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Puyi
Puyi
or Pu Yi (simplified Chinese: 溥仪; traditional Chinese: 溥儀; 7 February 1906 – 17 October 1967), of the Manchu Aisin Gioro
Aisin Gioro
clan, was the last Emperor of China
China
and the twelfth and final ruler of the Qing dynasty. When he was a child, he reigned as the Xuantong Emperor (Chinese: 宣統帝; Manchu: gehungge yoso hūwangdi) in China
China
and Khevt Yos Khaan in Mongolia from 1908 until his forced abdication on 12 February 1912, after the Xinhai Revolution. From 1 to 12 July 1917, he was briefly restored to the throne as emperor by the warlord Zhang Xun. In 1932 after the occupation of Manchuria, the state of Manchukuo
Manchukuo
was established by Japan, and he was chosen to become "Emperor" of the new state using the era-name of Datong (Ta-tung). In 1934, he was declared the Kangde Emperor (or Kang-te Emperor) of Manchukuo
Manchukuo
and ruled until the end of the Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
in 1945. After the People's Republic of China
China
was established in 1949, Puyi
Puyi
was imprisoned as a war criminal for 10 years, wrote his memoirs and became a titular member of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference
Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference
and the National People's Congress.

Contents

1 Names and titles

1.1 Name 1.2 Titles

2 Biography

2.1 Emperor of China
China
(1908–1912) 2.2 Eunuchs and the Household Department 2.3 Abdication

2.3.1 The Articles of Favourable Treatment of the Great Qing Emperor after His Abdication

2.4 Brief restoration (1917) 2.5 Life in the Forbidden City 2.6 Marriage 2.7 Expulsion from the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
(1924) 2.8 Residence in Tianjin
Tianjin
(1925–1931) 2.9 Captive in Manchuria
Manchuria
1931–1932 2.10 Ruler of Manchukuo
Manchukuo
(1932–1945) 2.11 Later life (1945–1967)

3 Death and burial 4 Portrayal in media

4.1 Film 4.2 Television

5 Family

5.1 Spouses 5.2 Issue

5.2.1 Adopted Sons

6 Ancestry

6.1 Paternal side 6.2 Maternal side

7 Bibliography

7.1 By Puyi 7.2 By others

8 See also 9 Notes 10 References

10.1 Citations 10.2 Sources

11 External links

Names and titles[edit] Name[edit] Puyi's name is romanized in English as either "Puyi" or "Pu-yi". This naming is in accordance with the Manchu tradition of avoiding the use of a person's clan name and given name together,[citation needed] but is in complete contravention of Chinese tradition, whereby the given name of a ruler was considered taboo and ineffable. Using a former emperor's personal name (or even using a Chinese character
Chinese character
from the name) was a punishable offense under traditional Chinese law. However, after Puyi
Puyi
lost his imperial title in 1924, he was officially styled "Mr. Puyi" (Mr. Pu-yi; simplified Chinese: 溥仪先生; traditional Chinese: 溥儀先生; pinyin: Pǔyí Xiānsheng) in Chinese. His clan name "Aisin Gioro" (simplified Chinese: 爱新觉罗; traditional Chinese: 愛新覺羅; pinyin: Àixīnjuéluó; Wade–Giles: Ai4-hsin1-chüeh2-lo2) was seldom used. Puyi
Puyi
also adopted other names – his zi (字; courtesy name) was "Yaozhi" (Chinese: 耀之; pinyin: Yàozhī), and his hao (號; pseudonym) was "Haoran" (Chinese: 浩然; pinyin: Hàorán). Puyi
Puyi
is also known to have used a Western given name, "Henry", which was chosen by him from a list of English kings given to him by his English-language teacher, Scotsman Reginald Johnston, after Puyi
Puyi
asked for an English name.[1][2] Titles[edit] When he ruled as Emperor of the Qing Dynasty
Dynasty
from 1908 to 1912 and during his brief restoration in 1917, Puyi's era name was "Xuantong", so he was known as the "Xuantong Emperor" (simplified Chinese: 宣统皇帝; traditional Chinese: 宣統皇帝; pinyin: Xuāntǒng Huángdì; Wade–Giles: Hsüan1-t'ung3 Huang2-ti4) during those two periods of time. As Puyi
Puyi
was also the last ruling Emperor of China, he is widely known as "The Last Emperor" (Chinese: 末代皇帝; pinyin: Mòdài Huángdì; Wade–Giles: Mo4-tai4 Huang2-ti4) in China
China
and throughout the rest of the world. Some refer to him as " The Last Emperor
The Last Emperor
of the Qing Dynasty" (Chinese: 清末帝; pinyin: Qīng Mò Dì; Wade–Giles: Ch'ing1 Mo4-ti4). Due to his abdication, Puyi
Puyi
is also known as "Xun Di" (Chinese: 遜帝; pinyin: Xùn Dì; literally: "Yielded Emperor") or "Fei Di" (simplified Chinese: 废帝; traditional Chinese: 廢帝; pinyin: Fèi Dì; literally: "Abrogated Emperor"). Sometimes a "Qing" (Chinese: 清; pinyin: Qīng) is added in front of the two titles to indicate his affiliation with the Qing Dynasty. When Puyi
Puyi
ruled the puppet state of Manchukuo
Manchukuo
and assumed the title of Chief Executive of the new state, his era name was "Datong" (Ta-tung). As Emperor of Manchukuo
Emperor of Manchukuo
from 1934 to 1945, his era name was "Kangde" (Kang-te), so he was known as the "Kangde Emperor" (Chinese: 康德皇帝; pinyin: Kāngdé Huángdì, Japanese: Kōtoku Kōtei) during that period of time.

Styles of Xuantong Emperor

Reference style His Imperial Majesty

Spoken style Your Imperial Majesty

Alternative style Son of Heaven
Son of Heaven
(天子)

Biography[edit] Emperor of China
China
(1908–1912)[edit]

Puyi
Puyi
in 1922

Chosen by Empress Dowager Cixi
Empress Dowager Cixi
on her deathbed,[3] Puyi
Puyi
became emperor at the age of 2 years and 10 months in December 1908 after the Guangxu Emperor
Guangxu Emperor
died on 14 November. Titled the Xuantong Emperor (Wade-Giles: Hsuan-tung Emperor), Puyi's introduction to the life of an emperor began when palace officials arrived at his family residence to take him. On the evening of 13 November 1908, without any advance notice, a procession of eunuchs and guardsmen led by the palace chamberlain left the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
for the Northern Mansion to inform Prince Chun that they were taking away his three-year-old son Puyi
Puyi
to be the new emperor.[4] The toddler Puyi screamed and resisted as the officials ordered the eunuch attendants to pick him up.[5] Puyi's parents said nothing when they learned that they were losing their son.[6] As Puyi
Puyi
cried, screaming that he did not want to leave his parents, he was forced into a palanquin that took him back to the Forbidden City.[6] Puyi's wet nurse Wang Wen-Chao was the only person from the Northern Mansion allowed to go with him, and she calmed the very distraught Puyi
Puyi
down by allowing him to suckle one of her breasts; this was the only reason why she was taken along as only she could calm Puyi
Puyi
down.[6] Upon arriving at the Forbidden City, Puyi
Puyi
was taken to see the Dowager Empress Cixi.[7] Puyi
Puyi
later wrote:

I still have a dim recollection of this meeting, the shock of which left a deep impression on my memory. I remember suddenly finding myself surrounded by strangers, while before me was hung a drab curtain through which I could see an emaciated and terrifying hideous face. This was Cixi. It is said that I burst out into loud howls at the sight and started to tremble uncontrollably. Cixi told someone to give me some sweets, but I threw them on the floor and yelled "I want nanny, I want nanny", to her great displeasure. "What a naughty child" she said. "Take him away to play."[7]

His father, Prince Chun, became Prince Regent (摄政王). During Puyi's coronation in the Hall of Supreme Harmony
Hall of Supreme Harmony
on 2 December 1908, the young emperor was carried onto the Dragon Throne by his father.[7] Puyi
Puyi
was so frightened by the scene before him and the deafening sounds of ceremonial drums and music that he started crying. His father could do nothing except to quietly comfort him: "Don't cry, it'll be over soon."[8] Puyi's wet nurse, Wang Wen-Chao, was the only one who could console him, and therefore she accompanied him to the Forbidden City. Puyi
Puyi
did not see his biological mother, Princess Consort Chun, for the next seven years. He developed a special bond with Wen-Chao Wang and credited her with being the only person who could control him. She was sent away when he was eight years old. After Puyi
Puyi
married, he would occasionally bring her to the Forbidden City, and later Manchukuo, to visit him. After his special government pardon in 1959, he visited her adopted son and only then learned of her personal sacrifices to be his nurse.[9] Puyi's upbringing was hardly conducive to the raising of a healthy, well-balanced child. Overnight, he was treated as an emperor and unable to behave as a child. The adults in his life, except for his wet-nurse Wang Wen-Chao, were all strangers, remote, distant, and unable to discipline him.[10] Wherever he went, grown men would kneel down in a ritual kowtow, averting their eyes until he passed. Soon the young Puyi
Puyi
discovered the absolute power he wielded over the eunuchs, and he frequently had them beaten for small transgressions.[5] As an emperor, Puyi
Puyi
had his every whim catered to while no one ever said no to him, making him into a sadistic boy who loved to have his eunuchs flogged.[11] The Anglo-French journalist Edward Behr wrote about Puyi's powers as emperor of China, which allowed him to fire his air-gun at anyone he liked:

The Emperor was Divine. He could not be remonstrated with, or punished. He could only be deferentially advised against ill-treating innocent eunuchs, and if he chose to fire air-gun pellets at them, that was his prerogative. — Edward Behr[11]

Puyi
Puyi
later commented about his childhood that: "Flogging eunuchs was part of my daily routine. My cruelty and love of wielding power were already too firmly set for persuasion to have any effect on me."[10] The British historian Alex von Tunzelmann wrote that most people in the West know Puyi's story only from the 1987 film The Last Emperor, which downplays Puyi's cruelty considerably, as the real boy-emperor was far more vicious than his cinematic counterpart, which creates misunderstandings that the young Puyi
Puyi
was merely very spoiled.[12] By the age of 7, Puyi
Puyi
had emerged with two sides to his personality; the sadistic emperor who loved to have his eunuchs flogged, expected everyone to kowtow to him and enjoyed puppet shows and dog fights, and the boy who slept at night with Wang, suckling her breasts, and content to be loved for just once in the day.[13] Wang was the only person capable of controlling Puyi; once, Puyi
Puyi
decided to "reward" a eunuch for a well done puppet show by having a cake baked for him with iron filings in it, as Puyi
Puyi
said "I want to see what he looks like when he eats it".[10] With much difficulty, Wang talked Puyi
Puyi
out of this plan.[10] Every day Puyi
Puyi
had to visit five former imperial concubines who were his "mothers" to report on his progress, all of whom he hated, not the least because his "mothers" prevented him from seeing his real mother until he was 13.[14] Their leader was the autocratic Empress Dowager Longyu, who conspired successfully to have Puyi's beloved wet nurse Wang expelled from the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
when he was 8, on the grounds that Puyi
Puyi
was too old to be breast-fed.[15] Puyi
Puyi
especially hated Longyu for expelling Wang.[15] Puyi
Puyi
later wrote "Although I had many mothers, I never knew any motherly love."[15] Puyi
Puyi
noted that to travel from just one building to another in the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
or for a stroll in the gardens, he was always surrounded by "large retinue" of eunuchs and that:

"In front went an eunuch whose function was roughly that of a motor horn; he walked twenty or thirty yards ahead of the party intoning the sound '... chir ... chir ...' as a warning to anyone who might be waiting in the vicinity to go away at once. Next came two Chief Eunuchs advancing crabwise on either side of the path; ten paces behind them came the centre of the procession. If I was being carried in a chair there would be two junior eunuchs walking beside me to attend to my wants at any moment; if I was walking they would be supporting me. Next came an eunuch with a large silk canopy followed by a large group of eunuchs, some empty-handed, others holding all sorts of things: a seat in case I wanted to rest, changes of clothing, umbrellas and parasols. After these eunuchs of the Imperial Presence came eunuchs of the Imperial tea bureau with boxes of various kinds of cakes and delicacies ... They were followed by eunuchs of the Imperial dispensary ... at the end of the procession came the eunuchs who carried commodes and chamberpots. If I was walking, a sedan-chair, open or covered according to the season, would bring up the rear. This motley procession of several dozen people would proceed in perfect silence and order".[16]

Puyi
Puyi
never had any privacy and had all his needs attended to at all times, having eunuchs open doors for him, dress him, wash him, and even blow air into his soup to cool it.[17] Puyi
Puyi
delighted in humiliating his eunuchs, at one point, saying that as the "Lord of Ten Thousand Years" it was his right to order a eunuch to eat dirt, recalling: "'Eat that for me' I ordered, and he knelt down and ate it".[10] At his meals, Puyi
Puyi
was always presented with a huge buffet containing every conceivable dish, the vast majority of which he did not eat, and every day Puyi
Puyi
wore new clothing as Chinese emperors never reused their clothing.[18] The eunuchs had their own reasons for presenting Puyi
Puyi
with buffet meals and new clothing every day, as Puyi's used clothes made from the finest silk were sold on the black market while the food that Puyi
Puyi
did not eat was either sold or eaten by the eunuchs themselves.[18] Puyi
Puyi
had a standard Confucian education, being taught the various Confucian classics and nothing else.[19] Puyi
Puyi
later wrote: "I learnt nothing of mathematics, let alone science, and for a long time I had no idea where Beijing
Beijing
was situated".[19] When Puyi
Puyi
was 13, he met his parents and siblings, all of whom had to kowtow before him as he sat upon the Dragon Throne.[20] By this time, Puyi
Puyi
had forgotten what his mother looked like.[20] Such was the awe that the Emperor was held that his younger brother Pujie
Pujie
never heard his parents refer to Puyi as "your elder brother", rather he was always just the Emperor.[20] Pujie
Pujie
told Behr his image of Puyi
Puyi
prior to meeting him was that of "...a venerable old man with a beard. I couldn't believe it when I saw this boy in yellow robes sitting solemnly on the throne".[20] It was decided that Pujie
Pujie
would join Puyi
Puyi
in the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
to provide him with a playmate, though Puyi
Puyi
was notably angry when he discovered his brother was wearing yellow – the color of the Qing – as he believed that only Emperors had the right to wear yellow, and it had to be explained to him that all members of the Qing family could wear yellow.[20] Eunuchs and the Household Department[edit] A quotation from Puyi
Puyi
best summarizes the eunuchs:

No account of my childhood would be complete without mentioning the eunuchs. They waited on me when I ate, dressed and slept; they accompanied me on my walks and to my lessons; they told me stories; and had rewards and beatings from me, but they never left my presence. They were my slaves; and they were my earliest teachers.[21]

The eunuchs were all slaves who did all of the work in the Forbidden City such as cooking, gardening, cleaning, entertaining guests, and all of the bureaucratic work needed to govern a vast empire and serving as the emperor's advisers.[22] The eunuchs spoke in a distinctive high-pitched voice and to further prove that they were really eunuchs had to keep their severed penises and testicles in jars of brine that they wore around their necks when working.[23] The Forbidden City
Forbidden City
was full of treasures, which the eunuchs were constantly stealing and selling on the black market.[23] The business of government and of providing for the emperor created further opportunities for corruption and virtually all of the eunuchs engaged in theft and corruption of one sort or another.[23] After his marriage, Puyi
Puyi
began to take control of the palace. He described "an orgy of looting" taking place that involved "everyone from the highest to the lowest". According to Puyi, by the end of his wedding ceremony, the pearls and jade in the empress's crown had been stolen.[24] Locks were broken, areas ransacked, and on 27 June 1923, a fire destroyed the area around the Palace of Established Happiness. Puyi
Puyi
suspected it was arson to cover theft. The emperor overheard conversations among the eunuchs that made him fear for his life. In response, he evicted the eunuchs from the palace.[25] His own brother, Pujie, was rumored to steal treasures and art collections and sell to wealthy collectors in the black market. His next plan of action was to reform the Household Department. In this period, he brought in more outsiders to replace the traditionally aristocratic officers in order to improve the accountability. He appointed Zheng Xiaoxu as the minister of Household Department and Zheng Xiaoxu hired Tong Jixu, a former Air Force officer from the Beiyang Army, as his chief of staff to clean up the act. However, the reform did not last long before Puyi
Puyi
was forced out of the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
by Feng Yuxiang.[26] Abdication[edit] On 10 October 1911, the army garrison in Wuhan mutinied, sparking a widespread revolt in the Yangtze river valley and beyond, demanding the overthrow of the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
which ruled China
China
since 1644.[27] The strongman of late imperial China, General Yuan Shikai, was dispatched by the court to crush the revolution, which he was unable to do, as by 1911 public opinion had turned decisively against the Qing, and many Chinese had no wish to fight for a dynasty which was seen as having lost the Mandate of Heaven.[27] Puyi's father, Prince Chun, served as a regent until 6 December 1911 when Empress Dowager Longyu took over following the Xinhai Revolution.[28] Empress Dowager Longyu
Empress Dowager Longyu
endorsed the "Imperial Edict of the Abdication of the Qing Emperor" (清帝退位詔書) on 12 February 1912 under a deal brokered by Prime Minister Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
(a general of the Beiyang Army) with the imperial court in Beijing
Beijing
and the Republicans in southern China.[29] At the crucial meeting in the Forbidden City, Puyi watched the meeting between Longyu and Yuan, which he remembered as:

"The Dowager Empress was sitting on a kang [platform bed] in a side room of the Mind Nature Palace, wiping her eyes with a handkerchief while a fat old man [Yuan] knelt on a red cushion before her, tears rolling down his face. I was sitting to the right of the Dowager and wondering why the two adults were crying. There was nobody in the room besides us three and it was very quiet; the fat man was sniffing while he talked and I could not understand what he was saying ... This was the occasion Yuan directly brought up the question of abdication".[30]

Under the "Articles of Favourable Treatment of the Great Qing Emperor after His Abdication" (清帝退位 優待條件), signed with the new Republic of China, Puyi
Puyi
was to retain his imperial title and be treated by the government of the Republic with the protocol attached to a foreign monarch. This was similar to Italy's Law of Guarantees (1870) which accorded the Pope
Pope
certain honors and privileges similar to those enjoyed by the King of Italy.[31] Puyi
Puyi
and the imperial court were allowed to remain in the northern half of the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
(the Private Apartments) as well as in the Summer Palace. A hefty annual subsidy of four million silver taels was granted by the Republic to the imperial household, although it was never fully paid and was abolished after just a few years. Puyi
Puyi
himself was not informed in February 1912 that his reign had ended and China
China
was now a republic and continued to believe that he was still the Emperor for sometime afterwards.[32] In 1913, when the Empress Dowager Longyu
Empress Dowager Longyu
died, President Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
arrived at the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
to pay his respects, which Puyi's tutors told him meant that major changes were afloat.[33] The Articles of Favourable Treatment of the Great Qing Emperor after His Abdication[edit] The document is dated 26 December 1914.[34]

After the abdication of the Great Qing Emperor, his title of dignity is to be retained by the Republic of China
China
with the courtesies which it is customary to accord to foreign monarchs. After the abdication of the Great Qing Emperor, he will receive from the Republic of China
China
an annual subsidy of 4,000,000 silver taels. After the reform of the currency this amount will be altered to $4,000,000 (max.). After the abdication of the Great Qing Emperor, he may, as a temporary measure, continue to reside in the Palace (in the Forbidden City), but afterwards he will remove himself to the Summer Palace. He may retain his bodyguard. After the abdication of the Great Qing Emperor, the temples and mausoleums of the imperial family with their appropriate sacrificial rites shall be maintained in perpetuity. The Republic of China
China
will be responsible for the provision of military guards for their adequate protection. As the Chong Mausoleum (崇陵) of the late Emperor Dezong (the Guangxu Emperor) has not yet been completed, the work will be carried out according to the proper regulations (relating to imperial tombs). The last ceremonies of sepulture will also be observed in accordance with the ancient rites. The actual expenses will all be borne by the Republic of China. The services of all the persons of various grades hitherto employed in the Palace may be retained; but in future no eunuchs are to be added to the staff. After the abdication of the Great Qing Emperor, his private property will be safeguarded and protected by the Republic of China. The imperial guard corps as constituted at the time of the abdication will be placed under the military control of the War Office of the Republic of China. It will be maintained at its original strength and will receive the same emoluments as heretofore.

