A public university is a university that is predominantly funded by
public means through a national or subnational government, as opposed
to private universities. Whether a national university is considered
public varies from one country (or region) to another, largely
depending on the specific education landscape.
1.4 South Africa
2.4 Hong Kong
2.17 Sri Lanka
2.19 Taiwan, Republic of China
3.1 Continental Europe
3.5 United Kingdom
4.2 New Zealand
5 North America
5.3 Puerto Rico
5.4 United States
6 Central America
6.1 Costa Rica
7 South America
8 See also
11 External links
Cairo University, the prime indigenous model for Egyptian state
See also: List of universities in Egypt
In Egypt, Al-Azhar
University opened in 975 AD as the second oldest
university in the world. It was followed by a lot of universities
opened as public universities in the 20th century such as Cairo
University (1908), Alexandria
University (1912), Assiut University
(1928), Ain Shams
University (1957), Helwan
University (1963), Benha
University (1965), Zagazig
University (1978), Suez Canal
University (1989), where tuition fees
are totally subsidized by the government.
See also: List of universities in Nigeria
In Nigeria public universities can be established by both the federal
government and by state governments. Examples include the University
of Lagos, Obafemi Awolowo University,
University of Ibadan, University
University of Nigeria, Ahmadu Bello University, Abia State
University, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Gombe State University,
Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Federal
University of Technology Yola,
University of Maiduguri, Usmanu Danfodiyo University,
Jos, Ladoke Akintola
University of Technology,
University of Ilorin
See also: List of universities and colleges in Kenya
In Kenya, the Ministry of Education controls all of the public
universities. Students are enrolled after completing the 8-4-4 system
of education and attaining a mark of C+ or above. Students who meet
the criteria determined annually by the Kenya
Colleges Central Placement Service (KUCCPS) receive government
sponsorship, as part of their university or college fee is catered for
by the government. They are also eligible for a low interest loan from
the Higher Education Loan Board. They are expected to pay back the
loan after completing higher education.
See also: List of universities in South Africa
South Africa has 23 public tertiary educational institutions, either
categorised as a traditional university or a comprehensive university
(providing theoretical and vocational training). Prominent public
South African universities include the
University of Johannesburg,
University of Cape Town, North-west University,
University of Pretoria,
University of Stellenbosch,
University of Witwatersrand, Rhodes
University and the
See also: List of universities in Brunei
Almost all universities in Brunei are public universities. These are
major universities in Brunei:
University of Brunei Darussalam
Brunei Technological University
Sultan Sharif Ali Islamic University
See also: List of universities in Bangladesh
Front view of Jahangirnagar
University in Dhaka, Bangladesh
There are 40 public universities in Bangladesh. The universities do
not deal directly with the government, but with the
Commission, which in turn deals with the government.
Recently many private universities are established under the Private
University Act of 1992.
List of universities in China
List of universities in China and Higher education in China
In mainland China, nearly all universities and research institutions
are public and currently, all important and significant centers for
higher education in the country are publicly administered.
The public universities are usually run by the provincial governments;
there are also circumstances where the municipal governments
administer the universities. Some public universities are national,
which are directly administered by the central government.
Private undergraduate colleges do exist, which are mostly vocational
colleges sponsored by private enterprises. The majority of such
universities are not entitled to award bachelor's degrees. Public
universities usually enjoy higher reputation domestically.
See also: List of universities in Hong Kong
Eight institutions are funded by the
University Grants Committee. The
Academy for Performing Arts
Academy for Performing Arts also receives funding from the government.
University of Hong Kong is also a public university, but it
is largely self-financed. The Shue Yan
University is the only private
institution with the status of a university, but it also receives some
financial support from the government since it was granted university
See also: List of universities in Indonesia
Sebelas Maret University, one of Indonesia's prominent public
There are public and private educational institutes in Indonesia. The
government (Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education)
provide public universities, institutes, high schools and academies in
each province. The private educational institution usually provided by
religious organizations, public organizations, and some big companies.
