, in 1984]]
A pyroclastic flow (also known as a pyroclastic density current or a pyroclastic cloud) is a fast-moving current of hot volcanic gas|gas
and volcanic matter (collectively known as tephra
) that flows along the ground away from a volcano at average speeds of but is capable of reaching speeds up to . The gases and tephra can reach temperatures of about .
Pyroclastic flows are the most deadly of all volcanic hazards and are produced as a result of certain explosive eruptions
; they normally touch the ground and hurtle downhill, or spread laterally under gravity. Their speed depends upon the density of the current, the volcanic output rate, and the gradient of the slope.
Origin of term
The word ''pyroclast'' is derived from the Greek
, meaning "fire", and , meaning "broken in pieces".
A name for pyroclastic flows which glow red in the dark is (French, "burning cloud"); this was notably used to describe the disastrous 1902 eruption of Mount Pelée
[Although the coining of the term in 1904 is attributed to the French geologist Antoine Lacroix, according to:
the term was used in 1873 by Lacroix's father-in-law and former professor, French geologist Ferdinand André Fouqué in his description of the 1580 and 1808 eruptions of the volcano on the island of São Jorge in the Azores.
:* From p. 1199: "" (One of the strangest phenomena of this great eruption is the production of what contemporary witnesses called ''nuées ardentes''.)
:* From p. 1200: "" (The detonations cease on the day of the 17th, but then hereappear burning clouds 'nuées ardents''similar to those of the eruption of 1580.)
Marjorie Hooker – (Hooker, 1965), p. 405 – records that Father João Inácio da Silveira (1767–1852) from the village of Santo Amaro on São Jorge island wrote an account of the 1808 eruption in which he described an ("burning cloud" in Portuguese) that flowed down the slopes of the volcano. Silveira's account was published in 1871 and republished in 1883.
* From pp. 439–440: "" (On the seventeenth of the said month of May … suddenly there arose a typhoon of fire out of the volcano and tentered the farm lands, heaved up all those fields down to the vineyards, with all the trees and hedges, forming a fearsome and burning cloud 'ardente nuvem''and running down to the church, burned more than thirty people in the church and in the fields…)]
Pyroclastic flows that contain a much higher proportion of gas to rock are known as "fully dilute pyroclastic density currents" or pyroclastic surge
s. The lower density sometimes allows them to flow over higher topographic features or water such as ridges, hills, rivers and seas. They may also contain steam, water and rock at less than ; these are called "cold" compared with other flows, although the temperature is still lethally high. Cold pyroclastic surges can occur when the eruption is from a vent under a shallow lake or the sea. Fronts of some pyroclastic density currents are fully dilute; for example, during the eruption of Mount Pelée in 1902, a fully dilute current overwhelmed the city of Saint-Pierre
and killed nearly 30,000 people.
A pyroclastic flow is a type of gravity current
; in scientific literature they are sometimes abbreviated to PDC (pyroclastic density current).
There are several mechanisms that can produce a pyroclastic flow:
* ''Fountain collapse'' of an eruption column
from a Plinian eruption
(e.g. Mount Vesuvius' destruction of Herculaneum and Pompeii
). In such an eruption, the material forcefully ejected from the vent heats the surrounding air and the turbulent mixture rises, through convection
, for many kilometers. If the erupted jet is unable to heat the surrounding air sufficiently, convection currents will not be strong enough to carry the plume upwards and it falls, flowing down the flanks of the volcano.
* ''Fountain collapse'' of an eruption column associated with a Vulcanian eruption
's Soufrière Hills
volcano has generated many of these deadly pyroclastic flows and surges). The gas and projectiles create a cloud that is denser than the surrounding air and becomes a pyroclastic flow.
* Frothing at the mouth of the vent during degassing of the erupted lava. This can lead to the production of a rock called ignimbrite
. This occurred during the eruption of Novarupta
* Gravitational collapse of a lava dome
or spine, with subsequent avalanches and flows down a steep slope (e.g., Montserrat's Soufrière Hills volcano, which caused nineteen deaths in 1997).