Puyi
Puyi
soon learned that the real reasons for the Articles of Favorable Settlement was that President Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
was planning on restoring the monarchy with himself as the Emperor of a new dynasty, and wanted to have Puyi
Puyi
as a sort of custodian of the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
until he could move in.[35] Puyi
Puyi
first learned of Yuan's plans to become Emperor when he brought in army bands to serenade him whenever he had a meal, and he started on a decidedly imperial take on the presidency.[33] Puyi
Puyi
spent hours staring at the Presidential Palace across from the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
and cursed Yuan whenever he saw him come and go in his automobile.[33] Puyi
Puyi
hated Yuan as a "traitor" and decided to sabotage his plans to become Emperor by hiding the Imperial Seals, only to be told by his tutors that he would just make new ones.[35] In 1915, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor, but had to abandon his plans in the face of popular opposition.[36] Brief restoration (1917)[edit] See also: Manchu Restoration In 1917 the warlord Zhang Xun
Zhang Xun
restored Puyi
Puyi
to the throne from July 1 to July 12.[37] Zhang Xun
Zhang Xun
ordered his army to keep their queues to display loyalty to the emperor. During that period of time, a small bomb was dropped over the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
by a Republican plane, causing minor damage.[38] This is considered the first aerial bombardment ever in East Asia. The restoration failed due to extensive opposition across China, and the decisive intervention of another warlord, Duan Qirui.[39] Life in the Forbidden City[edit] Sir Reginald Johnston
Reginald Johnston
arrived in the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
as Puyi's English tutor on 3 March 1919.[40] Puyi
Puyi
had never met a foreigner prior to this, recalling: "I have never seen foreign men. From the magazines, I noticed they had big mustaches. The eunuchs said the mustaches were very hard and a lantern could be hung at its ends".[41] President Xu Shichang believed that the monarchy was going to be restored in China sooner or later, and to prepare Puyi
Puyi
for the challenges of the modern world had hired Johnston to teach Puyi
Puyi
"subjects such as political science, constitutional history and English".[42] Johnston was allowed only five texts in English to give Puyi
Puyi
to read, namely Alice in Wonderland and translations into English of the "Four Great Books" of Confucianism; the Analects, the Mencius, the Great Learning and The Doctrine of the Mean.[42] However, Johnston disregarded the rules, and taught Puyi
Puyi
about world history with a special focus on British history.[43] Johnston also told Puyi
Puyi
so much about his native Scotland that Puyi
Puyi
eventually expressed the desire to visit the "Scotland the Brave" that his tutor spoke of with such pride and love.[43] Besides history, Johnston taught Puyi
Puyi
philosophy and about what he saw as the superiority of monarchies over republics.[43] Puyi
Puyi
remembered that the piercing blue eyes of his tutor "made me feel uneasy ... I found him very intimidating and studied English with him like a good boy, not daring to talk about other things when I got bored ... as I did with my other Chinese tutors".[44] As the only person capable of controlling Puyi, Johnston had much more influence than his title of English tutor would suggest as the eunuchs began to rely upon Johnston to steer Puyi
Puyi
away from his more capricious moods.[45] When the 14 year-old Puyi
Puyi
had some western-style clothing purchased to wear from a theater company, Johnston flew into a rage, saying that Puyi
Puyi
was wearing cheap clothing unworthy of an emperor, and had Puyi
Puyi
buy expensive clothes from a western-style department store, telling Puyi
Puyi
"If you wear clothes from a second-hand shop, you won't be a gentleman, you'll be ..." with Puyi
Puyi
noting he was unable to finish his sentence.[46] Under Johnston's influence, Puyi
Puyi
started to insist that his eunuchs address him as "Henry" and later his wife Wanrong as "Elizabeth" as Puyi
Puyi
began to speak "Chinglish"-a mixture of Mandarin and English that was to be his preferred model of speech.[46] Puyi
Puyi
recalled about Johnston: "I thought everything about him was first-rate. He made me feel that Westerners were the most intelligent and civilized people in the world and that he was the most learned of Westerners" and that "Johnston had become the major part of my soul".[47] In May 1919, Puyi
Puyi
noticed the protests in Beijing
Beijing
generated by the May 4th movement as thousands of Chinese university students protested against the decision by the great powers at the Paris peace conference to award the former German concessions in Shangdong province together with the former German colony of Qingdao
Qingdao
to Japan.[48] For Puyi, the May 4th movement, which he asked Johnston about, was a revelation as it marked the first time in his life that he noticed that people outside the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
had concerns that were not about him.[48] Puyi
Puyi
could not speak Manchu; he only knew a single word in the language, yili ("arise"). Despite studying Manchu for years, he admitted that it was his "worst" subject among everything he studied.[49][50][51][52] According to the journalist S. M. Ali, Puyi spoke Mandarin when interviewed but Ali believed that he could understand English.[53] Johnston also introduced Puyi
Puyi
to the new technology of cinema, and Puyi
Puyi
was so delighted with the movies, especially Harold Lloyd films, that he had a film projector installed in the Forbidden City, despite the opposition of the eunuchs who disliked foreign technology operating in the Forbidden City.[54] Johnston was also the first to argue that Puyi
Puyi
needed glasses, as he was extremely near-sighted, and after much argument with Prince Chun, who thought it was undignified for an Emperor to wear glasses, finally prevailed.[55] Johnston, who spoke fluent Mandarin, closely followed the intellectual scene in China, and introduced Puyi
Puyi
to the "new style" Chinese books and magazines, which so inspired Puyi, that he wrote several poems that were published anonymously in "New China" publications.[56] In 1922, Johnston had his friend, the writer Hu Shih, visit the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
to teach Puyi
Puyi
about recent developments in Chinese literature.[57] Under Johnston's influence, Puyi
Puyi
embraced the bicycle as a way to exercise, cut his queue and grew a full head of hair, and wanted to go to study at Oxford, which was Johnston's alma mater.[58] Johnston also introduced Puyi
Puyi
to the telephone, which Puyi
Puyi
soon become addicted to, phoning people in Beijing
Beijing
at random just to hear their voices on the other end.[59] Johnston also pressured Puyi
Puyi
to cut down on the waste and extravagance in the Forbidden City, noting that all of these eunuch slaves had to be fed.[60] Johnston convinced Puyi
Puyi
that he could open doors for himself and did not need eunuchs standing by idly all the time by the main doors of the palaces just to open the door for him if he should happen to come along.[61] Puyi
Puyi
cut off his queue so he would look like a Western gentleman and under Johnston's advice embraced the bicycle as the best way to move about in the Forbidden City, retaining a lifelong enthusiasm for cycling, though it is doubtful that the eunuchs working as gardeners much appreciated Puyi's habit of riding through the flowers.[62] Marriage[edit] In March 1922, the Dowager Consorts decided that Puyi
Puyi
should be married, and gave him a selection of photographs of aristocratic teenage girls to choose from.[63] Puyi
Puyi
chose Wenxiu
Wenxiu
as his wife, but was told that she was acceptable only as a concubine, so he would have to choose again.[64] Puyi
Puyi
then chose Gobulo Wanrong, the daughter of one of Manchuria's richest aristocrats, who had been educated in English by American missionaries in Tianjin, who was considered to be an acceptable empress by the Dowager Consorts.[65] On 15 March 1922, the betrothal of Puyi
Puyi
and Wanrong was announced in the newspapers, on 17 March Wanrong took the train to Beijing, and on 6 April Puyi
Puyi
went to the Qing family shrine to inform his ancestors that he would be married to her later that year.[65] Puyi did not meet Wanrong until their wedding and only knew her from the photograph.[65] In an interview in 1986, Prince Pujie
Pujie
told Behr: " Puyi
Puyi
constantly talked about going to England and becoming an Oxford student, like Johnston."[66] On 4 June 1922, Puyi
Puyi
attempted to escape from the Forbidden City, having decided that he wanted to go to study at Oxford, and planned to issue an open letter to "the people of China" renouncing the title of Emperor before leaving for Oxford.[67] The escape attempt failed when Johnston vetoed it and refused to call a taxi and Puyi
Puyi
was too frightened to live on the streets of Beijing
Beijing
on his own.[68] Pujie
Pujie
said about Puyi’s escape attempt: “Puyi’s decision had nothing to do with the impending marriage. He felt cooped up, and wanted out.”[67] Johnston later recounted his time as Puyi's tutor between 1919–1924 in his 1934 book Twilight in the Forbidden City, which is one of main sources of information about Puyi's life in this period, though Behr cautioned that Johnston painted an idealised picture of Puyi
Puyi
in his book, avoiding all mention of Puyi's sexuality, that he was only an average student, his erratic mood swings, and the practice of eunuch-flogging.[69] Pujie
Pujie
told Behr about Puyi's moods: "When he was in a good mood, everything was fine, and he was a charming companion. If something upset him, his dark side would emerge."[70] On 21 October 1922, Puyi's wedding to Princess Wanrong began with the "betrothal presents" of 18 sheep, 2 horses, 40 pieces of satin and 80 rolls of cloth were marched from the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
to Wanrong's house accompanied by court musicians and cavalry.[71] Following Manchu traditions where weddings were conducted under moonlight for good luck, an enormous procession of palace guardsmen, eunuchs, and musicians carried the Princess Wanrong in a red sedan chair called the Phoenix Chair from her house to the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
under a full moon.[72] Wanrong was taken to the Palace of Earthly Peace within the Forbidden City, where Puyi
Puyi
sat upon the Dragon Throne and Wanrong kowtowed to him six times to symbolize her submission to her husband.[72] Wanrong wore a mask in accordance with Chinese tradition and Puyi, who knew nothing of women, remembered: "I hardly thought about marriage and family. It was only when the Empress came into my field of vision with a crimson satin cloth embroidered with a dragon and a phoenix over her head that I felt at all curious about what she looked like."[73] After the wedding was complete, Puyi, Wanrong, and his secondary consort Wenxiu
Wenxiu
(whom he married the same night) went to the Palace of Earthly Tranquility, where everything was red – the color of love and sex in China
China
– and where emperors had traditionally consummated their marriages.[73] Puyi, who was sexually inexperienced and timid, fled from the bridal chamber, leaving his wives to sleep in the Dragon Bed by themselves.[74] About Puyi's failure to consummate his marriage on his wedding night, Behr wrote:

It was perhaps too much to expect an adolescent, permanently surrounded by eunuchs to show the sexual maturity of a normal seventeen year-old. Neither the Dowager consorts nor Johnston himself had given him any advice on sexual matters – this sort of thing simply was not done, where emperors were concerned: It would have been an appalling breach of protocol. But the fact remains that a totally inexperienced, over-sheltered adolescent, if normal, could hardly have failed to be aroused by Wan Jung's [Wanrong's] unusual, sensual beauty. The inference is, of course, that Pu Yi was either impotent, extraordinarily immature sexually, or already aware of his homosexual tendencies.[74]

Wanrong's younger brother Rong Qi remembered how Puyi
Puyi
and Wanrong, both teenagers, loved to race their bicycles through the Forbidden City, forcing eunuchs to get out of the way, and told Behr in an interview: "There was a lot of laughter, she and Puyi
Puyi
seemed to get on well, they were like kids together."[75] In 1986, Behr interviewed one of Puyi's two surviving eunuchs, an 85-year-old man who proved reluctant to answer the questions asked of him, but finally stated about Puyi's relationship with Wanrong: "The Emperor would come over to the nuptial apartments once every three months and spend the night there ... He leave early in the morning on the following day and for the rest of that day he would invariably be in a very filthy temper indeed."[76] Reginald Johnston
Reginald Johnston
arranged for the Marquis of Extended Grace Zhu Yuxun, a descendant of the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
Imperial family, to visit Puyi
Puyi
in the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
in September 1924, which was the first time the heirs of both the deposed Ming and Qing dynasties came face to face. Puyi
Puyi
rarely left the Forbidden City, knew nothing of the lives of ordinary Chinese people, and was somewhat misled by Johnston who told him that the vast majority of the Chinese wanted a Qing restoration.[58] Johnston, a Sinophile scholar and a romantic conservative with an instinctive preference for monarchies, believed that China
China
needed a benevolent autocrat to guide the country forward, leading him to favor a Qing restoration.[58] Johnston was enough of a traditionalist to appreciate that all of the major events in the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
were determined by the court astrologers as life in the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
was still decided by the way of the stars.[77] The Sinophile Johnston disparaged the superficially Westernized Chinese republican elite who dressed in top hats, frock coats and business suits as inauthentically Chinese and praised to Puyi
Puyi
the Confucian scholars with their traditional robes as the ones who were authentically Chinese.[58] As part of an effort to crack down on corruption by the eunuchs inspired by Johnston, Puyi
Puyi
ordered an inventory of the treasures in the Forbidden City, which caused the Hall of Supreme Harmony
Hall of Supreme Harmony
to go up in flames in a case of arson on the night of 26 June 1923 as the eunuchs tried to cover up the extent of their theft.[78] Johnston reported on the next day he “found the Emperor and Empress standing on a heap of charred wood, sadly contemplating the spectacle”.[78] The treasures reported lost in the fire included 2,685 golden statues of Lord Buddha, 1,675 golden altar ornaments, 435 porcelain antiques, and 31 boxes of sable furs, though it is likely that most if not all of these treasures were sold on the black market before the building was set afire.[79] Puyi
Puyi
finally decided to expel all of the eunuchs from the Forbidden City to end the problem of theft, only agreeing to keep 50 after the Dowager Consorts complained that they could not function without them.[80] After expelling the eunuchs, Puyi
Puyi
turned the grounds where the Hall of Supreme Harmony
Hall of Supreme Harmony
had once stood into a tennis court, a sport that he and Wanrong loved to play.[81] Wanrong's brother Rong Qi recalled: "But after the eunuchs went, many of the palaces inside the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
were closed down, and the place took on a desolate, abandoned air."[81] After the Great Kanto earthquake on 1 September 1923 destroyed the cities of Tokyo and Yokohama, Puyi donated jade antiques worth some £33,000 to pay for disaster relief, and which led to a delegation of Japanese diplomats to visit the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
to express their thanks.[82] In their report about the visit, the diplomats noted that Puyi
Puyi
was highly vain and malleable, and could be used by Japan, which marked the beginning of Japanese interest in Puyi.[83] Expulsion from the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
(1924)[edit] On October 23, 1924, a coup led by the warlord Feng Yuxiang
Feng Yuxiang
took control of Beijing. Feng, the latest of the warlords to take Beijing was seeking legitimacy and decided that abolishing the unpopular Articles of Favorable Settlement was an easy way to win the approval of the crowd.[84] The "Articles of Favourable Treatment" were unilaterally revised by Feng on November 5, 1924, abolishing Puyi's imperial title and privileges, and reducing him to a private citizen of the Republic of China. Puyi
Puyi
was expelled from the Forbidden City that same day.[85] He was given three hours to leave the Forbidden City.[84] He spent a few days at the house of his father Prince Chun, and then temporarily resided in the Japanese embassy in Beijing.[2] Puyi
Puyi
left his father's house together with Johnston and his chief servant Big Li without informing Prince Chun's servants, who followed them in another car while two policemen joined on the sides of Puyi's car, leading to a wild car chase through Beijing
Beijing
as Puyi's chauffeur tried to lose the servants' car before Puyi
Puyi
was able to slip into a jewelry store and into a carriage that took him to the Japanese legation.[86] Puyi
Puyi
had originally wanted to go to the British Legation, but the Japanophile Johnston had insisted that he would be safer with the Japanese.[87] For Johnston, the Japanese system where the Japanese people worshiped their emperor as a living god was much closer to his ideal political system than the British system of a constitutional monarchy, and he constantly steered Puyi
Puyi
in a pro-Japanese direction.[87] One of Puyi's advisers Lu Zongyu-who was secretly working for the Japanese-suggested that Puyi
Puyi
move to Tianjin, which he argued was safer than Beijing, though the real reason was that the Japanese felt that Puyi
Puyi
would be easier to control in Tianjin without the embarrassment of having him live in the Japanese Legation, which was straining relations with China.[88] On 23 February 1925, Puyi
Puyi
left Beijing
Beijing
for Tianjin
Tianjin
while wearing a simple Chinese gown and skullcap as he was afraid of being robbed on the train.[89] Residence in Tianjin
Tianjin
(1925–1931)[edit]