See also: List of universities in India
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In India, most universities and nearly all research institutions are
public. There are some private undergraduate colleges, mostly
engineering schools, but a majority of these are affiliated to public
universities. Some of these private schools are also partially aided
by the national or state governments. India also has an "open" public
university, the Indira Gandhi National Open
University (IGNOU), which
mostly offers distance education, and in terms of the number of
enrolled students is now the largest university in the world with over
4 million students.
Some of Iran's prestigious universities are public. State-run
universities are highly selective. Iran's best known private
university is Islamic Azad
University with campuses all around the
See also: List of Israeli universities and colleges
There are nine official universities in Israel. In addition, there are
a few dozen colleges and other institutes of higher learning, as well
as about a dozen foreign university extensions. All are academically
supervised by the Council for Higher Education in
Israel (CHEI). The
main difference between a university and a college in
Israel is that
only a university can issue doctorate degrees. Theoretically, a
college can apply to the CHEI to upgrade its status to university.
See also: Higher education in Japan
In Japan, public universities refer to schools that are not national
universities but are run by local governments, either prefectural or
municipal. According to the Ministry of Education, public universities
have "provided an opportunity for higher education in a region and
served the central role of intellectual and cultural base for the
local community in the region", and are "expected to contribute to
social, economical and cultural development in the region"; this
contrasts to research-oriented aspects of national universities.
As of 2010, there were 95 public universities, compared to 86 national
universities and 597 private universities, and 127,872 students
attended the schools. The number of the public universities has
increased sharply in recent years; in 1980 there were only 34 public
universities and in 1993 there were 46. Since July 2003 when the Local
Independent Administrative Institutions Law was put into effect,
public universities have been allowed to be incorporated. The
average tuition in public universities for 2007 fiscal year was
536,238 yen, the average entrance fee 399,351 yen and the average
application fee 17,095 yen.
See also: List of universities in Kyrgyzstan
Manas University, the public university in Kyrgyzstan, is the public
higher education institution which offers associate degrees,
undergraduate degrees, and graduate and post graduate degrees.
See also: List of universities in Macau
Macau is the only public university in Macau. Also, the
Macau Polytechnic Institute and
Institute for Tourism Studies
Institute for Tourism Studies are the
public educational institute which can offer undergraduate education.
See also: List of universities in Malaysia
There are 20 public universities in Malaysia, which are funded by the
government but governed as self-managed institutions.
University is the first public university of Nepal. The
university is highly reputed both in
Nepal as well as abroad, and runs
various programs in a wide number of academic disciplines. It operates
through six different schools, and also provides affiliation to
various colleges across the country. Kathmandu
University is also the
public university of
Nepal founded by government act in 1991. Due to
high fee and single person's administration, many people think that
this university is a private university, but it is not (see kathmandu
University type). The university offers new and demanding subjects
especially in the field of science and technology through different
University of the Punjab Pakistan.
Applied Economics Research Centre,
University of Karachi Pakistan.
See also: List of universities in Pakistan
In Pakistan, universities receive guidance and are partially regulated
by the Higher Education Commission of
Pakistan (HEC) (formerly the
University Grants Commission (Pakistan). There are around 107 public
and 76 private universities in Pakistan. The
University of Punjab
is the biggest public university followed by the
See also: Higher education in the Philippines, State university and
college (Philippines), and Local college and university (Philippines)
Universities and colleges in the Philippines are controlled and
managed by the Commission on Higher Education, especially the
University of the Philippines. There are more than 500 government-run
higher education institutions, of which 436 are state colleges and
universities, including satellite campuses, 31 local colleges and
universities, and a handful of community colleges. In 2008, through
Republic Act 9500, the
University of the Philippines was bestowed as
University to distinguish it from all other state
universities and colleges.
Aside from the
University of the Philippines, there are other notable
state colleges and universities within the archipelago. These include
University of the Philippines, Technological
University of the Philippines, Philippine Normal University, and
Mindanao State University.
In 2008, state colleges and universities have a PHP 26.2-billion
budget, out of which PHP 19.4 billion will be funded by direct
See also: List of universities and colleges in Singapore
Nanyang Technological University
University of Singapore
Singapore Institute of Technology
Singapore Management University
University of Social Sciences
University of Technology and Design
See also: List of universities in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka only fifteen universities are public universities, with
most funded by government via the
University Grants Commission which
handles undergraduate placements and staff appointments. Therefore,
these are not independent institutions.
