other in Montreal
Montreal
, serving cities along the Corridor as well as in Upstate New York.

Prior to Via's formation in 1978, both CN and CP operated Corridor services. Proposals have been advanced to build a high-speed rail link in this corridor. On November 14, 2011, the governments of Ontario, Quebec
Quebec
and Canada
Canada
officially released the final report of a high-speed rail study for this corridor.

AIRPORTS

Air Canada
Canada
operates a large portion of the flights in the corridor

The major passenger airports along the corridor are Toronto Pearson International Airport (ranked 20th globally for international passenger traffic and 18th for aircraft traffic), Montréal-Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport , Ottawa Macdonald-Cartier International Airport , Québec/Jean Lesage International Airport , Hamilton/John C. Munro International Airport (ranked second in Canada for cargo traffic) and the military airbase at CFB Trenton
CFB Trenton
. There are roughly 108 flights between Montreal, Ottawa and Toronto every work day, making it the busiest air route in Canada
Canada
and 15th busiest air route in the world.

Other civilian corridor airports with scheduled airline service include Windsor Airport , Sarnia (Chris Hadfield) Airport , London International Airport , Region of Waterloo International Airport
Region of Waterloo International Airport
, Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport , Kingston/Norman Rogers Airport , Lake Simcoe Regional Airport and Gatineau-Ottawa Executive Airport . Montréal-Mirabel International Airport
Montréal-Mirabel International Airport
is a large facility near Montreal
Montreal
that is mainly used for cargo flights but is also home to medical evacuation and general aviation flights.

Inside the corridor, the busiest area of travel is the Toronto–Ottawa– Montreal
Montreal
triangle. Air Canada
Canada
serves the three cities with its Rapidair service, offering hourly flights, and its principal competitor WestJet
WestJet
offers similar service. Air Canada
Canada
and Porter Airlines
Porter Airlines
fly from Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport to Ottawa and Montreal, while Air Canada
Canada
Jazz offers commuter flights connecting many of the smaller airports to Toronto, Ottawa, and Montreal. In addition to scheduled air service, some of the airports along the corridor also have frequent charter flights like Air Transat and Sunwing to popular tourist destinations.

SEE ALSO

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for WINDSOR-QUEBEC CORRIDOR .

* Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Megalopolis * Megalopolis (city type)
Megalopolis (city type)
* Northeast United States
United States
* Southern Ontario
Ontario
* Golden Horseshoe

REFERENCES

* ^ "2006 Census analysis series". 2.statcan.ca. 2009-10-13. Retrieved 2009-11-20. * ^ Alphabet City Fuel - Features - The Post-Carbon Highway * ^ High-Speed Passenger Rail Study * ^ It\'s liftoff for AirMédic ambulance Archived May 11, 2011, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Mirabel redécolle Archived September 30, 2008, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Canada
Canada
Flight Supplement . Effective 0901Z 27 April 2017 to 0901Z 22 June 2017

Coordinates : 44°20′N 77°05′W / 44.34°N 77.08°W / 44.34; -77.08

* v * t * e

Great Lakes
Great Lakes
of North America
North America

MAIN LAKES

* Erie * Huron * Michigan * Ontario
Ontario
* Superior

SECONDARY LAKES

* Nipigon * Nipissing * St. Clair * Simcoe * Winnebago

Bays and Waterways

* Detroit River * Erie Canal
Erie Canal
* French River * Georgian Bay * Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Waterway * Green Bay * Lake George * Lake Kagawong * Lake Manitou * Lake Nicolet * Manitou Passage * Lake Mindemoya * Munuscong Lake * Niagara River * Nipigon River * North Channel * Potagannissing Bay * St. Clair River * Saint Lawrence River * Saint Lawrence Seaway * St. Marys River * Sault Ste. Marie Canal
Sault Ste. Marie Canal
* Soo Locks
Soo Locks
* Straits of Mackinac * Trent–Severn Waterway
Trent–Severn Waterway
* Welland Canal

ISLANDS

* Detroit River * Michigan (state) (in Lake Huron , part of Isle Royale National Park ) * Ontario
Ontario

HISTORIC GEOLOGY

* Lake Agassiz * Lake Chicago
Lake Chicago
* Lake Maumee * Mackinac Falls * Midcontinent Rift System * Niagara Escarpment * Wisconsin glaciation

GOVERNMENT

* Conference of Great Lakes
Great Lakes
and St. Lawrence Governors and Premiers * Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Commission * Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Fishery Commission * International Joint Commission

RELATED TOPICS

* Basin * Bays of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
* Great Lakes
Great Lakes
region * Great Lake ships * Lake-effect snow * Lake Michigan–Huron * Marine protected areas * Megalopolis * Native American tribes (US) * Quebec
Quebec
City–Windsor Corridor * Settlements * Great Lakes
Great Lakes
museum and historic ships * Lake freighter * Tall ships * Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Areas of Concern * Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Treaties

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