Garden of Serenity in Tianjin

In February 1925, Puyi
Puyi
moved to the Japanese Concession of Tianjin, first into the Zhang Garden (張園),[90] and in 1927 into the former residence of Lu Zongyu
Lu Zongyu
known as the Garden of Serenity (simplified Chinese: 静园; traditional Chinese: 静園; pinyin: jìng yuán).[91] A British journalist, Henry Woodhead, called Puyi's court a "doggy paradise" as both Puyi
Puyi
and Wanrong were dog-lovers who owned several dogs who were very spoiled while Puyi's courtiers spent an inordinate amount of time feuding with one another.[92] Woodhead stated that the only people who seemed to get along at Puyi's court were Wanrong and Wenxiu, who were "like sisters".[93] Tianjin
Tianjin
was, after Shanghai, the most cosmopolitan Chinese city, with large British, French, German, Russian and Japanese communities. As an emperor, Puyi
Puyi
was allowed to join several social clubs that normally only admitted whites.[94] During this period, Puyi
Puyi
and his advisers Chen Baochen, Zheng Xiaoxu and Luo Zhenyu
Luo Zhenyu
discussed plans to restore Puyi
Puyi
as Emperor. Zheng and Luo favoured enlisting assistance from external parties, while Chen opposed the idea. In June 1925, the warlord Zhang Zuolin
Zhang Zuolin
visited Tianjin
Tianjin
to meet Puyi.[95] "Old Marshal" Zhang, an illiterate former bandit, ruled Manchuria, a region equal in size to Germany and France combined, which had a population of 30 million and was the most industrialized region in China. Zhang kowtowed to Puyi
Puyi
at their meeting and promised to restore the House of Qing, which was made conditional on Puyi
Puyi
making a large financial donation to his army.[95] As Zhang walked with Puyi
Puyi
to his car at end of their meeting, he noticed a Japanese spy who had followed Puyi
Puyi
and said in a very loud voice "If those Japanese lay a finger on you, let me know and I'll sort them out", which was Zhang's way of warning Puyi in a "roundabout way" not to trust his Japanese friends.[96] Zhang fought in the pay of the Japanese, but by this time his relations with the Kwantung Army
Kwantung Army
were becoming strained. In June 1927, Zhang captured Beijing
Beijing
and Behr observed if Puyi
Puyi
had more courage and returned to Beijing, he might have been restored to the Dragon Throne.[96] Puyi's court was prone to factionalism and his advisers were urging him to back different warlords, which gave him a reputation for duplicity as he negotiated with various warlords, which strained his relations with Marshal Zhang.[97] At various times, Puyi
Puyi
met General Zhang Zongchang, the "Dogmeat General", and the Russian emigre General Grigory Semyonov at his Tianjin
Tianjin
house; both of them promised to restore him to the Dragon Throne if he gave them enough money, and both of them kept all of the money he gave them to themselves.[98] Puyi
Puyi
remembered Zhang, the "Dogmeat General" as "an universally detested monster" with a face bloated and "tinged with the livid hue induced by opium smoking".[99] Semyonov in particular proved himself to be a talented con-man, claiming as an ataman to have several Cossack Hosts under his command, to have 300 million roubles in the bank, and to be supported by American, British and Japanese banks in his plans to restore both the House of Qing in China
China
and the House of Romanov in Russia.[98] Semyonov claimed that he was only asking for Puyi's financial support because of a temporary clash flow problem, and promised that once his Cossacks took Beijing
Beijing
he would repay all of the money Puyi
Puyi
loaned him.[98] Puyi
Puyi
gave Semyonov a loan of 5,000 British pounds, which Semyonov never repaid.[98] Another visitor to the Garden of Serenity was General Kenji Doihara, a Japanese Army officer who was fluent in Mandarin and was a man of great charm who manipulated Puyi
Puyi
via flattery, telling him that a great man such as himself should go conquer Manchuria
Manchuria
and then, just as his Qing ancestors did in the 17th century, use Manchuria
Manchuria
as a base for conquering China.[100] In 1928, during the Great Northern Expedition
Northern Expedition
to reunify China, troops loyal to a warlord allied with the Kuomintang sacked the Qing tombs outside of Beijing
Beijing
after the Kuomintang and its allies took Beijing from the army of Marshal Zhang who retreated back to Manchuria.[101] The news that the Qing tombs had been plundered and the corpse of the Dowager Empress Cixi had been desecrated greatly offended Puyi, who never forgave the Kuomintang as he held Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
personally responsible for the sacking of the Qing tombs, while at the same time, the sacking of the Qing tombs also showed his powerlessness.[101] During his time in Tianjin, Puyi
Puyi
was besieged with visitors asking him for money, which included various members of the vast Qing family, old Manchu bannermen asking for financial help, journalists prepared to write articles calling for a Qing restoration for the right price, and eunuchs who had once lived in the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
and were now living in poverty.[102] Puyi
Puyi
himself was often bored with his life, and engaged in maniacal shopping to compensate, recalling that he was addicted to "buying pianos, watches, clocks, radios, Western clothes, leather shoes and spectacles".[103] Puyi's first wife Wanrong began to smoke opium during this period, which Puyi
Puyi
encouraged as he found her more "manageable" when she was in an opium daze.[104] His marriage to Wanrong began to fall apart as they spent more and more time apart, meeting only at mealtimes.[104] Wanrong complained that her life as an "empress" was extremely dull as the rules for an empress forbade her from going out dancing as she wanted, instead forcing her to spend her days in traditional rituals that she found to be meaningless, all the more so as China
China
was a republic and her title of empress was symbolic only.[104] The westernized Wanrong loved to go out dancing, play tennis, wear western clothes and make-up, listen to jazz music, and to socialize with her friends, which the more conservative courtiers all objected to.[104] She resented having to play the traditional role of a Chinese empress, but was unwilling to break with Puyi
Puyi
either.[104] Puyi's butler was secretly a Japanese spy, and in a report to his masters described Puyi and Wanrong one day spending hours screaming at one another in the gardens with Wanrong repeatedly calling Puyi
Puyi
a "eunuch" – whether she meant that insult as a reference to sexual inadequacy or not is not clear.[105] In 1928, Puyi's concubine Wenxiu
Wenxiu
declared that she had had enough of him and his court and simply walked out, filing for divorce.[106] After Wenxiu
Wenxiu
left, a regular visitor to the court was Puyi's cousin Eastern Jewel, described by Tunzelmann as "... an urbane leather-clad cross-dressing spy princess".[12] Captive in Manchuria
Manchuria
1931–1932[edit] In September 1931 Puyi
Puyi
sent a letter to Jirō Minami, the Japanese Minister of War, expressing his desire to be restored to the throne.[107] On the night of 18 September 1931, the Mukden Incident began when the Kwantung Army
Kwantung Army
blew up a section of railroad belonging to the Japanese-owned South Manchurian Railroad company, which was blamed on the warlord Marshal Zhang Xueliang, the "Young Marshal" who took over Manchuria
Manchuria
in 1928 when his father, the "Old Marshal" was assassinated by the Kwantung Army.[108] Using this incident as an excuse, the Kwantung Army
Kwantung Army
began a general offensive with the aim of conquering all of Manchuria
Manchuria
with heavy artillery being used to blast Zhang's barracks in Mukden.[109] Puyi
Puyi
was visited by Kenji Doihara, head of the espionage office of the Japanese Kwantung Army, who proposed establishing Puyi
Puyi
as head of a Manchurian state. The Empress Wanrong
Empress Wanrong
was firmly against Puyi's plans to go to Manchuria, which she called treason, and for a moment, Puyi
Puyi
hesitated, leading Doihara to send for Puyi's cousin, the very pro-Japanese Eastern Jewel, to visit him to change his mind.[110] Eastern Jewel, a strong-willed, flamboyant, openly bisexual woman noted for her habit of wearing male clothing and uniforms, had much influence on Puyi.[110] In the Tientsin Incident during November 1931, Puyi
Puyi
and Zheng Xiaoxu traveled to Manchuria
Manchuria
to complete plans for the puppet state of Manchukuo. Puyi
Puyi
left his house in Tianjin
Tianjin
by hiding in the trunk of a car.[111] The Chinese government ordered his arrest for treason, but was unable to breach the Japanese protection.[2] Puyi boarded a Japanese ship, the Awaji Maru, that took him across the East China
China
Sea, and when he landed in Port Arthur (modern Lüshun) the next day, he was greeted by the man who was to become his minder, General Masahiko Amakasu, who escorted him to the train that took them to a resort owned by the South Manchurian Railroad company.[112] Amakasu was a fearsome man who told Puyi
Puyi
how in the Amakasu Incident
Amakasu Incident
of 1923 he had the feminist Noe Itō, her lover the anarchist Sakae Ōsugi, and a six-year-old boy, Munekazu Tachibana, who happened to be there, strangled to death as they were "enemies of the Emperor", and he likewise would kill Puyi
Puyi
if he should prove to be an "enemy of the Emperor".[112] The American historian Louise Young described Amakasu as a "sadistic" man who enjoyed torturing and killing people.[113] Behr commented that Amakasu's boasting about killing a six-year-old boy should have served to enlighten Puyi
Puyi
about the sort of people he had just allied himself with.[112] Chen Baochen
Chen Baochen
returned to Beijing where he died in 1935.[114] Once he arrived in Manchuria, Puyi
Puyi
discovered that he was a prisoner and found that he was not allowed outside the Yamato Hotel he was staying in, ostensibly to protect him from assassination.[115] Wanrong had stayed in Tianjin, and remained opposed to Puyi's decision to work with the Japanese, requiring her friend Eastern Jewel to visit numerous times to convince her to go to Manchuria.[116] Behr commented that if Wanrong had been a stronger woman, she might have remained in Tianjin
Tianjin
and filed for divorce, but ultimately she accepted Eastern Jewel's argument that it was her duty as a wife to follow her husband, and six weeks after the Tientsin incident, she too crossed the East China
China
Sea to Port Arthur with Eastern Jewel to keep her company.[117] In early 1932, General Seishirō Itagaki
Seishirō Itagaki
informed Puyi
Puyi
that the new state was to be a republic with him as Chief Executive; the capital was to be Changchun; his form of address was to be "Your Excellency", not "Your Imperial Majesty"; and there were to be no references to Puyi
Puyi
ruling with the "Mandate of Heaven", none of which was welcome to Puyi.[118] The suggestion that Manchukuo
Manchukuo
was in theory at least to be based on popular sovereignty with the 34 million people of Manchuria
Manchuria
"asking" that Puyi
Puyi
rule over them was completely contrary to Puyi's ideas about his right to rule based on the Mandate of Heaven.[118] The Lytton Commission appointed by the League of Nations was due to arrive in Manchuria
Manchuria
soon to examine the Chinese complaint made to the League Council that Japan had committed aggression by seizing Manchuria, and presenting Manchukuo
Manchukuo
as an exercise in Wilsonian self-determination was calculated by the Kwantung Army
Kwantung Army
to appeal better than archaic arguments about the Mandate of Heaven.[119] Furthermore, the Japanese were fearful of international isolation, and contended that they had not violated the Nine-Power Treaty
Nine-Power Treaty
of 1922 because the Kwantung Army
Kwantung Army
had supposedly responded to the demands of the local people to break away from China.[120] The United States had already announced the Stimson Doctrine
Stimson Doctrine
of refusing to "recognize any treaty or agreement" that Japan might impose on China
China
which "may be brought about by means contrary to the covenants and obligations of the Pact of Paris [the Kellogg–Briand Pact]".[121] The Japanese contention was that China
China
"was not an organized state", but instead a lawless region ruled by warlords; Japan would observe all of its treaty commitments, but would react if the local people asked for Japanese help.[122] The Japanese historian Akira Iriye wrote this argument about self-determination and freedom for the people of Manchuria
Manchuria
was meant to make "an egregious violation of China's territorial and administrative integrity ... compatible with the Washington treaties".[120] Itagaki suggested to Puyi
Puyi
that in a few years time Manchukuo
Manchukuo
might become a monarchy and stated that Manchuria
Manchuria
was just the beginning, as Japan had ambitions to take all of China; the obvious implication was that Puyi
Puyi
would become the Great Qing Emperor again.[118] When Puyi objected to Itagaki's plans, he was told that he was in no position to negotiate as Itagaki had no interest in his opinions on these issues.[119] Unlike Doihara, who was always very polite and constantly stroked Puyi's ego, Itagaki was brutally rude and brusque, addressing Puyi
Puyi
like he was barking out orders to a particularly dim-witted common soldier.[119] Puyi's chief adviser Zheng Xiaoxu had been promised by Itagaki that he would be the Manchukuo
Manchukuo
prime minister, an offer that appealed to his vanity sufficiently enough that he persuaded Puyi
Puyi
to accept the Japanese terms, telling him that Manchukuo
Manchukuo
would soon become a monarchy and history would repeat itself, as Puyi
Puyi
would conquer the rest of China
China
from his Manchurian base just as the Qing did in 1644.[119] In Japanese propaganda, Puyi was always celebrated both in traditionalist terms as a Confucian "Sage King" out to restore virtue and as a revolutionary who was going to end the oppression of the common people by a program of wholesale modernization.[123] Ruler of Manchukuo
Manchukuo
(1932–1945)[edit]

Styles of Kangde Emperor

Reference style His Imperial Majesty

Spoken style Your Imperial Majesty

Alternative style Sir

On the night of 24 February 1932, when Puyi
Puyi
accepted the offer to be Chief Executive of Manchukuo, a party was thrown to celebrate with geishas being imported for the celebration, during which Itagaki become very drunk, and forgetting that the geisha are entertainers, not prostitutes, made outrageous sexual advances on the geisha, fondling their breasts and vaginas, telling Puyi
Puyi
that as a general he could do anything he wanted to the geisha.[124] During the party, while Itagaki boasted to Puyi
Puyi
that now was a great time to be a Japanese man, Puyi
Puyi
was much offended when none of the geisha knew who he was.[124] On 1 March 1932, Puyi
Puyi
was installed by the Japanese as the Chief Executive of Manchukuo, a puppet state of the Empire of Japan, under the reign title Datong (Wade-Giles: Ta-tung; 大同). Puyi
Puyi
believed Manchukuo
Manchukuo
was just the beginning, and within a few years time, he would once again reign as the Emperor of China, having the yellow Imperial Dragon robes used for coronation of Qing emperors brought from Beijing
Beijing
to Changchun.[125] At the time, Japanese propaganda depicted the birth of Manchukuo
Manchukuo
as a triumph of Pan-Asianism, with the "five races" of Japanese, Chinese, Koreans, Manchus and Mongols coming together, which marked nothing less than the birth of a new civilization and a turning point in world history.[126] A press statement issued on 1 March 1932 stated: "The glorious advent of Manchukuo
Manchukuo
with the eyes of the world turned on it was an epochal event of far-reaching consequence in world history, marking the birth of a new era in government, racial relations, and other affairs of general interest. Never in the chronicles of the human race was any State born with such high ideals, and never has any State accomplished so much in such a brief space of its existence as Manchukuo".[127] On 8 March 1932, Puyi
Puyi
made his ceremonial entry into Changchun, sharing his car with Zheng who was beaming with joy, Amakasu whose expression was stern as usual, and Wanrong, who looked miserable.[128] Puyi
Puyi
remembered about his first time in Changchun:

"I saw Japanese gendarmes, and rows of people, wearing all sorts of clothes; some were in Chinese jackets and gowns, some were in Western suits and some in traditional Japanese dress, and they were all holding small flags in their hands. I was thrilled and reflected that I was now seeing the scene that I missed at the harbor. As I walked past them Hsi Hsia [one of his ministers] pointed out a line of dragon flags between the Japanese ones and said that the men holding them were all Manchu "bannermen" who had been waiting for me to come for twenty years. These words brought tears to my eyes, and I was more strongly convinced than ever that my future was very hopeful".[129]

Puyi
Puyi
also noted he was "too preoccupied with my hopes and hates" to realize the "cold comfort that the Changchun
Changchun
citizens, silent from terror and hatred, were giving me".[130] Puyi's friend, the British journalist Woodhead, who covered his arrival in Manchuria, wrote "outside official circles, I met no Chinese who felt any enthusiasm for the new regime", and that the city of Harbin
Harbin
was being terrorized by Chinese and Russian gangsters working for the Japanese, making Harbin
Harbin
"lawless ... even its main street unsafe after dark".[131] In an interview with Woodhead, Puyi
Puyi
stated he planned to govern Manchukuo
Manchukuo
“in the Confucian spirit” and he was “perfectly happy” with his new position.[132] An Italian journalist from the Corriere della Sera
Corriere della Sera
newspaper wrote: “I was unable to interview this pale, tired prince who doesn’t like to talk, who is always plunged in his meditations and who maybe regrets his life as a simple, studious citizen. He has a fixed stare behind his black-framed glasses. When we were introduced, he responded with a friendly nod. But his smile lasted only a second. We could only await the word of the Master of Ceremonies to give us permission to bow ourselves out. A Japanese colonel, our guide, showed us the triumphal arches, the electric light decorations and endless flags. But all this, say the shopkeepers is "made in Osaka"”.[133] On 20 April 1932, the Lytton Commission arrived in Manchuria
Manchuria
to begin its investigation to establish if Japan had committed aggression or not.[134] Puyi
Puyi
was interviewed by Lord Lytton, and recalled thinking that at the time that he desperately wanted to ask Lytton for political asylum in Britain, but as General Itagaki was sitting right next to him at the meeting, he told Lytton that "the masses of the people had begged me to come, that my stay here was absolutely voluntary and free".[135] After the interview, Itagaki told Puyi: "Your Excellency's manner was perfect; you spoke beautifully".[136] The diplomat Wellington Koo, who was attached to the Lytton Commission as its Chinese assessor received a secret message saying that "... a representative of the imperial household in Changchun wanted to see me and had a confidential message for me".[137] The representative, posing as an antique dealer, who "... told me he was sent by the Empress: She wanted me to help her escape from Changchun. He said she found life miserable there because she was surrounded in her house by Japanese maids. Every movement of hers was watched and reported".[138] Koo said he was "touched", but he could do nothing to help Wanrong escape, which her brother Rong Qi said was the "final blow" to her, leading her into a downward spiral.[138] Right from the start, the Japanese occupation had sparked much resistance by guerrillas, whom the Kwantung Army
Kwantung Army
called "bandits". General Doihara was able in exchange for a multi-million bribe to get one of the more prominent guerrilla leaders, the Hui Muslim general Ma Zhanshan
Ma Zhanshan
to accept Japanese rule, and had Puyi
Puyi
appoint him Defense Minister.[139] Much to the intense chagrin of Puyi
Puyi
and his Japanese masters, Ma's defection turned to be a ruse, and only months after Puyi
Puyi
appointed him Defense Minister, Ma took his troops over the border to the Soviet Union to continue the struggle against the Japanese.[139]

Pu Yi's edict of ascending the throne

The Showa Emperor wanted to see if Puyi
Puyi
was reliable before giving him an imperial title, and it was not until October 1933 that General Doihara told him he was to be an emperor again, causing Puyi
Puyi
to go, in his own words, "wild with joy", though Puyi
Puyi
was disappointed that he was not given back his old title of "Great Qing Emperor".[140] At the same time, Doihara informed Puyi
Puyi
that "the Emperor [of Japan] is your father and is represented in Manchukuo
Manchukuo
as the Kwantung army which must be obeyed like a father".[141] Right from the start, Manchukuo
Manchukuo
was infamous for its high crime rate, as Japanese-sponsored gangs of Chinese, Korean and Russian gangsters fought one another for the control of Manchukuo's opium houses, brothels, and gambling dens, with the Russian gangs having a particular interest in going after Jewish businessmen in Manchukuo
Manchukuo
for extortion and kidnapping.[142] There were nine different Japanese or Japanese-sponsored police/intelligence agencies operating in Manchukuo, who were all told by Tokyo that Japan was a poor country and that they were to pay for their own operations by engaging in organized crime.[143] The Italian adventurer Amleto Vespa remembered that General Kenji Doihara
Kenji Doihara
told him Manchuria
Manchuria
was going have to pay for its own exploitation.[144] In 1933, Simon Kaspé, a French Jewish pianist visiting his father in Manchukuo, who owned a hotel in Harbin, was kidnapped, tortured and murdered by an anti-Semitic gang from the Russian Fascist Party. The Kaspé case become an international cause célèbre, attracting much media attention around the world, ultimately leading to two trials in Harbin in 1935 and 1936, as the evidence that the Russian Fascist gang who had killed Kaspé was working for the Kempeitai, the military police of the Imperial Japanese Army, become too strong for even Tokyo to ignore.[145] In Asia, the rule of law is seen as one of the marks of "civilization", which is why the Japanese and Manchukuo
Manchukuo
media had spent so much time disparaging the chaotic and corrupt legal system run by the "Young Marshal", Zhang Xueliang; Puyi
Puyi
was portrayed as having (with a little help from the Kwantung Army) saved the people from the chaos of the rule by the Zhang family.[146] Manchukuo's high crime rate, and the much publicized Kaspé case, made a mockery of the claim that Puyi
Puyi
had saved the people of Manchuria
Manchuria
from a lawless and violent regime.[146] On 1 March 1934, he was crowned Emperor of Manchukuo, under the reign title Kangde (Wade–Giles: Kang-te; 康德) in Changchun. A sign of the true rulers of Manchukuo
Manchukuo
was the presence of General Masahiko Amakasu during the coronation; ostensibly there as the film director to record the coronation, Amakasu served as Puyi's minder, keeping a careful watch on him to prevent him from going off-script.[147] Wanrong was excluded from the coronation: her addiction to opium, anti-Japanese feelings, dislike of Puyi
Puyi
and growing reputation for being "difficult" and unpredictable led Amakasu to the conclusion that she could not be trusted to stay on-script.[148] Though submissive in public to the Japanese, Puyi
Puyi
was constantly at odds with them in private. He resented being "Head of State" and then "Emperor of Manchukuo" rather than being fully restored as a Qing Emperor. At his enthronement, he clashed with Japan over dress; they wanted him to wear a Manchukuo-style uniform whereas he considered it an insult to wear anything but traditional Manchu robes. In a typical compromise, he wore a Western military uniform to his enthronement[149] (the only Chinese emperor ever to do so) and a dragon robe to the announcement of his accession at the Temple of Heaven.[150] Puyi
Puyi
was driven to his coronation in a Lincoln limousine with bullet-proof windows followed by nine Packards, and during his coronation scrolls were read out while sacred wine bottles were opened for the guests to celebrate the beginning of a "Reign of Tranquility and Virtue".[151] The invitations for the coronation were issued by the Kwantung Army
Kwantung Army
and 70% of those who attended Puyi's coronation were Japanese.[152] The Japanese chose as the capital of Manchukuo
Manchukuo
the industrial city of Changchun, which was renamed Hsinking. Puyi
Puyi
had wanted the capital to be Mukden (modern Shenyang), which had once been the Qing capital before the Qing had conquered China
China
in 1644, but was overruled by his Japanese masters, who insisted Hsinking was to be the capital.[153] Puyi
Puyi
hated Hsinking, which he regarded as an undistinguished industrial city that lacked the historical connections with the Qing that Mukden had.[153] As there was no palace in Changchun, Puyi
Puyi
moved into what had once been the office of the Salt Tax Administration during the Russian period, and as result, the building was known as the Salt Tax Palace, which is now the Museum of the Imperial Palace of the Manchu State.[153] Puyi
Puyi
lived as a virtual prisoner in the Salt Tax Palace, which was heavily guarded by Japanese troops, and Puyi could not leave the palace without permission.[154] Shortly after Puyi's coronation, Prince Chun arrived at the Hsinking railroad station for a visit, and this time Wanrong promised to behave as no Japanese were involved in the ceremonies, and thus she was allowed out of the Salt Tax Palace.[148] As Prince Chun got off the train, the Manchukuo
Manchukuo
Imperial Guards were there to greet him while Puyi
Puyi
was dressed in his uniform as Commander-in-Chief, wearing Japanese, Chinese and Manchukuo
Manchukuo
decorations while Wanrong wore the traditional dress of a Chinese empress and kowtowed to her father-in-law.[155] Puyi's half-brother Pu Ren, who was 16 at the time, followed his father to Hsinking and told Behr in an interview:

Puyi
Puyi
was outwardly very polite, but he didn't have a lot of respect for his father's opinions. Puyi
Puyi
badly wanted the whole family to stay in Changchun. He wanted me to be educated in Japan, but father was firmly opposed to the idea and I went back to Beijing. Puyi
Puyi
was still in pretty good spirits. He hadn't entirely given up the dream that the Japanese would restore him to the throne of China. — Pu Ren[156]

Prince Chun told his son that he was an idiot if he really believed that the Japanese were going to restore him to the Dragon Throne, and warned him that he was just being used.[156] The Japanese Embassy issued a note of diplomatic protest at the welcome extended to Prince Chun, stating that the Hsinking railroad station was under the control of the Kwantung Army, and only Japanese soldiers were allowed there, warning that the Japanese would not tolerate the Manchukuo
Manchukuo
Imperial Guard being used to welcome visitors at the Hsinking railroad station again.[156] In this period, Puyi frequently visited the provinces of Manchukuo
Manchukuo
to open factories and mines, took part in the birthday celebrations for the Showa Emperor at the Kwantung Army
Kwantung Army
headquarters and, on the Japanese holiday of Memorial Day, formally paid his respects with Japanese rituals to the souls of the Japanese soldiers killed fighting the "bandits" (as the Japanese called all the guerrillas fighting against their rule of Manchuria).[156] Following the example in Japan, schoolchildren in Manchukuo
Manchukuo
at the beginning of every school-day kowtowed first in the direction of Tokyo and then to a portrait of Puyi
Puyi
in the classroom.[156] Puyi
Puyi
found this to be "intoxicating", as he later put it.[156] Puyi
Puyi
visited a coal mine and in his rudimentary Japanese thanked the Japanese foreman for his good work, who burst into tears as he thanked the emperor; Puyi
Puyi
later wrote that "The treatment I received really went to my head."[157] Whenever the Japanese wanted a law passed, the relevant decree was dropped off at the Salt Tax Palace for Puyi
Puyi
to sign, which he always did.[158] Puyi
Puyi
signed decrees expropriating vast tracts of farmland to be given to Japanese colonists and a law declaring certain thoughts to be "thought crimes", leading Behr to note: "In theory, as 'Supreme Commander', he thus bore full responsibility for Japanese atrocities committed in his name on anti-Japanese "bandits" and patriotic Chinese citizens."[158] Behr further noted the "Empire of Manchukuo", billed as an idealistic state where the "five races" of the Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, Manchus, and Mongols had come together in Pan-Asian brotherhood, was in fact "one of the most brutally run countries in the world – a textbook example of colonialism, albeit of the Oriental kind."[159] Manchukuo
Manchukuo
was a sham, and was a Japanese colony run entirely for Japan's benefit.[160] American historian Carter J. Eckert wrote that the differences in power could be seen in that the Kwantung Army
Kwantung Army
had a "massive" headquarters in downtown Hsinking; while Puyi
Puyi
had to live in the "small and shabby" Salt Tax Palace, located close to the main railroad station, in a part of Hsinking where numerous small factories, warehouses, and slaughterhouses were located together with the chief prison and the red-light district.[161] In 1935, to solve the problem of overpopulation in Japan, a plan was announced in Tokyo to settle five million Japanese farmers and their families in Manchukuo
Manchukuo
between 1936 and 1956, and in the first stage of the plan 20,000 Japanese families moved to Manchukuo
Manchukuo
every year, continuing until 1944, when American submarine attacks reduced the shipping available to move colonists into Manchukuo.[162] By 1939, the total Japanese population in Manchukuo
Manchukuo
was about 837,000 men, women, and children; comprising the Japanese who had been brought in as rural colonists plus the Japanese who had come to Manchukuo
Manchukuo
to work as civil servants, businessmen, and for the South Manchuria
Manchuria
Railway Company, which was the largest corporation in Asia at the time, together with their families.[163] To provide farmland for the Japanese settlers, the ethnic Chinese and ethnic Korean farmers already living on the land were evicted to make way for the colonists.[163] Those farmers who resisted eviction to make way for the Japanese settlers were used by the Kwantung Army
Kwantung Army
for bayonet practice.[163] Furthermore, Manchukuo
Manchukuo
was meant to be the industrial powerhouse of the Japanese empire, and right from the start, the Japanese started to build factories and mines on a vast scale while the Chinese workers were ruthlessly exploited.[164] The American historian Mark Driscoll described the economic system introduced by Nobusuke Kishi, Manchukuo's Deputy Minister of Industry and Commerce between 1935-1939 and a future prime minister of Japan, as a “necropolitical” system where the Chinese workers were literally treated as dehumanized cogs within a vast industrial machine.[165] Behr commented that Puyi
Puyi
knew from his talks in Tianjin
Tianjin
with General Kenji Doihara
Kenji Doihara
and General Seishirō Itagaki
Seishirō Itagaki
that he was dealing with "ruthless men and that this might be the regime to expect".[166] Puyi later recalled that: "I had put my head in the tiger's mouth" by going to Manchuria
Manchuria
in 1931.[166]

Puyi
Puyi
(right) as Emperor of Manchukuo. On the left is Chū Kudō.

From 1935 to 1945, Kwantung Army
Kwantung Army
senior staff officer Yoshioka Yasunori (吉岡安則)[167] was assigned to Puyi
Puyi
as Attaché to the Imperial Household in Manchukuo. He acted as a spy for the Japanese government, controlling Puyi
Puyi
through fear, intimidation, and direct orders.[168] There were many attempts on Puyi's life during this period, including a 1937 stabbing by a palace servant.[2] During Puyi's reign as Emperor of Manchukuo, his household was closely watched by the Japanese, who increasingly took steps toward the full Japanisation
Japanisation
of Manchuria, to prevent him from becoming too independent. He was feted by the Japanese populace during his visits there, but had to remain subservient to Emperor Hirohito.[169] It is unclear whether the adoption of ancient Chinese styles and rites, such as using "His Majesty" instead of his real name, was the product of Puyi's interest or a Japanese imposition of their own imperial house rules.[citation needed] In 1935, Puyi
Puyi
visited Japan, sailing from Dalian to Yokohama on the warship Hiei, and while meeting the Showa Emperor at a Tokyo railroad station, a moment of unintentional comedy occurred when Puyi
Puyi
attempted to take off a too tight white glove before shaking the Emperor's hand, which he had to struggle with for some time while everyone else struggled not to laugh.[170] The Second Secretary of the Japanese Embassy in Hsinking, Kenjiro Hayashide, served as Puyi's interpreter during this trip, and later wrote what Behr called a very absurd book The Epochal Journey to Japan chronicling this visit, where he managed to present every banal statement made by Puyi
Puyi
as profound wisdom, and claimed that he wrote an average of two poems per day on his trip to Japan, despite being busy with attending all sorts of official functions.[171] A typical passage from the book records that Puyi
Puyi
was seasick while travelling to Japan, but how "the Ruler's great joy at seeing Their Imperial Majesties the Emperor and Empress of Japan ... removed all thoughts of fatigue from the voyage".[172] Hayashide had also written a booklet promoting the trip in Japan, which claimed that Puyi
Puyi
was a great reader who was "hardly ever seen without a book in his hand", a skilled calligrapher, a talented painter, and an excellent horseman and archer, able to shoot arrows while riding, just like his Qing ancestors did.[172] The Showa Emperor took this claim that Puyi
Puyi
was a hippophile too seriously and presented him with a gift of a horse for him to review the Imperial Japanese Army
Imperial Japanese Army
with; in fact, Puyi
Puyi
was a hippophobe who adamantly refused to get on the horse, forcing the Japanese to hurriedly bring out a carriage for the two emperors to review the troops.[173] After his return to Hsinking, Puyi
Puyi
hired an American public relations executive, George Bronson Rea, to lobby the U.S. government to recognize Manchukuo.[174] In late 1935, Rea published a book, The Case for Manchukuo, in which Rea castigated China
China
under the Kuomintang as hopelessly corrupt, and praised Puyi's wise leadership of Manchukuo, writing Manchukuo
Manchukuo
was "... the one step that the people of the East have taken towards escape from the misery and misgovernment that have become theirs. Japan's protection is its only chance of happiness."[175] Rea continued to work for Puyi
Puyi
until the bombing of Pearl Harbor, but he failed signally in lobbying Washington to recognize Hsinking. At the second trial relating to the long-running Kaspé case in Harbin
Harbin
in March–June 1936, the Japanese prosecutor argued in favor of the six defendants, calling them "Russian patriots who raised the flag against a world danger-communism."[145] Much to everyone's surprise, the Chinese judges convicted and sentenced the six Russian Fascists who had tortured and killed Kaspé to death, which led to a storm as the Russian Fascist Party
Russian Fascist Party
called the six men "martyrs for Holy Russia", and presented to Puyi
Puyi
a petition with thousands of signatures asking him to pardon the six men.[145] Puyi refused to pardon the Russian Fascists, but the verdict was appealed to the Hsinking Supreme Court, where the Japanese judges quashed the verdict, ordering the six men to be freed, a decision that Puyi accepted without complaint.[176] The flagrant miscarriage of justice of the Kaspé case, which attracted much attention in the Western media, did much to tarnish the image of Manchukuo
Manchukuo
and further weakened Puyi's already weak hand as he sought to have the rest of the world recognize Manchukuo.[145] In 1936, Ling Sheng, an aristocrat who was serving as governor of one of Manchukuo's provinces and whose son was engaged to marry one of Puyi's younger sisters, was arrested after complaining about "intolerable" Japanese interference in his work, which led Puyi
Puyi
to ask Yoshioka if something could be done to help him out.[173] The Kwantung Army's commander General Kenkichi Ueda
Kenkichi Ueda
visited Puyi
Puyi
to tell him the matter was resolved as Ling had already been convicted by a Japanese court-martial of "plotting rebellion" and had been executed by beheading, which led Puyi
Puyi
to cancel the marriage between his sister and Ling's son.[177] During these years, Puyi
Puyi
began taking a greater interest in traditional Chinese law and religion[178] (such as Confucianism
Confucianism
and Buddhism), but this was disallowed by the Japanese. Gradually his old supporters were eliminated and pro-Japanese ministers put in their place.[179] During this period Puyi's life consisted mostly of signing laws prepared by Japan, reciting prayers, consulting oracles, and making formal visits throughout his state.[2] Puyi
Puyi
was extremely unhappy with his life as a virtual prisoner in the Salt Tax Palace, and his moods became erratic, swinging from hours of passivity staring into space to indulging his sadism by having his servants beaten.[180] The fact that the vast majority of Puyi's "loving subjects" hated him obsessed Puyi, and as Behr observed it was "... the knowledge that he was an object of hatred and derision that drove Puyi
Puyi
to the brink of madness."[181] Puyi
Puyi
always had a strong cruel streak, and he imposed harsh "house rules" on his staff; servants were flogged in the basement for such offenses as "irresponsible conversations".[182] The phrase "Take him downstairs" was much feared by Puyi's servants as he had at least one flogging performed a day, and everyone in the Salt Tax Palace was caned at one point or another except for the Empress and Puyi's siblings and their spouses.[181] Puyi's experience of widespread theft during his time in the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
led him to distrust his servants and he obsessively went over the account books looking for signs of fraud.[183] Big Li, Puyi's chief servant, told Behr:

It got so that everyone was covertly watching Puyi
Puyi
all the time, to try and find out what mood he was in. Puyi
Puyi
was completely paranoid: if you were caught eyeing him, he would bark: "What's the matter? Why are you looking at me that way?" But if one tried to look away, he would say: "Why are you avoiding me? What have you got to hide?" — Big Li[181]

To further torment his staff of about 100, Puyi
Puyi
drastically cut back on the food allocated for his staff, who suffered from hunger; Big Li told Behr that Puyi
Puyi
was attempting to make everyone as miserable as he was.[184] Besides tormenting his staff, Puyi's life as Emperor was one of lethargy and passivity, which his ghostwriter Li Wenda called "a kind of living death" for him.[185] The Emperor did not normally get up until noon, had brunch at about 2 pm before going back to bed for another rest, to be followed up by playing tennis or table tennis, riding his bicycle or his car aimlessly around the grounds of the palace or listening to his vast collection of Chinese opera records.[181] Puyi
Puyi
become a devoted Buddhist, a mystic and a vegetarian, having statues of the Buddha put up all over the Salt Tax Palace for him to pray to while banning his staff from eating meat.[183] Puyi's Buddhism
Buddhism
led him to ban his staff from killing insects or mice, but if he found any insects or mice droppings in his food, the cooks were flogged.[183] When Puyi
Puyi
went into the gardens to mediate before a statue of the Buddha, there always had to be complete silence, and as there were two loud Japanese cranes living in the garden, the emperor always had his servants flogged if the cranes made a sound.[186] One day when out for a stroll in the gardens, Puyi
Puyi
found that a servant had written in chalk on one of the rocks: "Haven't the Japanese humiliated you enough?"[187] When Puyi
Puyi
received guests at the Salt Tax Palace, he gave them long lectures on the "glorious" history of the Qing as a form of masochism, comparing the great Qing Emperors with himself, a miserable man living as a prisoner in his own palace.[188] The Empress Wanrong
Empress Wanrong
retreated in seclusion as she became addicted to opium, and her father stopped visiting the Salt Tax Palace as he could not bear to see what she had become.[189] Wanrong, who detested her husband, liked to mock him behind his back by performing skits before the servants by putting on dark glasses and imitating Puyi's jerky movements.[190] During his time in Tianjin, Puyi
Puyi
had started wearing dark glasses at all times, as during the interwar period wearing dark glasses in Tianjin
Tianjin
was a way of signifying one was a homosexual or bisexual.[190] On 3 April 1937, Puyi's younger full brother Prince Pujie
Pujie
was proclaimed heir apparent after marrying Lady Hiro Saga, a distant cousin to the Japanese Emperor Hirohito. The marriage had been politically arranged by Shigeru Honjō, a general of the Kwantung Army. Puyi
Puyi
thereafter would not speak candidly in front of his brother and refused to eat any food provided by Lady Hiro Saga, believing that she was out to poison him.[191] Puyi
Puyi
was forced to sign an agreement that if he himself had a male heir, the child would be sent to Japan to be raised by the Japanese.[192] Puyi
Puyi
initially thought that Lady Saga was a Japanese spy, but came to trust her after the Sinophile Saga discarded her kimono dresses for cheongsam dresses and she repeatedly assured him that she come to the Salt Tax Palace because she was Pujie's wife, not because she was a spy.[193] Behr described Lady Saga as "intelligent" and "level-headed", and noted the irony of Puyi
Puyi
snubbing the one Japanese who really wanted to be his friend.[193] A sign of improved relations came when Puyi
Puyi
gave Lady Saga a diamond encrusted watch as a belated wedding present.[193] Later in April 1937, a 16-year-old Manchu aristocrat Tan Yuling moved into the Salt Tax Palace to become Puyi's concubine, but though Puyi
Puyi
seemed to have liked her, it remains unclear whether he had sex with her or not.[194] Lady Saga tried to improve relations between Puyi
Puyi
and Wanrong by having them eat dinner together, which was the first time that they had shared a meal in three years.[193] Wanrong refused to eat with chopsticks, instead using her fingers, which is regarded as "savage" behavior in Asia, but Wanrong stated she was past the point of caring about what others thought about her.[193] Puyi tried to joke away Wanrong's unhappiness by saying that tonight was "Mongol night", and everyone was going to be like a Mongol "savage" by eating with their fingers, but Lady Saga noted his jesting failed.[193] Behr wrote based on his interviews with Puyi's family and staff at the Salt Tax Palace that it appeared Puyi
Puyi
had an "attraction towards very young girls" that "bordered on pedophilia" and "... that Pu Yi was bisexual, and – by his own admission – something of a sadist in his relationships with women."[195] Puyi
Puyi
was very fond of having handsome teenage boys serve as his pageboys and Puyi's sister-in-law Hiro Saga
Hiro Saga
noted he was also very fond of sodomizing them.[196] Lady Saga, who was somewhat homophobic, wrote in her 1957 autobiography Memoirs of A Wandering Princess:

Of course I had heard rumours concerning such great men in our history, but I never knew such things existed in the living world. Now, however I learnt that the Emperor had an unnatural love for a pageboy. He was referred to as "the male concubine". Could these perverted habits, I wondered have driven his wife to opium smoking? — Lady Hiro Saga[197]