In recent years large numbers of private institutions have opened
islandwide, and even small tuition classes offer degree courses and
claim to be 'universities'. No state body to regulate the fees and
standard of education.
Syrian Virtual University
Higher Institute for Dramatic Arts
Higher Institute for Applied Sciences and Technology
Taiwan, Republic of China
Taiwan has more than 150 universities (two-thirds were established
after the 1980s), while only a third of them are public universities.
Tuition fees at public universities are less than half those of
private universities because the
Taiwan government puts more funding
to the public universities. Additionally, there are ten public
universities (established before the 1980s) which are more accredited
and more prestigious in
Taiwan and the majority of top-ranking schools
are public. Therefore, most students choose public universities for
their tertiary education.
University main auditorium in Thailand
Thailand has 24 public universities.
In the late 19th century, there was a high demand for professional
talents in the central government of Thailand. Siam was an aftermath
of King Rama V's bureaucratic reforms, which aimed to transform the
feudal Thai society into a modernized state. In 1899, the King founded
the School for Training of Civil Officials (Thai:
near the northern gate of the Royal Palace. Those who graduated from
the School would become royal pages. Being royal pages, he must learn
how to administrate organization by working closely with the King,
which is a traditional way of entrance to the Siamese bureaucracy.
After being royal pages, he would then served in the Mahattai Ministry
or other government ministries.
Austria: Most of the universities are public. The tuition fees
are also regulated by the state and are the same for all public
universities. Except for some studies, notably medicine, everybody who
passes the "Matura" exam to attend university has the right to attend
any public university. Overrun subjects will introduce entrance exams
that students have to pass in the first year or prior to starting the
degree. Especially scientific subjects such as biology, chemistry and
physics will have difficult exams in the first year of studies which
introduce a certain barrier. Students have to create their own
timetables following the curriculum they choose. The universities
provide options to combine studies and follow individually adjusted
curricula, but the organisation is obliged to the student and
administration involved is high. Private universities have existed
since 1999 but are considered easier than public
Universities and thus
hold less esteem.
Denmark: Almost all universities are public and are held in
higher esteem than their private counterparts. It is free to go to
university in Denmark.
Finland: All universities are public and free of charge.
France: Most higher education organizations (universities and
grandes écoles) are public and charge very low tuition fees (around
€400 per year). Major exceptions are business schools such as HEC
School of Management. Article L731-14 of the "Code de l'éducation"
states that "Private higher education establishments can in no case
take the title of "university"". But many private institutions such as
University of Lyon, use "university" as their marketing
Germany: Most higher education institutions are public and
operated by the states and all professors are public servants. In
general, public universities are held in higher esteem than their
private counterparts. From 1972 through 1998, public universities were
free of tuition fees; since then, however, some states have adopted
low tuition fees.
Greece: All universities are public and enjoy de jure
institutional autonomy, although in practice this autonomy is limited
by ministerial interventions in issues such as student enrolment,
academic recruitment and funding. With the exception of the Hellenic
Open University, undergraduate programmes are offered tuition-free for
Greek citizens, as are many post-graduate courses. Education is
regarded as a constitutional responsibility of the state and the
establishment of private universities is prohibited by the
Italy: Almost all the universities are public, but they enjoy de
jure institutional autonomy (limited by the state in practice, like in
Greece). The majority of the funds came from the state and, therefore,
students pay quite low tuition fees, decided by each university and
related mainly to the student's family wealth, to the course and to
the student's performances in the exams. A few scholarships, both at
undergraduate and postgraduate level, are also available for the best
low-income students. Private funding, even for research, ranges from
low to non-existent, compared to most other European countries.