* The directional blast
(or jet) when part of a volcano collapses or explodes (e.g., the eruption of Mount St. Helens on May 18, 1980
). As distance from the volcano increases, this rapidly transforms into a gravity-driven current.
Size and effects
thumb|A scientist examines pumice blocks at the edge of a pyroclastic flow deposit from Mount St. Helens
Flow volumes range from a few hundred cubic meters (yards) to more than 1,000 cubic kilometres (~240 cubic miles). Larger flows can travel for hundreds of kilometres (miles), although none on that scale has occurred for several hundred thousand years. Most pyroclastic flows are around 1 to 10 km3
(about ¼ to 2½ cubic miles) and travel for several kilometres. Flows usually consist of two parts: the ''basal flow'' hugs the ground and contains larger, coarse boulders and rock fragments, while an extremely hot ash plume
lofts above it because of the turbulence between the flow and the overlying air, admixing and heating cold atmospheric air causing expansion and convection.
The kinetic energy
of the moving cloud will flatten trees and buildings in its path. The hot gases and high speed make them particularly lethal, as they will incinerate living organisms instantaneously or turn them into carbonized fossils:
* The cities of Pompeii
, Italy, for example, were engulfed by pyroclastic surges on August 24, 79 AD with many lives lost.
* The 1902 eruption of Mount Pelée
destroyed the Martinique
town of St. Pierre
. Despite signs of impending eruption, the government deemed St. Pierre safe due to hills and valleys between it and the volcano, but the pyroclastic flow charred almost the entirety of the city, killing all but two of its 30,000 residents.
* A pyroclastic surge killed volcanologists Harry Glicken
and Katia and Maurice Krafft
and 40 other people on Mount Unzen
, in Japan, on June 3, 1991. The surge started as a pyroclastic flow and the more energised surge climbed a spur on which the Kraffts and the others were standing; it engulfed them, and the corpses were covered with about of ash.
* On June 25, 1997, a pyroclastic flow travelled down Mosquito Ghaut on the Caribbean
island of Montserrat
. A large, highly energized pyroclastic surge developed. This flow could not be restrained by the Ghaut and spilled out of it, killing 19 people who were in the Streatham village area (which was officially evacuated). Several others in the area suffered severe burns.
Interaction with water
Testimonial evidence from the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa
, supported by experimental evidence,
shows that pyroclastic flows can cross significant bodies of water. However, that might be a pyroclastic surge
, not flow, because the density of a gravity current means it cannot move across the surface of water.
[ One flow reached the Sumatran coast as far as away.
A 2006 BBC documentary film, ''Ten Things You Didn't Know About Volcanoes'', demonstrated tests by a research team at Kiel University, Germany, of pyroclastic flows moving over water. When the reconstructed pyroclastic flow (stream of mostly hot ash with varying densities) hit the water, two things happened: the heavier material fell into the water, precipitating out from the pyroclastic flow and into the liquid; the temperature of the ash caused the water to evaporate, propelling the pyroclastic flow (now only consisting of the lighter material) along on a bed of steam at an even faster pace than before.
During some phases of the Soufriere Hills volcano on Montserrat, pyroclastic flows were filmed about offshore. These show the water boiling as the flow passed over it. The flows eventually built a delta, which covered about .
A pyroclastic flow can interact with a body of water to form a large amount of mud, which can then continue to flow downhill as a lahar. This is one of several mechanisms that can create a lahar.
On the Moon
In 1963, NASA astronomer Winifred Cameron proposed that the lunar equivalent of terrestrial pyroclastic flows may have formed sinuous rilles on the Moon. In a lunar volcanic eruption, a pyroclastic cloud would follow local relief, resulting in an often sinuous track. The Moon's Schröter's Valley offers one example.
* Sigurdson, Haraldur: Encyclopedia of volcanoes. Academic Press, 546–548. .