When questioned by Behr in an interview about Puyi's sexuality, Prince Pujie
Pujie
merely said he was "biologically incapable of reproduction", which is a polite way of saying someone is gay in China.[198] When one of Puyi's pageboys fled the Salt Tax Palace to escape his homosexual advances, Puyi
Puyi
ordered him to be given an especially harsh flogging, which caused the boy's death, and which led Puyi
Puyi
to have the floggers in their turn flogged as punishment.[184] In June 1937, some members of the Manchukuo
Manchukuo
Imperial Guards who were off-duty fell into a trap when they objected to Japanese colonists jumping the queue for rowing boats in a Hsinking park, leading to a brawl.[199] The Kempeitai
Kempeitai
had expected this and were waiting; they arrested the Imperial Guardsmen, who were then beaten and forced to strip naked in public, and finally convicted by the courts of "anti- Manchukuo
Manchukuo
activities".[199] As a result, the Manchukuo Imperial Guard lost their right to bear any weapons except for pistols.[199] To further add to the message, Amakasu told Puyi
Puyi
that the Manchukuo
Manchukuo
Prime Minister, Zhang Jinghui, a man who Behr called "a venal, cringing Japanese flunky", and whom Puyi
Puyi
despised, should be his role model.[199] In July 1937, when the Sino-Japanese war began, Puyi
Puyi
issued a declaration of support for Japan.[200] In August 1937, Kishi wrote up a decree for Puyi
Puyi
to sign calling for the use of slave labour to be conscripted both in Manchukuo
Manchukuo
and in northern China, stating that in these "times of emergency" (i.e. war with China), industry needed to grow at all costs, and slavery would have to be used to save money.[201] Driscoll wrote that just as African slaves were taken to the New World on the "Middle Passage", it would be right to speak of the "Manchurian Passage" as vast numbers of Chinese peasants were rounded up to be taken to work as slaves in Manchukuo's factories and mines.[202] Starting in 1938 until the end of the war, every year about a million Chinese were taken both from the countryside of Manchukuo
Manchukuo
and from northern China
China
to work as slaves in the factories and mines of Manchukuo.[203] All that Puyi
Puyi
knew of the outside world was what was told to him by General Yoshioka in daily briefings.[200] When Behr asked Prince Pujie how the news of the Rape of Nanking
Rape of Nanking
in December 1937 affected Puyi, his brother replied: "We didn't hear about it until much later. At the time, it made no real impact."[204] On 4 February 1938, the strongly pro-Japanese and anti-Chinese Joachim von Ribbentrop
Joachim von Ribbentrop
became the German foreign minister, and under his influence German foreign policy swung in an anti-Chinese and pro-Japanese direction.[205] On 20 February 1938, Adolf Hitler in a speech before the Reichstag announced that Germany was recognizing Manchukuo.[205] Herbert von Dirksen, the out-going German ambassador to Japan, in one of his last acts, visited Puyi
Puyi
in the Salt Tax Palace to tell him that a German embassy would be established in Hsinking later that year, to join the embassies maintained by Japan, El Salvador, the Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, Italy and Nationalist Spain, which were the only other countries in the world that had recognized Manchukuo. In 1934, Puyi
Puyi
had been excited when he learned that El Salvador had recognized Manchukuo, which was the first nation other than Japan to recognize Manchukuo, but by 1938, he did not care much about the news of German recognition of Manchukuo. In May 1938, Puyi
Puyi
was declared a god by the Religions Law, and a cult of emperor-worship very similar to Japan's began with schoolchildren starting their classes by praying to a portrait of the god-emperor while imperial rescripts and the imperial regalia become sacred relics imbued with magical powers by being associated with the god-emperor.[206] Puyi's elevation to a god was due to the Sino-Japanese war, which caused the Japanese state to begin a program of totalitarian mobilization of society for total war in Japan and the places ruled by Japan.[206] His Japanese handlers felt that ordinary people in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan were more willing to bear the sacrifices for total war because of their devotion to their god-emperor, and it was decided that making Puyi
Puyi
into a god-emperor would have the same effect in Manchukuo.[206] After 1938, Puyi
Puyi
was hardly ever allowed to leave the Salt Tax Palace, while the creation of the puppet regime of President Wang Jingwei
Wang Jingwei
in November 1938 crushed Puyi's spirits, as it ended his hope of one day being restored as the Great Qing Emperor.[185] Puyi
Puyi
became a hypochondriac, taking all sorts of pills for various imagined aliments and hormones to improve his sex drive and allow him to father a boy, as Puyi
Puyi
was convinced that the Japanese were poisoning his food to make him sterile.[207] Puyi
Puyi
believed that Japanese wanted one of the children that Pujie
Pujie
had fathered with his Japanese wife Lady Saga to be the next emperor, and it was a great relief to him that their children were both girls ( Manchukuo
Manchukuo
law forbade female succession to the throne).[193] By 1940, the Japanisation
Japanisation
of Manchuria
Manchuria
had become extreme, and an altar to the Shinto goddess Amaterasu
Amaterasu
was built on the grounds of Puyi's palace. The origins of the altar are unclear, with the postwar Japanese claiming that Puyi
Puyi
aimed for a closer connection to the Japanese Emperor as a means of resisting the political machinations of the Manchukuo
Manchukuo
elites, while Puyi
Puyi
in his Chinese Communist-published autobiography claims that he was forced to submit to this by the Japanese. During his visit to Japan in 1940 for Kigensetsu, which was marked with especially lavish celebrations that year to mark the supposed 2,600th anniversary of the founding of the Empire of Japan by the mythical Emperor Jimmu
Emperor Jimmu
on 11 February 660 BC, Puyi
Puyi
during his meeting with the Showa Emperor read out a statement given to him by General Yoshioka asking for permission to worship the Shinto gods and to establish Shintoism as the state religion of Manchukuo.[198] The Showa Emperor replied "I must comply with your wishes" and gave him three relics, namely a bronze mirror, a sword and a piece of jade (reproductions of the Imperial Regalia of Japan) to take home with him to be the center of Shinto worship in Manchukuo.[198] Puyi
Puyi
later wrote "I thought Beijing
Beijing
antique shops were full of such objects. Were these a great god? Were those my ancestors? I burst into tears on the drive back."[198] Since in the Japanese state religion of Shintoism the Japanese Emperor was worshiped as a living god, worshiping at the Shinto shrine in the Salt Tax Palace also meant worshiping the Showa Emperor as a god, which starkly underlined Puyi's subordination to the Showa Emperor.[208] In any case, Puyi's wartime duties came to include sitting through Chinese-language Shinto prayers. Hirohito
Hirohito
was surprised when he heard of this, asking why a Temple of Heaven
Temple of Heaven
had not been built instead.[209] After his second visit to Japan, Puyi
Puyi
announced in a press statement that Japan and Manchukuo
Manchukuo
were "unified in virtue and heart", praised the Shinto Sun Goddess Amaterasu
Amaterasu
for her "divine intervention" in 1931 that supposedly made Manchukuo
Manchukuo
possible, and hailed the Showa Emperor as a living god as the House of Yamato were all alleged to be the direct descendants of Amaterasu.[210] Already at the Manchukuo
Manchukuo
Military Academy that was training officers for the Manchukuo
Manchukuo
army, the cadets were being taught to serve the "two emperors" with the cadets kowtowing to portraits of both the emperors of Manchukuo
Manchukuo
and Japan.[210] In 1940 Wanrong, also known as "Elizabeth Jade Eyes", engaged in an affair with Puyi's chauffeur Li Tiyu that left her pregnant.[211] To punish her, as Wanrong gave birth to her daughter, she had to watch much to her horror as the Japanese doctors poisoned her newly born child right in front of her.[212] Afterwards, Wanrong was totally broken by what she had seen, and lost her will to live, spending as much of her time possible in an opium daze to numb the pain.[212] Puyi had known of what was being planned for Wanrong's baby, and in what Behr called a supreme act of "cowardice" on his part, "did nothing".[212] Puyi's ghostwriter for Emperor to Citizen, Li Wenda, told Behr that when interviewing Puyi
Puyi
for the book that he could not get Puyi
Puyi
to talk about the killing of Wanrong's child, as he was too ashamed to speak of his own cowardice.[212] In December 1941, Puyi
Puyi
followed Japan in declaring war on the United States and Great Britain, but as neither nation had recognized Manchukuo
Manchukuo
there were no reciprocal declarations of war in return.[213] During the war, Puyi
Puyi
was an example and role model for at least some in Asia who believed in the Japanese Pan-Asian propaganda. U Saw, the Prime Minister of Burma, was secretly in communication with the Japanese, declaring that as an Asian his sympathies were completely with Japan against the West.[214] U Saw further added that he hoped that when Japan won the war that he would enjoy exactly the same status in Burma that Puyi
Puyi
enjoyed in Manchukuo
Manchukuo
as part of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, saying that as an Asian it was his fondest wish that Japan would do everything that it had done in Manchukuo
Manchukuo
in Burma.[214] The American historian Gerhard Weinberg sarcastically wrote that U Saw and the rest of Burmese nationalists who saw the Japanese as liberators from the British were not endowed with "great intelligence" as U Saw enjoyed far more power as Prime Minister under the British than Puyi
Puyi
did as Emperor under the Japanese, but they got their wish to have what was done to people of Manchukuo
Manchukuo
done to their own people, observing: "The use of military and civilian prisoners for bayonet practice and assorted other cruelties provided the people of Southeast Asia with a dramatic lesson on the new meaning of Bushido, the code of the Japanese warrior."[214] During the war, Puyi
Puyi
became estranged from his father, as his half-brother Pu Ren stated in an interview

... after 1941 Puyi's father had written him off. He never visited Puyi
Puyi
after 1934. They rarely corresponded. All the news he got was through intermediaries, or occasional reports from Puyi's younger sisters, some of whom were allowed to see him. — Pu Ren[215]

Puyi
Puyi
himself complained that he had issued so many "slavish" pro-Japanese statements during the war that nobody on the Allied side would take him in if he did escape from Manchukuo.[216] In June 1942, Puyi
Puyi
made a rare visit outside of the Salt Tax Palace when he conferred with the graduating class at the Manchukuo
Manchukuo
Military Academy, and awarded the star student Takagi Masao a gold watch for his outstanding performance; despite his Japanese name, the star student was actually Korean and under his original Korean name of Park Chung-hee would go to become the dictator of South Korea in 1961.[217] In August 1942, Puyi's concubine Tan Yuling
Tan Yuling
fell ill and died after being treated by the same Japanese doctors who murdered Wanrong's baby.[212] Puyi
Puyi
testified at the Tokyo war crimes trial of his belief that she was murdered, saying "The glucose injections were not administered. There was much to and from activity that night, Japanese nurses and doctors speaking with Yoshioka, then going back to the sickroom."[212] Puyi
Puyi
kept a lock of Tan's hair and her nail clippings for the rest of his life as he expressed much sadness over her loss.[218] Puyi
Puyi
refused to take a Japanese concubine to replace Tan and, in 1943, took a Chinese concubine, Li Yuqin, the 16 year-old daughter of a waiter.[219] Lady Saga later observed that when Li had arrived at the Salt Tax Palace, she was badly in need of a bath and delousing.[219] Puyi
Puyi
liked Li, but his main interest continued to be his pageboys, as he later wrote: "These actions of mine go to show how cruel, mad, violent and unstable I was."[219] For much of World War II, Puyi, confined to the Salt Tax Palace, believed that Japan was winning the war, and it was not until 1944 that Puyi
Puyi
first began to get an inkling that Japan was losing the war when the Japanese press began to report "heroic sacrifices" in Burma and on Pacific islands while air raid shelters started to be built in Manchukuo.[220] Puyi's nephew Jui Lon told Behr: "He desperately wanted America to win the war."[154] Big Li in an interview with Behr said: "When he thought it was safe, he would sit at the piano and do a one-finger version of the Stars and Stripes."[154] In mid-1944, Puyi finally acquired the courage to start occasionally tune in his radio to Chinese broadcasts and to Chinese-language broadcasts by the Americans, where he was shocked to learn that Japan had suffered so many defeats on land, sea, and the air since 1942.[221] The commander of the Kwantung Army, General Tomoyuki Yamashita, left Manchukuo
Manchukuo
for the Philippines in July 1944 and told Puyi
Puyi
at their final meeting: "I shall never come back", predicting that he would die for the Emperor in the Philippines.[220] Yamashita was the famous "Tiger of Malaya" who had taken Singapore in 1942, inflicting one of the greatest defeats ever suffered by the British Empire, and his gloomy prediction about his pending defeat and death in the Philippines was unsettling to Puyi.[220] Puyi
Puyi
had to give a speech before a group of Japanese infantrymen who had volunteered to be "human bullets", promising to strap explosives on their bodies and to stage suicide attacks in order to die for the Showa Emperor.[220] Puyi
Puyi
commented as he read out his speech praising the glories of dying for the Emperor: "Only then did I see the ashen grey of their faces and the tears flowing down their cheeks and hear their sobbing."[220] Puyi
Puyi
commented that he felt at that moment utterly "terrified" at the death cult fanaticism of Bushido
Bushido
("the way of the warrior") which reduced the value of human life down to nothing, as to die for the Emperor was the only thing that mattered; he observed that the Japanese infantrymen all had families and friends who cared for them, and had quite possibly been bullied by their officers into becoming "human bullets".[222] Yoshioka tried to reassure Puyi
Puyi
by saying that the "human bullets" were crying "manly Japanese tears"[citation needed] as deep down they wanted to die for the Emperor, but Puyi
Puyi
later stated he was not convinced by this argument.[222] On 9 August 1945, the Kwantung Army's commander General Otozō Yamada arrived at the Salt Tax Palace to tell Puyi
Puyi
that the Soviet Union had declared war on Japan and the Red Army had entered Manchukuo.[222] Yamada was assuring Puyi
Puyi
that the Kwantung Army
Kwantung Army
would easily defeat the Red Army when the air raid sirens sounded and the Red Air Force began a bombing raid, forcing all to hide in the basement.[223] While Puyi
Puyi
prayed to the Buddha, Yamada fell silent as the bombs fell, destroying a Japanese barracks next to the Salt Tax Palace.[223] In Operation August Storm, 1,577,725 Soviet and Mongol troops stormed into Manchuria
Manchuria
in a combined arms offensive with tanks, artillery, cavalry, aircraft and infantry working closely together that overwhelmed the Kwantung Army, who had not expected a Soviet invasion until 1946 and were short of both tanks and anti-tank guns.[224] To try and stop the Soviet tanks, the Japanese sent out the "human bullets" as infantrymen packed with explosives, who tried to throw themselves into the treads of the tanks; usually they were shot down before getting anywhere close to the tanks.[225] Puyi
Puyi
was especially terrified to hear that the Mongolian People's Army had joined Operation August Storm, as he believed that the Mongols would torture him to death if they captured him.[226] The next day, Yamada told Puyi that the Soviets had already broken through the defense lines in northern Manchukuo, but the Kwantung Army
Kwantung Army
would "hold the line" in southern Manchukuo
Manchukuo
and Puyi
Puyi
must leave at once.[223] The staff of the Salt Tax Palace were thrown into panic as Puyi
Puyi
ordered all of his treasures to be boxed up and shipped out; in the meantime Puyi observed from his window that soldiers of the Manchukuo
Manchukuo
Imperial Army were taking off their uniforms and deserting.[223] To test the reaction of his Japanese masters, Puyi
Puyi
put on his uniform of Commander-in-Chief of the Manchukuo
Manchukuo
Army and announced "We must support the holy war of our Parental Country with all our strength, and must resist the Soviet armies to the end, to the very end".[223] With that, Yoshioka fled the room, which showed Puyi
Puyi
that the war was lost.[223] At one point, a group of Japanese soldiers arrived at the Salt Tax Palace, and Puyi
Puyi
believed they had come to kill him, but they merely went away after seeing him stand at top of the staircase.[227] Most of the servants and all of the cooks at the Salt Tax Palace had already fled, forcing Puyi
Puyi
to eat biscuits as his remaining servants hastily packed up all of the Qing treasures at the Salt Tax Palace.[228] Puyi
Puyi
found that his phone calls to the Kwantung Army
Kwantung Army
HQ went unanswered as most of the officers had already left for Korea, his minder Amakasu committed suicide by swallowing a cyanide pill, and the people of Changchun
Changchun
booed him when his car, flying imperial standards, took him to the railroad station.[228] Late on the night of 11 August 1945, a train carrying Puyi, his court, his ministers and the Qing treasures left Changchun.[229] The train was frequently diverted as a result of Soviet bombing, and everywhere Puyi
Puyi
went, he saw thousands of panic-stricken Japanese settlers fleeing south in vast columns across the roads of the countryside.[229] At every railroad station, hundreds of Japanese colonists attempted to board his train; Puyi
Puyi
remembered them "weeping as they begged Japanese gendarmes to let them pass" while the gendarmes forced them back.[229] At several stations, Japanese soldiers and gendarmes fought one another to board the train.[229] General Yamada boarded the train as it meandered south and told Puyi "... the Japanese Army was winning and had destroyed large numbers of tanks and aircraft", a claim that nobody aboard the train believed.[229] On 14 August 1945, Puyi
Puyi
heard on the radio the address of the Showa Emperor announcing that Japan had surrendered, as the Emperor declared with notable understatement that "the war has developed not necessarily to Japan's advantage".[230] In his address, the Showa Emperor described the Americans as having used a "most unusual and cruel bomb" that had just destroyed the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; this was the first time that Puyi
Puyi
heard of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which the Japanese had not seen fit to tell him about until then.[230] The next day, Puyi
Puyi
abdicated as Emperor of Manchukuo
Emperor of Manchukuo
and declared in his last decree that Manchukuo
Manchukuo
was once again part of China.[230] As the Soviets had bombed all of the train stations and Puyi's train was running low on coal, the train returned to Changchun.[231] Once there, Puyi
Puyi
planned to take a plane to escape, taking with him his brother Pujie, his servant Big Li, Yoshioka, and his doctor while leaving Wanrong, his concubine Li Yuqin, Lady Hiro Saga
Hiro Saga
and Lady Saga's two children behind.[231] The decision to leave behind the women and children was made by the misogynistic Yoshioka who saw the lives of women and children as worthless compared to the lives of men, and vetoed Puyi's attempts to take them on the plane to Japan.[231] As Puyi
Puyi
left for the airport, he saw Wanrong for the last time in his life, later saying that both she and Li were "blubbering".[232] Puyi
Puyi
asked for Lady Saga, the most mature and responsible of the three women, to take care of Wanrong, who was hopelessly addicted to opium by this point, giving Lady Saga precious antiques and cash to pay for their way south to Korea.[233] On 16 August Puyi
Puyi
took a small plane to Mukden, where another larger plane was supposed to arrive to take them to Japan, but instead a Soviet plane landed.[232] Puyi
Puyi
and his party were all promptly taken prisoner by the Red Army, who initially did not know who Puyi
Puyi
was.[232][234] The opium-addled Wanrong together with Lady Saga and Li were captured by Chinese Communist guerrillas on their way to Korea, after one of Puyi's brothers-in-law informed the Communists who the women were.[235] Wanrong, the former empress, was put on display in a local jail as if she was in a zoo, and people came from miles around to watch her.[236] In a delirious state of mind, she demanded more opium, asked for imaginary servants to bring her clothing, food and a bath, hallucinated that she was back in the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
or the Salt Tax Palace, and most poignantly of all screamed over and over again she missed her murdered baby daughter.[237] The general hatred for Puyi
Puyi
meant that none had any sympathy for Wanrong, who was seen as another Japanese collaborator, and a guard told Lady Saga that "this one won't last", making it a waste of time feeding her.[238] In June 1946, Wanrong starved to death in her jail cell, lying in a pool of her own vomit, urine and excrement, which the local people all found to be very funny.[238] In his 1964 book From Emperor to Citizen, Puyi
Puyi
merely stated that he learned in 1951 that Wanrong "died a long time ago" without mentioning how she died.[239] Later life (1945–1967)[edit]

Puyi
Puyi
(right) and a Soviet military officer

The Soviets took him to the Siberian town of Chita. He lived in a sanatorium, then later in Khabarovsk
Khabarovsk
near the Chinese border, where he was well treated and allowed to keep some of his servants.[240] As a prisoner in a spa in Khabarovsk, Puyi
Puyi
spent his days praying to the Buddha, expected the prisoners to treat him as an emperor and slapped the faces of his servants when they displeased him.[241] By listening to Chinese language
Chinese language
broadcasts on Soviet radio, Puyi
Puyi
was aware of the civil war in China, but seemed not to care.[242] The Soviet government repeatedly refused requests from the Republic of China
China
to extradite Puyi; he had been indicted on charges of high treason by the Kuomintang government, and the Soviet refusal to extradite him almost certainly saved his life, as Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
had often spoken of his desire to have Puyi
Puyi
shot.[243] Puyi's cousin Eastern Jewel was captured by the Kuomintang and publicly executed in Beijing
Beijing
in 1948 after she was convicted of high treason.[244] Not wishing to return to China, Puyi
Puyi
wrote to Joseph Stalin several times asking if he might be granted asylum in the Soviet Union, and that he be given one of the former tsarist palaces to live out his days.[245]

Puyi's letters to Joseph Stalin

In 1946, he testified at the International Military Tribunal for the Far East in Tokyo,[246] detailing his resentment at how he had been treated by the Japanese. At the Tokyo trial, Puyi
Puyi
became involved in a lengthy exchange with defense counsel Major Ben Bruce Blakeney about whether he was kidnapped in 1931 or not, which forced Puyi
Puyi
to perjure himself by saying that the statements in Johnston’s 1934 book Twilight in the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
about how he had willingly become Emperor of Manchukuo
Emperor of Manchukuo
were all lies.[247] When Blakeney mentioned that the introduction to Twilight in the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
described how Puyi had told Johnston that he had willingly gone to Manchuria
Manchuria
in 1931, Puyi
Puyi
perjured himself by saying he was not in contact with Johnston in 1931, and that Johnston made things up for "commercial advantage".[248] The Australian judge, Sir William Webb, the President of the Tribunal, was often frustrated with Puyi's testimony, and chided him numerous times.[249] At one point, when Puyi
Puyi
said "I have not finished my answer yet", causing Webb to say "Well, don't finish it".[250] Behr described Puyi
Puyi
on the stand as a "consistent, self-assured liar, prepared to go to any lengths to save his skin", and as a combative witness more than able to hold his own against the defense lawyers.[251] Puyi
Puyi
was greatly helped as with the exception of Major Blakeney, no one at the trial had actually read Twilight in the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
or the interviews Woodhead had conducted with him in 1932, which gave Puyi
Puyi
much room to distort what had been written about him or said by him.[252] Puyi
Puyi
greatly respected Johnston, who was a surrogate father to him, and he felt guilty about the way he had repeatedly on the stand in Tokyo called Johnston a dishonest man whose book Twilight in the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
was full of lies, causing him to pray for the Buddha to ask for atonement for sullying Johnston's name.[253] After his return to the Soviet Union, Puyi
Puyi
was held at Detention Center No. 45, where his servants continued to make his bed, dress him and do other work for him.[254] Puyi
Puyi
did not speak Russian and had limited contacts with his Soviet guards, using a few Manchukuo prisoners who knew Russian as translators.[255] Puyi
Puyi
spent his time with other Manchukuo
Manchukuo
and Japanese prisoners playing mah-jong, continued to pray to the Buddha and listened to Japanese records on the only gramophone the Soviets allowed the prisoners.[254] One prisoner told Puyi
Puyi
that the Soviets would keep him in Siberia
Siberia
forever because "this is the part of the world you come from".[255] The Soviets had promised the Chinese Communists that they would hand over the high value prisoners when the CCP won the civil war, and wanted to keep Puyi
Puyi
alive.[256] Puyi's brother-in-law Rong Qi and some of his servants were not considered high value, and were sent to work as slaves in a brutal Siberian labor camp, where they were starved and were worked very hard.[257] When the Chinese Communist Party under Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
came to power in 1949, Puyi
Puyi
was repatriated to China
China
after negotiations between the Soviet Union and China.[258][259] Puyi
Puyi
was of considerable value to Mao, as Behr noted: "In the eyes of Mao and other Chinese Communist leaders, Pu Yi, the last Emperor, was the epitome of all that had been evil in old Chinese society. If he could be shown to have undergone sincere, permanent change, what hope was there for the most diehard counter-revolutionary? The more overwhelming the guilt, the more spectacular the redemption-and the greater glory of the Chinese Communist Party".[260] Furthermore, Mao had often noted that Lenin had Nicholas II, the last Russian emperor, shot together with the rest of the Russian imperial family, as Lenin could not make the last tsar into a communist; making the last Chinese emperor into a Communist was intended to show the superiority of Chinese communism over Soviet communism.[260] Puyi
Puyi
was to be subjected to "remodeling" to make him into a Communist.[261] Behr observed that the Chinese Communist system was brutal, as millions of people were executed as "kulaks", "traitors" and "landlords" during Mao's first years in power, but it had a very different approach to crime from the West, quoting from Jean Pasqualini's book Prisonnier de Mao: "Prison is not prison, but a school for learning about one's mistakes".[261] Pasqualini wrote that the aim of remodeling in China
China
was "not so much to make you invent nonexistent crimes, but to make you accept your ordinary life, as you led it, as rotten and sinful and worthy of punishment ... self-accusation is one of the masterpieces of the penal system ... the prisoner takes care to build the case against himself as skillfully as he can ... When a prisoner has finally produced a satisfactory statement the government holds a document with which, depending on the emphasis of interpretation, it can sentence him to virtually any desired number of years. It is the prosecutor's dream".[262]