The Netherlands: Almost all universities are public and are
largely funded by the Ministry of Education. Dutch citizens and
citizens of other European Union countries who are enrolling for their
first Bachelor and/or first Master level degree are subject to an
annually adjusted, yearly tuition fee regardless of
program. The fee was set at 1,951 euros in 2015. Non-European Union
students, and students who want to complete a second Bachelor or
master's degree pay the 'legal school fee' which should cover the
additional costs of the student, which is no longer funded by the
government. These fees range between approximately 7,000 (for
relatively cheap bachelor programs) and 30,000 euros (for master
programs in medicine) a year. All universities are supervised by the
Ministry of Education, even the private ones.
Norway: Almost all universities are public and state funded.
Universities are divided into a few categories; private
universities which are operated by private citizens, societies or
companies, and public universities created by Acts of Parliament. The
Government pays all tuition fees, and other costs of students. Most
private universities charge tuition fees directly to students, and
these institutions are generally held in lower regard than public
universities. A small number of private universities do not charge
fees, such as John Paul II Catholic
University of Lublin, founded in
1918 and property of the
Episcopacy of Poland; the
Polish Government pays all costs.
Portugal: There are 13 public universities, a university
institute and a distance university. Higher education in Portugal
provided by state-run institutions is not free, as a tuition fee must
be paid, although being much lower than the tuition fees of the
private ones. The highest tuition fee allowed by law in public
universities is €1063 per year, as of 2017. The public universities
include some of the most selective and demanding higher learning
institutions in the country, noted for high competitiveness and
Spain: There are a total of 74 universities. Most of them (52),
including the most prestigious ones, are public, and are funded by the
autonomous community (i.e., the federal state) in which they are
based. As such, university funding may differ (though not
significantly) depending on which Spanish region the university is
based on. However, the central government establishes by law
homogeneous tuition fees for all public universities, and as such
university fees are much lower than those of their private
counterparts. The highest tuition fee allowed by law was, as of 2010,
of 14.97 euros per academic credit, amounting to roughly 840
euros/year for an average 60 credit full-time course; tuition fees
in private universities might reach 18,000 euros/year in comparison.
Public universities are state-owned but granted a considerable degree
of independence when it comes to self-government; they cannot,
however, make free use of their assets (i.e., buy and sell assets as a
private company would), and are subject to Spanish administrative law
as any other public body of the state. In turn, public university
administrators, lecturers and professors are granted civil servant
status, which serves as a tenure because only under exceptional and
very well justified circumstances can a civil servant lose his job
under Spanish law. Research funding can be allocated either by the
autonomous community or by the central government; in the former case,
funding amount and conditions vary greatly from one autonomous
community to another.
Sweden: Most universities are public. Education in
normally free, so there are no tuition fees at any university in
See also: List of higher education institutions in the Republic of
In Ireland, nearly all universities, institutes of technology,
colleges of education and some other third-level institutions are
public, and the state pays the cost of educating its undergraduates.
There are a few private institutions of higher learning, for example
National College of Ireland but none of them have university
status and they are highly specialised.
See also: List of institutions of higher learning in Russia
In Russia, about 7.5 million students study in thousands of
For academic year 2016, there are 183 universities and academies total
in Turkey: 118 of them are State
Universities (five of which are
technical universities, two of which are institutes of technology, and
one of which is fine arts university). Turkey's higher learning
institutions, governed by Ministry of Higher Education or YOK
Ministry, are accepting more and more international students. Of
the current 65 private foundation universities(seven of which are
two-year granting institutions). In addition, there is a category
called "special" including four military academies and one police
University of London, adjacent to the Senate House.
Universities in the United Kingdom
In the UK, an institution can only use the title "university" or
"university college" if it has been granted by the Privy Council,
under the terms of the Further and Higher Education Act 1992.
Prior to 1992, these titles were conferred by Royal Charter, Act of
Parliament, or (for the ancient universities) customary usage.
Most British universities are partly publicly funded and regulated:
the government regulates their tuition fees, student funding and
student loans and commissions and regulates research assessments and
teaching reviews. Unlike in Continental European countries, the
British government does not own universities' assets, and university
staff are not civil servants: government regulation arises as a
condition of accepting funding from bodies such as HEFCE and any
university can in principle choose to leave the HEFCE regulated system
at any time. Since September 2012 government funding for teaching
and background funding for research has been substantially reduced,
with one study indicating that annual government funding for teaching
and research will make up just 15% of universities' income by
2015. As of 2014, funding council grants make up 15-19% of the
income of universities as disparate as UCL (large research university,
income £1 billion), Durham (small research university, income
£300 million) and Hertfordshire (teaching focused university,
income £240 million). However currently there are only a small
number of fully fledged private universities in the United Kingdom.
In Scotland, the first degree studied is free and paid for by the
Scottish government. There is also a change of direction funding
in which a student can change course or degree after a year without
imposing financial penalties or having to pay extra.
See also: List of universities in Australia
In Australia, there are 38 public universities and 3 private
universities. The private universities are Bond University, the
University of Notre Dame Australia, and Torrens
There are also two foreign universities, Carnegie Mellon University
(USA) and Cranfield
University (UK), which have campuses in Adelaide.
Some part of Australia's public universities are variously grouped as
Some of the Group of Eight are the oldest and prestigious public
universities in Australia and include the
Universities of Queensland,
Sydney, Melbourne, New South Wales,
Adelaide and Western Australia
together with the Australian National
University and Monash
University. Three were established in the 19th century.
Australian Technology Network
Australian Technology Network universities largely grew from the
former Institutes of Technology and include RMIT University,
University of Technology, Curtin University, the University
of Technology Sydney and the
University of South Australia. They
gained university status in the late 1980s to the early 1990s as a
result of the reforms of the then Minister for Employment, Education
and Training, John Dawkins.
Universities represent a number of
research-intensive institutions, with most being established in the
1960s and 1970s. The group includes Charles Darwin University,
Flinders University, Griffith University, James Cook University, La
Trobe University, Murdoch
University of Newcastle.
Universities Network is a group of six universities which
mainly come from regional Australia, as well as campuses in the
Australian capital cities and some international campuses. The group
includes Central Queensland University, Southern Cross University,
Federation University, the
University of Southern Queensland, the
University of the Sunshine Coast and the
University of New England
The NUW Alliance is a group of three universities which are located in
New South Wales. The group consists of
University of Newcastle,
University of New South Wales, and
University of Wollongong.
In New Zealand, all eight universities are public. Public funding is
supported by research grants. The oldest (
University of Otago) was
established in 1869 by Provincial Ordinance. From 1870 to 1961, there
was effectively a single university structure - the
University of New
Zealand - with constituent colleges located in Auckland, Wellington,
Christchurch and Dunedin. In 1961, the constituent colleges were
dissolved into four independent universities by the New Zealand
Parliament to become the
University of Auckland, Victoria University
University of Canterbury and
University of Otago. This
change also established a new university in Hamilton, the University
of Waikato. Two associated agricultural colleges - Massey and Lincoln
- subsequently become universities in 1963 and 1990 respectively. An
eighth university (
University of Technology) was formed in
2000 by an
Order in Council under the Education Act 1989.
Universities in Canada
In Canada, education is a constitutional responsibility of the
individual provinces. Many early universities were privately endowed
(e.g. McGill) or founded by church denominations (e.g. Laval, Saint
Mary's, Queen's, Dalhousie, Mount Allison, McMaster, Ottawa) but in
the 20th century became publicly funded and secular. Provincial
governments established the
University of Toronto on the Oxbridge
model and elsewhere (Alberta,
Manitoba etc.) in the pattern of
American state universities. All major Canadian universities are now
publicly funded but maintain institutional autonomy, with the ability
to decide on admission, tuition and governance.
The U15 is an organization of the country's fifteen leading
research-intensive universities. Additionally, McGill
University of Toronto are members of the Association of American
Universities, along with sixty public and private institutions in the
United States. Private universities in Canada are relatively new and
mostly exist at the undergraduate level.
UNAM campus in Mexico City
See also: List of universities in Mexico
In Mexico, the
UNAM (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México),
sometimes simply known as the "National
University of Mexico", was
founded in 1910. It is the largest university in the country and one
of the largest in the world with over 250,000 students including its
system of high schools. By percentage, it contributes the most to the
country's academic research and cultural development although there
are other significant public institutions such as the Instituto
Politécnico Nacional, and the federal state-run universities.