Fushun War Criminals Management Centre

In 1950, the Soviets loaded Puyi
Puyi
and the rest of Manchukuo
Manchukuo
and Japanese prisoners onto a train that took them to China
China
with Puyi convinced he would be executed when he arrived.[263] At the border, there were two lines of soldiers, one Soviet and the other Chinese, and as Puyi
Puyi
walked past, he remembered how the faces of the other prisoners were "deathly pale".[264] Puyi
Puyi
was surprised at the kindness of his Chinese guards, who told him this was the beginning of a new life for him.[264] In attempt to ingratiate himself, Puyi
Puyi
for the first time in his life used ni (你), the informal word for you instead of nin (您), the formal word for you to address people.[264] When the train stopped at Changchun
Changchun
to pick up food, Puyi
Puyi
was convinced that he was going to be shot at his former capital, and he was much relieved when the train resumed its journey to Fushun.[265] Except for a period during the Korean War, when he was moved to Harbin, Puyi
Puyi
spent ten years in the Fushun War Criminals Management Centre in Liaoning
Liaoning
province until he was declared reformed. The prisoners at Fushun were senior Japanese, Manchukuo
Manchukuo
and Kuomintang officials and officers.[266] Puyi
Puyi
was the weakest and most hapless of the prisoners, and was often bullied by the other prisoners, who liked to humiliate an emperor, and he might not have survived his imprisonment except for the fact that the warden Jin Yuan went out of his way to protect him.[267] Jin had grown up under Manchukuo
Manchukuo
and as a schoolboy in the 1930s had kowtowed to portraits of Puyi
Puyi
and waved the Manchukuo
Manchukuo
flag in the streets when Puyi
Puyi
made visits to Harbin.[268] As Jin had grown up in Manchukuo, he was fluent in Japanese, which was why he was selected to be the warden of Fushun.[269] Jin was assigned the job in 1950 and told Behr in a 1986 interview that: "I didn't welcome the idea at all. I tried to get another posting. I wanted nothing to do with those who had been responsible for my older brother's death and my family's suffering during the Manchukuo
Manchukuo
years. I wondered how I could ever bear to be in their company".[269] However, Jin further told Behr that he "came to like Puyi
Puyi
quite a bit" as he got to know him, and protected him from the other prisoners.[267] In 1951, Puyi
Puyi
learned for the first time that Wanrong had died in 1946.[239] Puyi
Puyi
had never brushed his teeth or tied his own shoelaces once in his life, and now for the first time was forced to perform the simple tasks that always had been done for him, which he found very difficult to do.[270] The prisoners often laughed how Puyi
Puyi
struggled with even brushing his teeth.[270] Much of Puyi's "remodeling" consisted of attending "Marxist-Leninist-Maoist discussion groups" where the prisoners would discuss their lives before being imprisoned for hours on end.[271] As part of his "remodeling", Puyi
Puyi
was confronted with ordinary people who had suffered under the "Empire of Manchukuo", including those who had fought in the Communist resistance, both to prove to him that resistance to the Japanese had been possible and to show him what he had presided over.[272] When Puyi
Puyi
protested to Jin that it had been impossible to resist Japan and there was nothing he could have done, Jin confronted him with people who had fought in the resistance and had been tortured, and asked him why ordinary people in Manchukuo
Manchukuo
resisted while an emperor did nothing.[272] As part of confronting war crimes, Puyi
Puyi
had to attend lectures where a former Japanese civil servant spoke about the exploitation of Manchukuo
Manchukuo
while a former officer in the Kempeitai
Kempeitai
talked about how he rounded up people for slave labor and ordered mass executions.[273] At one point, Puyi
Puyi
was taken to Harbin
Harbin
and Pingfang to see where the infamous Unit 731, the chemical and biological warfare unit in the Japanese Army had conducted gruesome experiments on people. Puyi
Puyi
noted in shame and horror: "All the atrocities had been carried out in my name".[273] Puyi
Puyi
by the mid-1950s was overwhelmed with guilt and often told Jin that he felt utterly worthless to the point that he considered suicide.[274] Puyi
Puyi
was told by Jin to express his guilt in writing, which Puyi
Puyi
later recalled he felt "that I was up against an irresistible force that would not rest until it found out everything".[275] Sometimes, Puyi
Puyi
was taken out for tours of the countryside of Manchuria. On one, he met a farmer's wife whose family had been evicted to make way for Japanese settlers and had almost starved to death while working as a slave in one of Manchukuo's factories.[276] When Puyi
Puyi
asked for her forgiveness, she told him "It's all over now, let's not talk about it", causing him to break down in tears.[277] At another meeting, a woman described the mass execution of people from her village by the Japanese Army, and then declared that she did not hate the Japanese and those who had served them as she retained her faith in humanity, which greatly moved Puyi.[278] On another occasion, Jin confronted Puyi
Puyi
with his former concubine Li in meetings in his office, where she attacked him for seeing her only as a sex object, and saying she was now pregnant by a man who loved her.[278] On 10 March 1956, Jin confronted Puyi
Puyi
in a meeting in his office with his siblings, where his sisters spoke of their happiness with their new lives working as schoolteachers and seamstresses.[279] Puyi
Puyi
was helped with his "remodeling" when the other prisoners began to blame him for everything that happened in Manchukuo, which was a debit for them as in the Chinese system, one is supposed to confess to one's own guilt rather than blaming others; Puyi
Puyi
by contrast by assigning all the guilt to himself won himself Jin's favor.[280] In late 1956, Puyi acted in a play The Defeat of the Aggressors about the Suez Crisis, playing the role of a left-wing Labour MP who challenges in the House of Commons a former Manchukuo
Manchukuo
minister playing the British Foreign Secretary Selwyn Lloyd
Selwyn Lloyd
about Britain's reasons for attacking Egypt.[281] Puyi
Puyi
enjoyed the role and ad libbed several lines in English, shouting "No, no, no! It won't do! Get out! Leave this House!".[282] Sometimes, Puyi
Puyi
acted in plays about his life and Manchukuo, and in one theatrical production, playing a Manchukuo functionary, Puyi
Puyi
kowtowed to a portrait of himself as Emperor of Manchukuo.[282] During the Great Leap Forward, when millions of people starved to death in China, Jin chose to cancel Puyi's visits to the countryside lest the scenes of famine undo Puyi's growing faith in communism.[283] Behr wrote that many are surprised that Puyi's "remodeling" worked, with an Emperor brought up as almost a god becoming content to be just an ordinary man, but he noted that "... it is essential to remember that Puyi
Puyi
was not alone in undergoing such successful 'remolding'. Tough KMT generals, and even tougher Japanese generals, brought up in the samurai tradition and the Bushido
Bushido
cult which glorifies death in battle and sacrifice to martial Japan, became, in Fushun, just as devout in their support of communist ideals as Puyi".[284] Puyi
Puyi
came to Beijing
Beijing
on 9 December 1959 with special permission from Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
and lived for the next six months in an ordinary Beijing residence with his sister before being transferred to a government-sponsored hotel.[285] Puyi
Puyi
had the job of sweeping the streets, and got lost on his first day of work, which led him to tell astonished passers-by: "I'm Puyi, the last Emperor of the Qing dynasty. I'm staying with relatives and can't find my way home".[286] One of Puyi's first acts upon returning to Beijing
Beijing
was to visit the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
as a tourist, where he pointed out to other tourists that many of the exhibits were the things he had used in his youth.[287] He voiced his support for the Communists and worked at the Beijing
Beijing
Botanical Gardens. Working as a simple gardener gave Puyi
Puyi
a degree of happiness that he had never known as an emperor, though he was notably clumsy.[288] Behr noted that in Europe people who played roles analogous to the role Puyi
Puyi
played in Manchukuo
Manchukuo
were generally executed; for example, the British hanged William Joyce
William Joyce
("Lord Haw-haw") only for being the announcer on the English-language broadcasts of Radio Berlin, Italian Communist guerrillas shot Benito Mussolini, and the French executed Pierre Laval, so many Westerners are surprised that Puyi
Puyi
was released from prison after only nine years to start a new life.[289] Behr wrote that the Communist ideology explained this difference, writing: "In a society where all landlord and 'capitalist-roaders' were evil incarnate, it did not matter so much that Puyi
Puyi
was also a traitor to his country: he was, in the eyes of the Communist ideologues, only behaving true to type. If all capitalists and landlords were, by their very nature, traitors, it was only logical that Puyi, the biggest landlord, should also be the biggest traitor. And, in the last resort, Puyi
Puyi
was far more valuable alive than dead".[289] In early 1960, Puyi
Puyi
met Premier Zhou Enlai, who told him: "You weren't responsible for becoming Emperor at the age of three or the 1917 attempted restoration coup. But you were fully to blame for what happened later. You knew perfectly well what you were doing when you took refuge in the Legation Quarter, when you traveled under Japanese protection to Tianjin, and when you agreed to become Manchukuo
Manchukuo
Chief Executive."[290] Puyi
Puyi
responded by merely saying that though he did not choose to be an emperor, he had behaved with savage cruelty as boy-emperor and wished he could apologize to all of the eunuchs he had flogged during his youth.[290] At the age of 56, he married Li Shuxian, a hospital nurse, on 30 April 1962, in a ceremony held at the Banquet Hall of the Consultative Conference. From 1964 until his death he worked as an editor for the literary department of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, where his monthly salary was around 100 yuan. One yuan in the 1960s was equivalent to about 40 cents USD.[291] Li recalled in a 1995 interview that: "I found Pu Yi a honest man, a man who desperately needed my love and was ready to give me as much love as he could. When I was having even a slight case of flu, he was so worried I would die, that he refused to sleep at night and sat by my bedside until dawn so he could attend to my needs".[292] Li also noted like everybody else who knew him that Puyi
Puyi
was an incredibly clumsy man, leading her to say: "Once in a boiling rage at his clumsiness, I threatened to divorce him. On hearing this, he got down on his knees and, with tears in his eyes, he begged me to forgive him. I shall never forget what he said to me: 'I have nothing in this world except you, and you are my life. If you go, I will die'. But apart from him, what did I ever have in the world?".[292]

Puyi
Puyi
in 1961, surrounded by Xiong Bingkun and Lu Zhonglin

In the 1960s, with encouragement from Chairman Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
and Premier Zhou Enlai, and the public endorsement of the Chinese government, Puyi wrote his autobiography Wode Qian Bansheng (Chinese: 我的前半生; pinyin: Wǒdè Qián Bànshēng; Wade–Giles: Wo Te Ch'ien Pan-Sheng; literally: "The First Half of My Life"; translated into English as From Emperor to Citizen) together with Li Wenda, an editor at the People's Publishing Bureau. The ghostwriter Li had initially planned to use Puyi’s “autocritique” written in Fushun as the basis of the book, expecting the job to take only a few months. He found the “autocritique” used such wooden language as Puyi
Puyi
confessed to a career of abject cowardice, noting over and over again that he always done the easy thing rather than the right thing in the most leaden prose possible, that Li was forced to start anew to produce something more readable as he interviewed Puyi, taking him four years to write the book.[293] In this book (as translated into English and published by Oxford University Press), Puyi
Puyi
made the following statement regarding his testimony at the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal:[294]

I now feel very ashamed of my testimony, as I withheld some of what I knew to protect myself from being punished by my country. I said nothing about my secret collaboration with the Japanese imperialists over a long period, an association to which my open capitulation after September 18, 1931 was but the conclusion. Instead, I spoke only of the way the Japanese had put pressure on me and forced me to do their will. I maintained that I had not betrayed my country but had been kidnapped; denied all my collaboration with the Japanese; and even claimed that the letter I had written to Jirō Minami
Jirō Minami
was a fake.[107] I covered up my crimes in order to protect myself.

Many of the claims in From Emperor to Citizen like the statement that it was the Kuomintang who stripped Manchuria
Manchuria
bare of industrial equipment in 1945-46 rather than the Soviets together with an “unreservedly rosy picture of prison life” are widely known not to be true, but the book was translated into foreign languages and sold well.[295] Behr wrote:

The more fulsome, cliche-ridden chapters in From Emperor To Citizen, dealing with Puyi's prison experiences, and written at the height of the Mao personality cult, give the impression of well-learned, regurgitated lessons. The style of them was de rigueur in 1964. Today, they have a faintly archaic air. These days, all Chinese historians recognize the appalling consequences of the "Great Leap Forward", and deplore the repression that followed the "Let a hundred flowers bloom" movement. Neither is mentioned in Puyi's book, nor was it possible to begin doing so anywhere in China
China
without risking arrest until the dark years of the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
and the 'Gang of Four' were over ... The younger generation of Chinese knows, even if their elders do not, that during those years vast areas of China
China
become 'Potemkin villages' bearing no relationship with reality: Some of the farms and factories that Puyi
Puyi
visited during his final 'remoulding' years in prison may themselves have been 'Potemkin villages' ... but the after-effects of the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
are such that the kind of prose Puyi
Puyi
used to describe his experiences will never be believed wholeheartedly by post- Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
readers. This form of skepticism will last until the last trace of Mao-worship gives way to a frank, realistic assessment of him in light of his appalling "Let a hundred flowers bloom" repression, his half-baked "Great Leap Forward", and the ruthless destruction of his own Party apparatus during the Cultural Revolution ... By rights, as Simon Leys in The Burning Forest has pointed out, the much vilified Gang of Four
Gang of Four
which brought such chaos and misery to China
China
should be called the Gang of Five, for without Mao it would never have established itself as a ruling group in the first place. Puyi, however, belongs to the era when the cosy, narrow Maoist line was still unquestioned, and not yet brought into terminal disrepute by the Red Guards
Red Guards
and the Gang of Four.[296]

From 1963 onward, Puyi
Puyi
regularly gave press conferences praising life in the People’s Republic of China, and foreign diplomats often sought him out, curious to meet the famous “Last Emperor” of China.[297] In an interview with Behr, Li Wenda told him Puyi
Puyi
was a very clumsy man who "invariably forgot to close doors behind him, forgot to flush the toilet, forgot to turn the tap off after washing his hands, had a genius for creating an instant, disorderly mess around him".[298] Puyi had been so used to having his needs catered to that he never entirely learned how to function on his own.[298] Puyi
Puyi
tried very hard to be modest and humble, always being the last person to board a bus, which meant that frequently missed the ride and in restaurants would tell the waitresses that "You should not be serving me. I should be serving you."[298] Pujie
Pujie
told Behr:

Gaol was like school for him. All his life, until 1945, everyone around him had convinced him he was special, almost divine. Because of this, his attitude towards others had never been normal. Only in Fushun did he become aware of people as people." — Behr (1987)[299]

Puyi’s nephew Jui Lon stated in an interview with Behr that before his imprisonment Puyi’s chief characteristic:

was his utter selfishness. Even in the gaol he hoarded his cigarettes and would never give any away, even though he was not a heavy smoker. When I saw him in Beijing
Beijing
after his release he was a changed man. In his family he started to care for people for the first time in his life. — Jui Lon[300]

During this period, Puyi
Puyi
was known for his kindness, and once after he accidentally knocked down an elderly lady with his bicycle, he visited her every-day in the hospital to bring her flowers to make amends until she was released.[300] Puyi
Puyi
objected to Pujie's attempt to reunite with Lady Saga who had returned to Japan, writing to Zhou asking him to block Lady Saga from coming back to China, which led Zhou to reply: “The war’s over, you know. You don’t have to carry this national hatred into your own family.”[301] Behr concluded that: “It is difficult to avoid the impression that Puyi, in an effort prove himself a ‘remolded man’, displayed the same craven attitude towards the power-holders of the new China
China
that he had shown in Manchukuo
Manchukuo
towards the Japanese.”[301] Death and burial[edit] Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
started the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
in 1966, and the youth militia known as the Red Guards
Red Guards
saw Puyi, who symbolised Imperial China, as an easy target of attack. Puyi
Puyi
was placed under protection by the local public security bureau and, although his food rations, salary, and various luxuries, including his sofa and desk, were removed, he was not publicly humiliated as was common at the time. The Red Guards
Red Guards
attacked Puyi
Puyi
for his book From Emperor to Citizen because it had been translated into English and French, which displeased the xenophobic Red Guards
Red Guards
and led to copies of the book being burned in the streets.[302] Various members of the Qing family, including Pujie, had their homes raided by the Red Guards, but Zhou Enlai
Zhou Enlai
used his influence to protect Puyi
Puyi
and the rest of the Qing from the worst abuses inflicted by the Red Guard.[303] Jin Yuan, the man who had "remodelled" Puyi
Puyi
in the 1950s, fell victim to the Red Guard and became a prisoner in Fushun for several years, while Li Wenda, who had ghostwritten From Emperor to Citizen, spent seven years in solitary confinement.[304] But by now, Puyi
Puyi
had aged and his health began to decline. He died in Beijing
Beijing
of complications arising from kidney cancer and heart disease on 17 October 1967 at the age of 61.[305] In accordance with the laws of the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
at the time, Puyi's body was cremated. His ashes were first placed at the Babaoshan Revolutionary Cemetery, alongside those of other party and state dignitaries. (This was the burial ground of imperial concubines and eunuchs prior to the establishment of the People's Republic of China.) In 1995, as a part of a commercial arrangement, Puyi's widow transferred his ashes to a new commercial cemetery named Hualong Imperial Cemetery (华龙皇家陵园)[306] in return for monetary support. The cemetery is located near the Western Qing Tombs, 120 km (75 mi) southwest of Beijing, where four of the nine Qing emperors preceding him are interred, along with three empresses and 69 princes, princesses and imperial concubines.[307] Portrayal in media[edit] Film[edit]