University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus.
University of Puerto Rico
Medical Sciences Campus at San Juan
Río Piedras Campus at San Juan
Center for Advanced Studies on Puerto Rico and the Caribbean
University of San Juan
University of Criminal Justice of Puerto Rico
Conservatory of Music of Puerto Rico
Escuela de Artes Plásticas y Diseño de Puerto Rico
Technological Institute of Puerto Rico
San Juan Campus
University of North Alabama, Florence, Alabama, an example of teacher
colleges expanding into comprehensive public state universities.
See also: List of state universities in the United States
In the United States, most public universities are state universities
founded and operated by state government entities.
States generally charge higher tuition to out-of-state students. The
higher fees are based on the theory that students from the state, or
much more often their parents, have contributed to subsidizing the
university by paying state taxes, while out-of-state students and
their parents have not.
U.S. state has at least one public university to its name and
the largest states have more than thirty. This is partly as a result
of the 1862 Morrill Land-Grant Acts, which gave each eligible state
30,000 acres (12,141 ha) of federal land to sell to finance
public institutions offering courses of study in practical fields in
addition to the liberal arts. With the help of the Civil Rights Act of
Higher Education Act of 1965
Higher Education Act of 1965 and the Education Amendments of
1972, public universities became even more accessible for women,
minorities and lower income applicants.
Public universities generally rely on subsidies from their respective
state government. "The historical data for private and public
institutions reveal that public institutions have always been more
dependent on external support than have private institutions."
Recently, state support of public universities has been declining,
forcing many public universities to seek private support. The real
level of state funding for public higher education has doubled from
$30 billion in 1974 to nearly $60 billion in 2000. Meanwhile, the
percent of state appropriations for the cost of schooling per student
at public university has fallen from 78% in 1974 to 43% in 2000.
The increasing use of teaching assistants in public universities is a
testament to waning state support. To compensate, some
professional graduate programs in law, business, and medicine rely
almost solely on private funding.
The oldest public universities are the
University of North Carolina at
Chapel Hill, Rutgers University, and The
University of Georgia,
although the overall oldest university now designated as public is The
College of William & Mary, which was founded by a Crown charter in
1693 and was originally a private institution. The
University of South
Carolina (1801) is the longest continuously supported public
University (1804) is the oldest public university in
continuous operation.[n 1]
Many U.S. public universities began as teacher training institutions
and eventually were expanded into comprehensive universities. Examples
include UCLA, formerly the southern branch of California State Normal
School; Arizona State University, originally the Tempe Normal School;
University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, formerly Milwaukee Normal
School; and Missouri State University, formerly Southwest Missouri
State Teachers College.
It has never been determined whether the U.S. Constitution would allow
the federal government to establish a federal university system; the
only federally chartered public universities that currently exist are
the United States Service academies, military-associated educational
institutions administered by the United States Department of Defense,
and Haskell Indian Nations University, which is governed by the Bureau
of Indian Affairs. In addition, Georgetown
University was the first
federally chartered private university in
Washington, D.C. (1815), and
was later followed by other colleges and universities in the District
of Columbia, including Gallaudet
University (1864), Howard University
(1867), and American
Historically, many of the prestigious universities in the United
States have been private, most notably the Ivy League. However, some
public universities are also highly prestigious and increasingly
selective: Richard Moll designated such prestigious public
universities Public Ivies. There are a number of public liberal arts
colleges, including the members of the Council of Public Liberal Arts
Costa Rica the Universidad de Costa Rica, the Universidad Nacional,
the Universidad Estatal a Distancia, Universidad Técnica Nacional and
the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, all public universities, are
among the most prestigious institutions, while the UN-sponsored
University for Peace and the
INCAE Business School (with campuses in
Nicaragua and Costa Rica) are equally notable.
University of Buenos Aires is a public university in Argentina.
See also: List of universities in Argentina
Argentina the National Universities, also called "Public or
State-run Universities", is the name used to refer to all those
institutions whose creation arose from the enactment of a National
Congress Act, except for those whose creation preceded that of the
state itself (as is the case of the National
University of Córdoba
University of Buenos Aires). They lie as Public Law legal
entities and their regular operation funding comes from the national
state, pursuant to what is set out on the annual national budget act.
National universities hold the largest share of the entire Argentine
university system: counting over 80% of the undergraduate population
and with campuses stretched throughout to all provinces comprising the
national territory, they account for over 50% of the country's
scientific research while additionally providing technical assistance
to both the public and private sectors.
Public universities are absolutely free (no fee is paid during the
studies), as is the access to books in the universities' libraries.
Buying in bookstores and studying material (such as photocopies of
books which are very common) is, however, usually paid for by each
student. For low-income students there is a great variety of
Universities and higher education in Brazil
§ Public and Private Universities
See also: List of public Brazilian universities
University of Paraná, in Curitiba, Brazil
In Brazil, there are a few hundred public universities funded by the
Federal or State governments, and they include the most renowned
universities in the country, such as the
University of São Paulo,
University of Campinas Federal
University of Rio de Janeiro, Federal
University of Minas Gerais, Federal
University of Bahia, and the
Federal Institutes. Professors are public servants, most of them
tenured and selected by public contests, where international research
publications is a major criterion for hiring. Teaching load is usually
modest and leaves time for research. In contrast, most private
institutions are for-profit enterprises which hire teachers on a
per-hour basis and have little research when compared with the public
ones, notable exceptions are certain private but non-profit
universities, mostly affiliated with religious organizations, such as
Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie
Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie of São Paulo and the
University of Rio de Janeiro. Public universities
are responsible for granting nearly all the graduate degrees in
Brazil, such as doctoral and masters (called in Portuguese,
respectively, "doutorado" and "mestrado"). These graduate programs in
public universities are also the main source of Brazilian academic
There are no tuition or entrance fees in public universities (a right
established in the Brazilian Federal Constitution), but since they
have thousands of applicants every year, because there are no tuitions
or fees, only the best students can pass the entrance examination. In
many Universities, there are quotas for students whose secondary (high
school) education was made entirely in a public funded school
(generally, the quota is 50%), and there are also racial quotas, but
usually restricted to students from public high school too. Some
Universities, like UFMG, the largest federal university in Brazil,
give extra points in their admission tests instead of quotas. In UFMG
a public high school student is granted a 10% bonus over his test
grade, if he previously agrees to receive this advantage. Public
school students that declare themselves as blacks or "pardos" (mixed
race) have a 15% bonus, also if they previously agree to receive race
based benefits. In recent years public funded higher education has
grown a lot. Since 2005 the Brazilian Government has been offering a
limited number of tuition grants to enable poor students to attend
Casa Central (Headquarters), Universidad de Chile
See also: 2011 student protests in Chile
In Chile, older, so called "traditional" universities are more
prestigious than the ones created after 1980. Even though some of
those "traditional" universities are non-profit private entities, they
belong to same superior university council called Consejo de Rectores
(Council of Chancellors); the Consejo de Rectores runs its own
admission system called Prueba de Selección Universitaria or PSU,
which is roughly similar to SAT. Even though state run universities
are much cheaper than the private ones, they are not tuition free for
the students. It is remarkable that
Chile spends only 4% in education,
compared to the 7% of GDP recommended by the UN for developed nations.
Chile the financing of higher education, private and public, is
contributed by 75% by self-effort of families. The most prestigious
Chile are the state run Universidad de Chile, the
private with State contributions Pontificia Universidad Católica de
Chile, the private with State contributions Universidad de Concepción
and the private with state contributions Universidad Técnica Federico
Santa María, these four universities admit the largest numbers of
high scoring students in the PSU admission test and are responsible
for the largest portion of research (with the Universidad de
the top). The non-traditional universities are, the most part,
for-profit universities, and, with a few exceptions, don't have the
same prestige as the above "traditional" ones.
The historical campus of the National
University of San Marcos.
In Peru, the admission test required to enter national (public)
universities requires higher scores. The public opinion sees this from
the four century old National
University of San Marcos (the oldest
university of the Americas, founded in May 1551), that it has seen as
the most respected public education institution in the country. Also
many other public universities follow the same rigorous pattern used
at San Marcos university, like National Agrarian University, the
University of Engineering and Federico Villarreal University.