The Last Emperor, a 1986 Hong Kong film (Chinese title 火龍, literally means Fire Dragon) directed by Li Han-hsiang. Tony Leung Ka-fai played Puyi. The Last Emperor, a 1987 film directed by Bernardo Bertolucci. John Lone played the adult Puyi. Aisin-Gioro
Aisin-Gioro
Puyi
Puyi
(愛新覺羅·溥儀), a 2005 Chinese documentary film on the life of Puyi. Produced by CCTV, it was part of a series of ten documentary films about ten historical persons. The Founding of a Party, a 2011 Chinese film directed by Huang Jianxin and Han Sanping. Child actor Yan Ruihan played Puyi. 1911, a 2011 historical film directed by Jackie Chan
Jackie Chan
and Zhang Li. The film tells of the founding of the Republic of China
China
when Sun Yat-sen led the Xinhai Revolution
Xinhai Revolution
to overthrow the Qing Dynasty. The five-year-old Puyi
Puyi
is played by child actor Su Hanye. Although Puyi's time on screen is short, there are significant scenes showing how the emperor was treated at court before his abdication at the age of six.[308]

Television[edit]

The Misadventure of Zoo, a 1981 Hong Kong television series produced by TVB. Adam Cheng
Adam Cheng
played an adult Puyi. Modai Huangdi (末代皇帝; literally means The Last Emperor), a 1988 Chinese television series based on Puyi's autobiography From Emperor to Citizen, with Puyi's brother Pujie
Pujie
as a consultant for the series. Chen Daoming starred as Puyi. Feichang Gongmin (非常公民; literally means Extraordinary Citizen), a 2002 Chinese television series directed by Cheng Hao. Dayo Wong starred as Puyi. Ruten no Ōhi – Saigo no Kōtei (流転の王妃·最後の皇弟; Chinese title 流轉的王妃), a 2003 Japanese television series about Pujie
Pujie
and Hiro Saga. Wang Bozhao played Puyi. Modai Huangfei (末代皇妃; literally means The Last Imperial Consort), a 2003 Chinese television series. Li Yapeng played Puyi. Modai Huangdi Chuanqi (zh) (末代皇帝传奇; literally means The Legend of the Last Emperor), a 2015 Hong Kong/ China
China
television collaboration (59 episodes, each 45 minutes), starring Winston Chao

Family[edit]

Wanrong and Puyi
Puyi
in Tianjin

Quotation from Puyi:[309]

“ My father had two wives, and they bore him four sons and seven daughters. ”

The Pedigree of the Qing House flow chart can be found in Puyi's autobiography.[310] Spouses[edit] Quotation from Puyi
Puyi
(referring only to his first four wives):[311]

“ ... they were not real wives and were only there for show ”

Title Name Born Died Father Mother Issue Notes

Empress 皇后 Gobulo Wanrong 郭布罗•婉容 13 Nov 1904 20 Jun 1946 Rongyuan, minister of Domestic Affairs 内务府大臣荣源 Aisin–Gioro Hengxin (great great great great granddaughter of Prince An of Ding of the First Rank) 爱新觉罗·恒馨 none Married Puyi
Puyi
and became Empress in 1922

Li Shuxian 李淑贤 4 Sep 1925 9 Jun 1997 unknown unknown none Nurse Married Puyi
Puyi
in 1962 Died of lung cancer

Noble Consort Mingxian 明贤贵妃 Tan Yuling 谭玉龄 1920 14 Aug 1942 Tatara 他他拉 unknown none Became Noble Lady Xiang (祥贵人) in 1937 Posthumously honoured in 1942

Consort Shu 淑妃 Erdet Wenxiu 鄂尔德特•文绣 20 Dec 1909 17 Sep 1953 Duangong, managerial official of Domestic Affairs 内务府主事端恭 Lady Jiang 蒋氏 none Became Consort Shu in 1922 Divorced in 1931

Noble Lady Fu 福贵人 Li Yuqin 李玉琴 15 Jul 1928 24 Apr 2001 unknown unknown none Became Noble Lady Fu in 1943 Divorced in 1957 Died of liver cirrhosis

In detail

In 1921, it was decided by the Dowager Consorts (the four widows of the emperors before Puyi) that it was time for the 15-year-old Puyi
Puyi
to be married, although court politics dragged the complete process (from selecting the bride, up through the wedding ceremony) out for almost two years. Puyi
Puyi
saw marriage as his coming of age benchmark, when others would no longer control him. He was given four photographs to choose from. Puyi
Puyi
stated they all looked alike to him, with the exception of different clothing. He chose Wenxiu. Political factions within the palace made the actual choice as to whom Puyi
Puyi
would marry. The selection process alone took an entire year.[312]

Wanrong Puyi's second choice for his wife was Wanrong, a Daur. She married Puyi
Puyi
in 1922 and became his Empress. Her father, Rong Yuan (榮源), was a Minister of Domestic Affairs. She was considered beautiful and came from a wealthy family. By Puyi's own account, he abandoned Wanrong in the bridal chamber and went back to his own room.[313] He maintained that she was willing to be a wife in name only, in order to carry the title of Empress. The couple's relationship was good initially, and Puyi
Puyi
showed preference over Wenxiu
Wenxiu
for Wanrong and displayed trust in her. However, after Wenxiu
Wenxiu
left in 1931, Puyi blamed Wanrong and stopped speaking to her and ignored her presence.[311] She became addicted to opium, and eventually died in a prison in Yanji, Jilin
Jilin
after being arrested by Chinese Communist soldiers.[314] Wenxiu Puyi's first choice for his wife was Wenxiu, from the Erdet (鄂爾德特) clan. She married Puyi
Puyi
in 1922. Although she was Puyi's first choice, the Four Dowager Consorts felt that Wenxiu
Wenxiu
came from an unacceptable impoverished family and was not beautiful enough to be Empress, so they told the court officials to ask Puyi
Puyi
to choose again. The second time Puyi
Puyi
chose Wanrong, who became Empress, while Wenxiu was designated as Consort Shu (淑妃). Puyi
Puyi
and Wenxiu
Wenxiu
divorced in 1931. Puyi
Puyi
awarded her a house in Beijing
Beijing
and $300,000 in alimony, to be provided by the Japanese.[2] In his autobiography, Puyi
Puyi
stated her reason for the divorce was the emptiness of life with him in exile, her desire for an ordinary family life, and his own inability to see women as anything but slaves and tools of men. According to Puyi, she worked as a school teacher for some years after the divorce.[315] She married Major Liu Zhendong in 1947.[316] Tan Yuling Puyi's third wife, Tan Yuling, was a Manchu of the Tatara (他他拉) clan. She married Puyi
Puyi
in 1937 at the age of 16 on the recommendation of the daughter of Yulang (毓朗), a beile. She was designated as Puyi's Concubine Xiang (祥貴人). Puyi
Puyi
married her as "punishment" for Wanrong, and, "... because a second wife was as essential as palace furniture." She was also a wife in name only. She became ill in 1942 with typhoid, which the Japanese doctor said would not be fatal. After the doctor's consultation with Attaché to the Imperial Household Yasunori Yoshioka, Tan Yuling
Tan Yuling
suddenly died. Puyi
Puyi
became suspicious of the circumstances when the Japanese immediately offered him photographs of Japanese girls for marriage.[317] Puyi
Puyi
posthumously granted her the title Noble Consort Mingxian (明賢貴妃).[citation needed] Li Yuqin In 1943 Puyi
Puyi
married his fourth wife,[when?] a 15-year-old student named Li Yuqin, who was a Han Chinese
Han Chinese
from Changchun, Jilin. She was designated as Puyi's Concubine Fu (福貴人).[318] In February 1943, school principal Kobayashi and teacher Fujii of the Nan-Ling Girls Academy took ten girl students to a photography studio for portraits. Three weeks later, the school teacher and the principal visited Li Yuqin's home and told her Puyi
Puyi
ordered her to go to the Manchukuo palace to study. She was first taken directly to Yasunori Yoshioka who thoroughly questioned her. Yoshioka then drove her back to her parents and told them Puyi
Puyi
ordered her to study at the palace. Money was promised to the parents. She was subjected to a medical examination and then taken to Puyi's sister Yunhe and instructed in palace protocol.[clarification needed][319] Two years later when Manchukuo collapsed, Li Yuqin shared a train with Empress Wanrong, who was experiencing opium withdrawal symptoms at the time. They were both arrested by the Soviets and sent to a prison in Changchun. Li Yuqin was released in 1946 and sent back home. She worked in a textile factory while she studied the works of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Vladimir Lenin. In 1955 she began visiting Puyi
Puyi
in prison. After applying to the Chinese authorities for a divorce, the government responded on her next prison visit by showing her to a room with a double bed and ordered her to reconcile with Puyi, and she said the couple obeyed the order. She divorced Puyi
Puyi
in May 1957. She later married a technician, and had two sons.[320] During the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
she became a target for attack by the Red Guards
Red Guards
because she used to be Puyi's concubine. She died of liver problems in 2001.[citation needed] Li Shuxian In 1962 under an arrangement with premier Zhou Enlai, Puyi
Puyi
married his fifth and last wife, Li Shuxian, a nurse of Han Chinese
Han Chinese
ethnicity. They had no children. She died of lung cancer in 1997.[234] Li Shuxian recounted that they dated for six months before the marriage, and she found him to be, "... a man who desperately needed my love and was ready to give me as much love as he could."[321]

Issue[edit] Adopted Sons[edit]

# Title Name Born Died Father Mother Notes

1

Yuyan 毓岩 17 May 1918 18 Jan 1999 Pucheng (grandson of Prince Qin of Dun of the First Rank), second son of 溥偁 Fuca Jinggui 富察•敬贵

Ancestry[edit] Paternal side[edit]

A three-year-old Puyi
Puyi
(right), standing next to his father (Zaifeng, Prince Chun) and his younger brother Pujie

Puyi's great-grandfather was the Daoguang Emperor
Daoguang Emperor
(r. 1820–1850), who was succeeded by his fourth son, the Xianfeng Emperor
Xianfeng Emperor
(r. 1850–1861).[28][322] Puyi's paternal grandfather was Yixuan, Prince Chun
Yixuan, Prince Chun
(1840–1891), the seventh son of the Daoguang Emperor
Daoguang Emperor
and a younger half-brother of the Xianfeng Emperor. The Xianfeng Emperor
Xianfeng Emperor
was succeeded by his only son, who became the Tongzhi Emperor
Tongzhi Emperor
(r. 1861–1875).[323] The Tongzhi Emperor
Tongzhi Emperor
died at the age of 18 without a son, and was succeeded by the Guangxu Emperor
Guangxu Emperor
(r. 1875–1908), son of 1st Prince Chun and Lady Yehenara Wanzhen (younger sister of Empress Dowager Cixi). The Guangxu Emperor
Guangxu Emperor
died without an heir.[3] Puyi, who succeeded the Guangxu Emperor, was the eldest son of Zaifeng, Prince Chun, who was born to Yixuan, Prince Chun
Yixuan, Prince Chun
and his second concubine Lady Lingiya (1866–1925). Lady Lingiya had been a maid in the residence of Yixuan. Born to a Han Bannerman family, her original family name was Liu (劉), and this was changed to the Manchu clan name Lingiya when she became the concubine of Yixuan and was transferred to a Manchu banner. Zaifeng was therefore a younger half-brother of the Guangxu Emperor
Guangxu Emperor
and the first in line to succession after Guangxu.[324] Puyi
Puyi
was in a branch of the Aisin Gioro
Aisin Gioro
clan with close ties to Empress Dowager Cixi, who was from the Yehenara clan. Cixi's niece, who later became Empress Dowager Longyu
Empress Dowager Longyu
(1868–1913), was married to the Guangxu Emperor. Puyi
Puyi
had a younger full brother, Pujie
Pujie
(1907–1994), who married a cousin of Emperor Hirohito, Lady Hiro Saga. The rules of succession were changed to allow Pujie
Pujie
to succeed Puyi, who had no children.[325][326] Puyi's last surviving younger half-brother Puren (b. 1918) adopted the Chinese name Jin Youzhi
Jin Youzhi
and lived in China
China
until his death in 2015. In 2006 Jin Youzhi
Jin Youzhi
filed a lawsuit in regards to the rights to Puyi's image and privacy. The lawsuit claimed that those rights were violated by the exhibit "China's Last Monarch and His Family".[327] Puyi's second cousin,[328] Pu Xuezhai (溥雪齋), was a musician who played the guqin, and an artist of Chinese painting.[329] Maternal side[edit] Puyi's mother was Youlan (1884–1921), the daughter of Ronglu (1836–1903), a statesman and general from the Gūwalgiya clan. Ronglu
Ronglu
was one of the leaders of the conservative faction in the Qing court, and a staunch supporter of Empress Dowager Cixi; Cixi rewarded his support by marrying his daughter, Puyi's mother, into the imperial family. The Gūwalgiya clan was regarded as one of the most powerful Manchu clans in the Qing dynasty. Oboi, an influential military commander and statesman who was a regent during the Kangxi Emperor's reign, was from the Guwalgiya clan.[330]

Ancestors of Puyi

Aisin–Gioro Yongyan, Renzong 仁宗爱新觉罗•颙琰 1760–1820

2nd son: Aisin–Gioro Minning, Xuanzong 宣宗爱新觉罗•旻宁 1782–1850

Wife: Lady Hitara, Empress Xiaoshu Rui 孝淑睿皇后喜塔腊氏 1760–1797

7th son: Aisin–Gioro Yixuan, Prince Xian of Chun of the First Rank 醇贤亲王爱新觉罗•奕譞 1840–1891

Uya Lingshou, bitieshi 笔帖式乌雅•灵寿

Concubine: Lady Uya, Imperial Noble Consort Zhuangshun 庄顺皇贵妃乌雅氏 1822–1866

5th son: Aisin–Gioro Zaifeng, Prince Chun
Zaifeng, Prince Chun
of the First Rank 醇亲王爱新觉罗•载沣 1883–1951

Liu Deqing, dianwei 典卫刘德庆

Concubine: Liugiya Cuiyan, Secondary Consort 侧福晋刘佳•翠妍 1866–1925

1st son: Aisin–Gioro Puyi, Xuantong Emperor 宣统帝爱新觉罗•溥仪 1906–1967

Gūwalgiya Tasiha, imperial resident in Kashgar 喀什噶尔帮办大臣瓜尔佳•塔斯哈

Gūwalgiya Changshou, military commander 甘肃凉州镇总兵瓜尔佳•长寿

Lady Samar 萨玛尔氏

Gūwalgiya Ronglu, grand academician 大学士瓜尔佳•荣禄 1836–1903

Uja Chuohetai 乌扎•绰和泰

Lady Uja 乌扎氏

Wife: Gūwalgiya Youlan, Primary Consort 嫡福晋瓜尔佳•幼兰 1884–1921

Aisin–Gioro Wuben 理事官爱新觉罗•务本

Aisin–Gioro Linggui, grand academician 武英殿大学士爱新觉罗•灵桂 1815–1885

Lady Gūwalgiya 瓜尔佳氏

Lady Aisin–Gioro 爱新觉罗氏

Sun Sheng 孙生

Lady Sun 孙氏

Bibliography[edit] By Puyi[edit]

The autobiography of Puyi – ghost-written by Li Wenda. The title of the Chinese book is usually rendered in English as From Emperor to Citizen. The book was re-released in China
China
in 2007 in a new corrected and revised version. Many sentences which had been deleted from the 1964 version prior to its publication were now included.

Aisin-Gioro, Puyi
Puyi
(2002) [1964]. 我的前半生 [The First Half of My Life; From Emperor to Citizen: The Autobiography of Aisin-Gioro
Aisin-Gioro
Puyi] (in Chinese). Foreign Languages Press. ISBN 978-7-119-00772-4.  – original Pu Yi, Henry (2010) [1967]. The Last Manchu: The Autobiography of Henry Pu Yi, Last Emperor of China. Skyhorse Publishing. ISBN 978-1-60239-732-3.   – translation

By others[edit]

Headland, Isaac Taylor (1909). Court life in China. F.H. Revell. ISBN 0-585-15029-X.  Fenby, Jonathan (2004). Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
China's Generalissimo and the Nation He Lost. New York: Carroll & Graf. ISBN 0786713186.  Driscoll, Mark (2010). Absolute Erotic, Absolute Grotesque: The Living, The Dead, and The Undead in Japan's Imperialism, 1895–1945. Durnham: Duke University Press. ISBN 082234761X.  Johnston, Reginald Fleming (1934, 2008). Twilight in the Forbidden City. Soul Care Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9680459-5-4 Li Shuxian (2006) [1984]. My Husband Puyi: Puyi
Puyi
yu wo / [Li Shuxian kou shu ; Wang Qingxiang zheng li ; Changchun
Changchun
shi zheng xie wen shi zi liao yan jiu wei yuan hui bian]. Chuan guo xin hua shu dian jing xiao. ISBN 978-7-208-00167-1. 

Puyi's fifth wife Li Shuxian. Memories of their life together were ghost written by Wang Qingxian. An English version translated by Ni Na was published by China
China
Travel and Tourism Press.

Behr, Edward (1987). The Last Emperor. Toronto: Futura. ISBN 978-0-7088-3439-8. 

Companion to Bernardo Bertolucci's film of the same name.

Young, Louise (1998). Japan's Total Empire: Manchuria
Manchuria
and the Culture of Wartime Imperialism. Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 0520219341.  Weinberg, Gerhard (12005). A World In Arms A Global History of World War II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-61826-7.  Check date values in: date= (help)

See also[edit]

History of Imperial China
China
portal World War II portal Biography portal

Chinese emperors family tree (late) Dynasties in Chinese history List of heads of regimes who were later imprisoned List of monarchs who lost their thrones in the 20th and 21st centuries