State university system
University was founded in 1801 and has continuously
operated, but did not become a public institution until 1806, and has
been primarily a two-year institution since 1889. Rutgers, which did
not become a public institution until 1945, closed twice prior to
University of Tennessee was chartered in 1794, but did not
receive state funds until 1807, and then closed from 1809 to 1820.
William & Mary, North Carolina, Georgia, and South Carolina all
closed during the Civil War, with W&M not reopening until 1888.
^ List of Public
Bangladesh Archived 2015-08-20 at the
^ 公立大学について [About public universities in Japan] (in
Japanese). Retrieved 2011-09-07. [...]
[...] Especially, the public university, because of its goal as well
as nature of the institute established and administered by local
governments, has begun to offer opportunity of higher education and
take the central role as informational and cultural center in regional
community and has been expected to contribute to society, economics
and culture in each community from now on. [...])
^ "FY2003 White Paper on Education, Culture, Sports, Science and
Technology [184.108.40.206]". 2003. Retrieved 2008-02-11.
^ 平成19年度学生納付金調査結果－文部科学省 (in
Japanese). Retrieved 2008-02-11.
^ http://www.manas.edu.kg. Missing or empty title= (help)
^ List of Public and Private
2008-03-09 at the Wayback Machine.
^ GMA NEWS.TV, RP universities get low rankings; La Salle, UST dropped
out of Top 500. Accessed August 19, 2008.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-12-22. Retrieved
^  Archived September 27, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
^ Study In Turkey. Study In Turkey. Retrieved on 2013-07-17.
^ "Higher Education". Privy Council Office. Retrieved 6 December
^ Dennis, Farrington; David Palfreyman (21 February 2011). "OFFA and
£6000-9000 tuition fees" (PDF). OxCHEPS Occasional Paper No. 39.
Oxford Centre for Higher Education Policy Studies. Retrieved 20 March
2011. Note, however, that any university which does not want funding
from HEFCE can, as a private corporation, charge whatever tuition fees
it likes (exactly as does, say, the
University of Buckingham or BPP
University College). Under existing legislation and outside of the
influence of the HEFCE-funding mechanism upon universities, Government
can no more control university tuition fees than it can dictate the
price of socks in Marks & Spencer.
Universities are not part of
the State and they are not part of the public sector; Government has
no reserve powers of intervention even in a failing institution.
^ Paton, Graeme (5 January 2012). "Taxpayer funding of universities
'to drop to 100 year low'". The Telegraph. Retrieved 6 January
^ "Annual Report and Financial Statements as at 31 July 2014" (PDF).
University College London.
^ "Financial Statements 2013-14" (PDF). Durham University.
^ "2013/14 Financial statement" (PDF).
^ Black, Andrew. (2011-10-03) BBC News - Scots universities set
tuition fee rates. Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved on 2013-07-17.
^  Archived February 28, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
^ Group of Eight. "The Australian Higher Education System".
^ New Zealand Legislation Archived 2015-03-18 at the Wayback Machine..
Legislation.govt.nz. Retrieved on 2013-07-17.
^ Kiener, Robert. "Future of Public Universities". CQ Research.
Missing or empty url= (help)
^ Martin, Robert E. "Why Tuition Costs Are Rising So Quickly."
Challenge Volume 45, Number 4 (2002): pp. 88-108. JSTOR. Web. 13 Mar.
^ Rizzo, Michael J. "State Preferences for Higher Education Spending:
A Panel Data Analysis, 1977–2001." What's Happening to Public Higher
Education? Ed. Ronald G. Ehrenberg. Westport: Praeger Publishers,
2006. pp. 3-35.
^ Bettinger, Eric P. and Bridget Terry Long. "The Increasing Use of
Adjunct Instructors at Public Institutions: Are We Hurting Students?"
What's Happening to Public Higher Education? Ed. Ronald G. Ehrenberg.
Westport: Praeger Publishers, 2006. pp. 51-69. Print.
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