Notes[edit] ¹ Aisin-Gioro
Aisin-Gioro
is the clan's name in Manchu, pronounced Àixīn Juéluó in Mandarin; Pǔyí is the Chinese given name as pronounced in Mandarin. References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Pu Yi. 1988, p. 113 ^ a b c d e f Blakeney, Ben Bruce (19 July 1945). "Henry Pu Yi". Life Magazine: 78–86.  ^ a b Joseph, William A. (2010). Politics in China: An Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-19-533531-6.  ^ Behr (1987), p. 62-63 ^ a b Behr, Edward (1998). The Last Emperor. Futura. pp. 63, 80. ISBN 978-0-7088-3439-8.  ^ a b c Behr, 1987 p.63 ^ a b c Behr (1987), p. 65 ^ Behr, 1987 p.66 ^ Pu Yi 1988, pp. 70–76 ^ a b c d e Behr (1987), p. 74 ^ a b Behr (1987), p. 74-75 ^ a b Tunzelmann, Alex (16 April 2009). "The Last Emperor: Life is stranger, and nastier, than fiction". The Guardian. Retrieved 2015-11-29.  ^ Behr (1987), p. 81 ^ Behr, 1987 p.75-76 ^ a b c Behr, (1987), p. 76 ^ Behr (1987), p. 75 ^ Behr (1987), p. 72-75 ^ a b Behr (1987), p. 77–78 ^ a b Behr (1987), p. 78 ^ a b c d e Behr (1987), p. 79 ^ Torbert, Preston M (1977). The Ch'ing Imperial Household Department: A Study of Its Organization and Principal Functions, 1662–1796. Harvard University Asia Center. ISBN 978-0-674-12761-6.  ^ Behr, 1987 pp.72–73 ^ a b c Behr, 1987 p.73 ^ Pu Yi 1988, p 132 ^ Pu Yi 1988, p 136 ^ PuYi 1978, pp. 137–142 ^ a b Behr 1987 p.68 ^ a b Rawski, Evelyn S (2001). The Last Emperors: A Social History of Qing Imperial Institutions. University of California Press. p. 287,136. ISBN 978-0-520-22837-5.  ^ Rhoads, Edward J M (2001). Manchus & Han: Ethnic Relations and Political Power in Late Qing and Early Republican China, 1861–1928. University of Washington Press. pp. 226, 227. ISBN 978-0-295-98040-9.  ^ Behr 1987 p.69 ^ Luzzatti, Luigi; Arbib-Costa, Alfonso (2010). God in Freedom: Studies in the Relations Between Church and State. Kessinger Publishing, LLC. pp. 423, 424. ISBN 978-1-161-41509-4.  ^ Behr, 1987 p.81-82 ^ a b c Behr p. 84 ^ Twilight in the Forbidden City, 1934, Reginald Fleming Johnston, pp 96–98 ^ a b Behr p. 84-85 ^ Behr p. 85 ^ Hutchings, Graham (2003). Modern China: A Guide to a Century of Change. Harvard University Press. p. 346. ISBN 978-0-674-01240-0.  ^ Stone of Heaven, Levy, Scott-Clark p 184 ^ Bangsbo, Jens; Reilly, Thomas; Williams, A. Mark (1996). Science and Football III. Taylor & Francis. p. 272. ISBN 978-0-419-22160-9.  ^ Behr 1987 p.97 ^ Li 2009 p.112-113 ^ a b Li 2009 p. 113 ^ a b c Li 2009 p. 114 ^ Behr 1987 p.97. ^ Behr 1987 p. 97 ^ a b Behr 1987 p. 98 ^ Behr 1987 p. 98-99 ^ a b Behr 1987 p. 105 ^ Elliott 2001, p. 484. ^ Puyi
Puyi
& Jenner 1987, p. 56. ^ "The Last Manchu". google.com.  ^ Elliott 1009, p. 66. ^ Ali & Ally & Islam 1997, p. 392. ^ Behr, 1987 p.102 ^ Behr, 1987 p.101-102 ^ Li 2009 p. 118 ^ Li 2009 p. 120 ^ a b c d Li 2009 p. 117 ^ Behr 1987 p. 100 ^ Behr 1987 p 92 ^ Behr 1987 p 92. ^ Behr 1987 p. 99-100 ^ Behr 1987 p. 107 ^ Behr 1987 p. 107-108 ^ a b c Behr 1987 p. 108 ^ Behr 1987 p.108-109 ^ a b Behr 1987 p. 109 ^ Behr 1987 p. 109-110 ^ Behr 1987 p 91-95 ^ Behr 1987 p 102 ^ Behr 1987 p. 111 ^ a b Behr 1987 p. 112 ^ a b Behr 1987 p. 113 ^ a b Behr 1987 p.114 ^ Behr 1987 p.115 ^ Behr 1987 p.115-116 ^ Behr 1987 p 94. ^ a b Behr 1987 p. 121 ^ Behr 1987 p. 122 ^ Behr 1987 p. 122-123 ^ a b Behr 1987 p. 123 ^ Behr 1987 p. 124. ^ Behr 1987 p. 124 ^ a b Behr 1987 p.129 ^ Choy, Lee Khoon (2005). Pioneers of Modern China: Understanding the Inscrutable Chinese. World Scientific Publishing Company. pp. 350–353. ISBN 978-981-256-464-1.  ^ Behr 1987 p.147-148 ^ a b Behr 1987 p.149 ^ Behr 1987 p.153-155 ^ Behr 1987 p.154-155 ^ "Quietness Garden". visitourchina.com.  ^ Rogaski, Ruth (2004). Hygienic Modernity: Meanings of Health and Disease in Treaty-Port China. University of California Press. p. 262. ISBN 978-0-520-24001-8.  ^ Behr 1987 p.157-158 ^ Behr 1987 p.158 ^ Behr 1987 p.155-159 ^ a b Behr 1987 p.160 ^ a b Behr 1987 p.161 ^ Behr 1987 p.161-162 ^ a b c d Behr 1987 p.162 ^ Fenby 2004 p.102. ^ Behr 1987 p. 179 ^ a b Behr 1987 p.167-168 ^ Behr 1987 p 174. ^ Behr 1987 p 175. ^ a b c d e Behr 1987 p.176 ^ Behr 1987 p.176-177 ^ Behr 1987 p.177 ^ a b Yamasaki, Tokoyo; Morris, V Dixon (2007). Two Homelands. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 487–495. ISBN 978-0-8248-2944-5.  ^ Behr 1987 p.181 ^ Behr 1987 p.182 ^ a b Behr p. 190-191 ^ Behr 1987. p.192. ^ a b c Behr 1987 p.193 ^ Young 1998 p. 16. ^ Leung, Edwin Pak-Wah (2002). Political Leaders of Modern China: A Biographical Dictionary. Greenwood. pp. 10,127,128. ISBN 978-0-313-30216-9.  ^ Behr 1987 p.194 ^ Behr 1987 p.195-196 ^ Behr 1987 p.196 ^ a b c Behr 1987 p.198-199 ^ a b c d Behr 1987 p.199 ^ a b Iriye, 1987 p. 17. ^ Iriye, 1987 p. 16. ^ Iriye, 1987 p. 16-17. ^ Young 1998 p.286 ^ a b Behr 1987 p.212 ^ Behr 1987 p 225-227 ^ Behr 1987 p.218 ^ Behr 1987 p. 218 ^ Behr 1987 p.213 ^ Behr 1987 p.213-214 ^ Behr 1987 p.214 ^ Behr 1987 p.215 ^ Behr 1987 p. 225 ^ Behr 1987 p. 217 ^ Behr 1987 p 218 ^ Behr 1987 p 219-220. ^ Behr 1987 p 220. ^ Behr 1987 p 223 ^ a b Behr 1987 p 223. ^ a b Behr 1987 p.226. ^ Behr 1987 p 226-227 ^ Behr 1987 p 227 ^ Stephen, 1978 p.64-65 & 78-79. ^ Stephen, 1978 p.64-65. ^ Behr 1987 p.207 ^ a b c d Stephan, 1978 p.166 ^ a b Dubois 2008 p.306. ^ Behr 1987 p 213. ^ a b Behr 1987 p 228. ^ Pu Yi 1988, p 275 ^ Pu Yi 1988, p 276 ^ Fenby 2004 p.243 ^ Behr 1987 p.228. ^ a b c Behr 1987 p 214. ^ a b c Behr 1987 p 253. ^ Behr 1987 p 228-229. ^ a b c d e f Behr 1987 p 229. ^ Behr 1987 p 229-230. ^ a b Behr 1987 p 244 ^ Behr 1987 p 202 ^ Behr 1987 p 203-204 ^ Eckert 2016 p. 162 ^ Behr 1987 p 203 ^ a b c Behr 1987 p 204 ^ Behr 1987 p 204-205 ^ "The Unquiet Past Seven decades on from the defeat of Japan, memories of war still divide East Asia". The Economist. 12 August 2015. Retrieved 2015-09-09.  ^ a b Behr 1987 p 211 ^ "Yasunori Yoshioka, Lieutenant-General (1890–1947)". The Generals of WWII – Generals from Japan. Steen Ammentorp, Librarian DB., M.L.I.Sc. Retrieved 17 August 2010.  ^ Pu Yi 1988, p 284-320 ^ Pu Yi 1988, p 281 ^ Behr 1987 p 231. ^ Behr 1987 p 230-231. ^ a b Behr 1987 p 231 ^ a b Behr 1987 p 232 ^ Behr 1987 p 233. ^ Behr 1987 p 234. ^ Stephan, 1978 p.167 ^ Behr 1987 p 233 ^ Pu Yi 1988, p 307 ^ Pu Yi 1988, p 298 ^ Behr 1987 p 243-245. ^ a b c d Behr 1987 p 245. ^ Behr 1987 p 245 ^ a b c Behr 1987 p 246. ^ a b Behr 1987 p 247. ^ a b Behr 1987 p 243. ^ Behr 1987 p 246 ^ Behr 1987 p 254 ^ Behr 1987 p 255 ^ Behr 1987 p 247-248. ^ a b Behr 1987 p 216. ^ Behr 1987 p 235. ^ Pu Yi 1988, p 288-290 ^ a b c d e f g Behr 1987 p 248. ^ Behr 1987 p 249. ^ Behr 1987 p 19. ^ Behr 1987 p 244–245 & 248–250. ^ Behr (1987), p. 249 ^ a b c d Behr 1987 p 250. ^ a b c d Behr 1987 p 236 ^ a b Behr 1987 p 244. ^ Driscoll 2010 p.275 ^ Driscoll 2010 p. xii. ^ Driscoll 2010 p. 276. ^ Behr 1987 p 242. ^ a b Iriye, 1987 p.51 ^ a b c Dubois 2008 p.309 ^ Behr 1987 p 249 & 255. ^ Behr 1987 p 250-251. ^ 児島襄『満洲帝国 II』文藝春秋、1983 ^ a b Eckert 2016 p.139-140. ^ Behr 1987 p 255-256 ^ a b c d e f Behr 1987 p 256 ^ Behr 1987 p 244 & 252. ^ a b c Weinberg, 2005 p.322 ^ Behr 1987 p 54. ^ Behr 1987 p 254. ^ Eckert, 2016 p.351. ^ Behr 1987 p 256-257 ^ a b c Behr 1987 p 257 ^ a b c d e Behr 1987 p 258 ^ Behr 1987 p 258. ^ a b c Behr 1987 p 259 ^ a b c d e f Behr 1987 p 260 ^ Stephan 1978 p.324. ^ Stephan 1978 p.327. ^ Behr, 1987 p. 260 ^ Behr, 1987 p.260-261 ^ a b Behr 1987 p 261 ^ a b c d e Behr 1987 p 262 ^ a b c Behr 1987 p 263 ^ a b c Behr 1987 p 264 ^ a b c Behr 1987 p 265 ^ Behr 1987 p 265 & 267 ^ a b Mydans, Seth (11 June 1997). "Li Shuxian, 73, Widow of Last China
China
Emperor". The New York Times.  ^ Behr 1987 p 268. ^ Behr 1987 p 269. ^ Behr 1987 p 269-270. ^ a b Behr 1987 p 270 ^ a b Behr 1987 p 308. ^ Behr 1987 p. 271 ^ Behr, 1987 p 271. ^ Behr, 1987 p 271 ^ Behr 1987 p.279 ^ Behr 1987 p.197 ^ Behr 1987 p.281-282. ^ "Former Manchurian Puppet". The Miami News. 16 August 1946.  ^ Behr 1987 p. 274-276 ^ Behr 1987 p. 276 ^ Behr 1987 p.274-277. ^ Behr 1987 p.277. ^ Behr 1987 p.278. ^ Behr 1987 p.279. ^ Behr 1987 p.281. ^ a b Behr, 1987 p 281 ^ a b Behr, 1987 p 282. ^ Behr, 1987 p 281-282 ^ Behr, 1987 p 280 ^ "Russia Giving Puyi
Puyi
to China". The Milwaukee Journal. 27 March 1946.  ^ Lancashire, David (30 December 1956). "Last Manchu Ruler Grateful to Jailers". Eugene Register-Guard.  ^ a b Behr 1987 p. 285 ^ a b Behr, 1987 p.283 ^ Behr, 1987 p.284 ^ Behr, 1987 p.286 ^ a b c Behr, 1987 p.287 ^ Behr 1987 p. 288 ^ Behr 1987 p. 293-294 ^ a b Behr 1987 p. 294 ^ Behr 1987 p. 291 ^ a b Behr 1987 p. 292 ^ a b Behr 1987 p. 295 ^ Behr, 1987 p 302 ^ a b Behr, 1987 p.305-306 ^ a b Behr, 1987 p 305 ^ Behr, 1987 p 305-306 ^ Behr, 1987 p 299 ^ Behr, 1987 p.307 ^ Behr, 1987 p. 307 ^ a b Behr, 1987 p 307 ^ Behr, 1987 p 308-309 ^ Behr, 1987 p 303 ^ Behr, 1987 p 310. ^ a b Behr, 1987 p 310 ^ Behr, 1987 p 309 ^ Behr, 1987 p 322 ^ Behr, 1987 p 313 ^ Behr 1987 p. 314 ^ Behr 1987 p. 315-316 ^ Behr, 1987 p.317 ^ a b Behr, 1987 p 323 ^ a b Behr, 1987 p 317 ^ Schram, Stuart (1989). The Thought of Mao Tse-Tung. Cambridge University Press. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-521-31062-8.  ^ a b Li, Xin (8 April 1995). "Pu Yi's Widow Reveals Last Emperor's Soft Side". The Hartford Chronicle . Retrieved 2015-11-29.  ^ Behr 1987 p. 318 ^ Pu Yi; Jenner, W.J.F. (1988). From Emperor to Citizen: The Autobiography of Aisin-Gioro
Aisin-Gioro
Pu Yi. Oxford University Press. pp. 329, 330. ISBN 978-0-19-282099-0.  ^ Behr 1987 p. 320-321 & 324. ^ Behr 1987 p.320-321 ^ Behr 1987 p. 323. ^ a b c Behr, 1987 p.314 ^ Behr, 1987 p.319 ^ a b Behr 1987 p. 319 ^ a b Behr 1987 p. 320 ^ Behr 1987 p. 325. ^ Behr 1987 p. 324-325. ^ Behr 1987 p.325 ^ "Pu Yi, Last Emperor of China
China
And a Puppet for Japan, Dies. Enthroned at 2, Turned Out at 6, He Was Later a Captive of Russians and Peking Reds". Associated Press in New York Times. 19 October 1967. Retrieved 2007-07-21. Henry Pu Yi, last Manchu emperor of China
China
and Japan's puppet emperor of Manchukuo, died yesterday in Peking of complications resulting from cancer, a Japanese newspaper reported today. He was 61 years old.  ^ Ho, Stephanie. "Burial Plot of China's Last Emperor Still Holds Allure". VOA.  ^ Courtauld, Caroline; Holdsworth, May; Spence, Jonathan (2008). Forbidden City: The Great Within. Odyssey. p. 132. ISBN 978-962-217-792-5.  ^ "1911 Movie at IMDB".  ^ Pu Yi 1988, p 27 ^ Pu Yi-W.J.F. Jenner 1988, p xvi ^ a b Pu Yi 1988, p 310 ^ Pu Yi 1988, pp 117–118 ^ Pu Yi 1988, pp 117–121 ^ Lee, Lily Xaio Hong (2003). Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Women: The Twentieth Century 1912–2000. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 373–375. ISBN 978-0-7656-0798-0.  ^ Pu Yi 1988, pp 213,214 ^ Women Journalists and Feminism in China, 1898-1937 By Yuxin Ma ^ Pu Yi 1988, pp 310–311 ^ Pu Yi 1988, p 312 ^ Yu-Ning, Li (1992). Chinese Women Through Chinese Eyes. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 228–250. ISBN 978-0-87332-596-7.  ^ " Li Yuqin obit". The Telegraph UK. 30 April 2001.  ^ Scott-Clark, Cathy; Levy, Adrian (2002). The Stone of Heaven: Unearthing the Secret History of Imperial Green Jade. Phoenix. p. 356. ISBN 978-0-7538-1329-4.  ^ "Xianfeng Emperor". Cultural China. Archived from the original on 1 September 2010. Retrieved 11 August 2010.  ^ "Tongzhi Emperor". Cultural China. Archived from the original on 7 April 2010. Retrieved 11 August 2010.  ^ "The Vicissitudes of Prince Chun's Mansion". The Australian National University China
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Heritage Project. 12 December 2007. Retrieved 11 August 2010.  ^ Vandergrift, Kate. "Meeting the Last Emperor's Brother". Society for Anglo-Chinese Understanding. Retrieved 11 August 2010.  ^ "Pu Jie, 87, Dies, Ending Dynasty
Dynasty
Of the Manchus". New York Times. 2 March 1994. Retrieved 2008-04-27. Pu Jie, the younger brother of the last Emperor of China, died on Monday in Beijing. He was 87.  ^ Xiao Guo (18 July 2006). "Socialist Laws Protect Feudal Emperor's Rights". China
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Daily.  ^ Pu Yi 1988, p. 425 ^ 溥雪斋(1893~1966):古琴演奏家。出生在清代皇族家庭。[dead link] ^ Crossley, Pamela Kyle (1991). Orphan Warriors. Princeton University Press. pp. 31–46. ISBN 978-0-691-00877-6. 

Sources[edit]

Ali, S. M.; Ally, Fowzia; Islam, Syed Manzoorul (1997). S.M. Ali, a Commemorative Volume. S.M. Ali Memorial Committee. Retrieved 10 March 2014.  Behr, Edward (1987). The Last Emperor. Toronto: Futura.  Dubois, Thomas. ""Rule of Law in a Brave New Empire: Legal Rhetoric and Practice in Manchukuo"". aw and History Review. 26 (Summer 2008). pp. 285–319.  Eckert, Carter (2016). Park Chung Hee and Modern Korea The Roots of Militarism, 1866–1945. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.  Elliott, Mark C. (2001). The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners
Eight Banners
and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China
China
(illustrated, reprint ed.). Stanford University Press. ISBN 0804746842. Retrieved 10 March 2014.  Elliott, Mark C. (2009). Emperor Qianlong: Son of Heaven, Man of the World. Longman. ISBN 0321084446. Retrieved 10 March 2014.  Iriye, Akira (1987). The Origins of the Second World War in Asia and the Pacific. London: Longman. ISBN 0582493498.  Puy; Jenner, William John Francis (1987). From Emperor to Citizen: The Autobiography of Aisin-Gioro
Aisin-Gioro
Pu Yi. Translated by William John Francis Jenner (illustrated, reprint ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0192820990. Retrieved 10 March 2014.  Li, Kay. ""Saint Joan" From A Chinese Perspective: Shaw and the Last Emperor, Henry Pu-Yi Aisin-Gioro". Shaw. 29 (2009). pp. 109–126.  Stephan, John (1978). The Russian Fascists Tragedy and Farce in Exile 1925-45. Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-014099-2.  Henry Pu Yi (2013). Kramer, Paul, ed. The Last Manchu: The Autobiography of Henry Pu Yi, Last Emperor of China. Skyhorse Publishing, Inc. ISBN 1626367256. Retrieved 10 March 2014. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pu Yi.

"Five Wives of The Last Emperor
The Last Emperor
Puyi". Cultural China. Archived from the original on 7 September 2010. Retrieved 9 August 2010.  Royalty.nu: Extended Bio TIME: Last Emperor's Humble Occupation Li Xin, Pu Yi's Widow Reveals Last Emperor's Soft Side Pu Ru (溥儒), Pu Yi's cousin, accomplished Chinese brush painter and calligrapher "Academy of Law and Politics for Aristocratic Education". Baidu Baike. Retrieved 1 January 2014. 

Puyi Qing Dynasty House of Aisin-Gioro Born: 7 February 1906 Died: 17 October 1967

Regnal titles

Preceded by Guangxu Emperor Emperor of China 14 November 1908 – 12 February 1912 Vacant Title next held by Hongxian Emperor

Vacant Title last held by Hongxian Emperor Emperor of China 1 July 1917 – 12 July 1917 Office abolished Republic of China
China
declared

New title State created

Chief Executive of Manchukuo 9 March 1932 – 28 February 1934 Merged into Emperorship

New title Empire created

Emperor of Manchukuo 1 March 1934 – 15 August 1945 Office abolished Empire dissolved

Political offices

Preceded by Guangxu Emperor as Emperor of China Head of State of China as Emperor of China 14 November 1908 – 12 February 1912 Succeeded by Sun Yat-sen as President of the Republic of China

New title State created

Head of State of Manchukuo 9 March 1932 – 15 August 1945 Succeeded by Chiang Kai-shek as President of the Republic of China Manchukuo
Manchukuo
given back to the Republic of China
China
after World War II

Puyi Qing Dynasty  Died: 17 October 1967 1968

Titles in pretence

Preceded by Zaitian — TITULAR — Head of Aisin Gioro
Aisin Gioro
family 1912-1967 Reason for succession failure: Empire abolished in 1945 Succeeded by Pujie

v t e

Pretenders to the Chinese throne since 1912

Emperor Puyi
Puyi
(1912 - 1967) Prince Pujie
Pujie
(1967 –1994) Prince Puren (1994 - 2015) Jin Yuzhang (since 2015)

See also House of Aisin Gioro

v t e

Emperors of the Qing dynasty

Taizu Taizong Dorgon
Dorgon
(Prince Regent) Shunzhi Kangxi Yongzheng Qianlong Jiaqing Daoguang Xianfeng Tongzhi Guangxu Xuantong

Xia → Shang → Zhou → Qin → Han → 3 Kingdoms → Jìn / 16 Kingdoms → S. Dynasties / N. Dynasties → Sui → Tang → 5 Dynasties & 10 Kingdoms → Liao / Song / W. Xia / Jīn → Yuan → Ming → Qing → ROC / PRC

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 56581612 LCCN: n50059497 ISNI: 0000 0000 8135 0328 GND: 118742868 SELIBR: 196567 SUDOC: 02733709X BNF: cb12086499j (data) BIBSYS: 90326947 NDL: 00363945 NCL: 1080608 NKC: jn20000701406 BNE: XX5502

.