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A public university or public college is a
university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines. Universities typically offer both undergraduate and postgraduate programs. ...

university
or
college Seinäjoki College in Seinäjoki, South Ostrobothnia">Seinäjoki.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Seinäjoki College in Seinäjoki">Seinäjoki College in Seinäjoki, South Ostrobothnia, Finland, in May ...

college
that is in
state ownership State ownership, also called government ownership and public ownership, is the ownership of an industry, asset, or enterprise by the state or a public body representing a community as opposed to an individual or private party. Public ownership sp ...
or receives significant
public funds Government spending or expenditure includes all government consumption, investment, and transfer payments. In national income accounting, the acquisition by governments of goods and services for current use, to directly satisfy the individual or ...
through a national or subnational government, as opposed to a
private university Private universities (and private colleges) are usually not operated by governments, although many receive tax breaks, public student loans, and grants. Depending on their location, private universities may be subject to government regulation. T ...
. Whether a
national universityA national university is generally a university created or managed by a government, but which may at the same time operate autonomously without direct control by the state. National University may refer to: *National University (Philippines), a univ ...
is considered public varies from one country (or region) to another, largely depending on the specific education landscape.


Africa


Egypt

In Egypt,
Al-Azhar University Al-Azhar University ( ; ar, 1=جامعة الأزهر (الشريف), , "the (honorable) University of Al-Azhar") is a university in Cairo, Egypt. Associated with Al-Azhar Mosque in Islamic Cairo, it is Egypt's oldest degree-granting university ...
was founded in 970 AD as a
madrassa Madrasa (, also , ; Arabic: مدرسة , pl. , ) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, secular or religious (of any religion), whether for elementary instruction or higher learning. The word is variously transliterated ''mad ...
, making it one of the oldest institutions of higher education in the world, formally becoming a university in 1961. It was followed by a lot of universities opened as public universities in the 20th century such as
Cairo University Cairo University ( ar, جامعة القاهرة, Gām‘et El Qāhira), known as the Egyptian University from 1908 to 1940, and King Fuad I University from 1940 to 1952, is Egypt's premier public university. Its main campus is in Giza, immediatel ...
(1908),
Alexandria University Alexandria University ( ar, جامعة الإسكندرية) is a public university in Alexandria, Egypt. It was established in 1938 as a satellite of Fouad University (the name of which was later changed to Cairo University), becoming an independent ...

Alexandria University
(1912),
Assiut University Assiut University is a university located in Assiut, Egypt. It was established in October 1957 as the first university in Upper Egypt. Statistics Faculty members: 2,442 Assistant lecturers and demonstrators: 1,432 Administrative staff: 11,686 Othe ...
(1928),
Ain Shams University Ain Shams University ( ar, جامعة عين شمس) is a public university located in Cairo, Egypt. Founded in 1950, the university provides education at the undergraduate, graduate and post-graduate levels. History Ain Shams University was founde ...
(1957),
Helwan University Helwan University is a public university based in Helwan, Egypt, which is part of Greater Cairo. It comprises 21 faculties as well as 50 research centers and productive units which connect the university with the problems of the Egyptian society. ...
(1959),
Beni-Suef University Beni Suef University is an institution of higher education located in Beni Suef, Egypt. History Although established as an independent university in 2005, it began on 1976 as a branch of Cairo University. Finally, the presidential decree N.184 da ...
(1963),
Benha University Benha University is an Egyptian university in the Egyptian city of Benha, the capital of Al Qalyubiyah governorate. It was established according to a decree on 25 November 1976 as a branch from Zagazig University in Benha, with the faculties of ...
(1965),
Zagazig University Zagazig University ( ar, جامعة الزقازيق) is a public university located in the city of Zagazig, Egypt. Notable alumni *Ayman Al-Hendy — academic, scientist *Muntaser Ibrahim - geneticist See also * List of universities in Egypt ...
(1978),
Suez Canal University The Suez Canal University is an Egyptian university serving the Suez Canal region. Its faculties are located in the three governorates of the Suez Canal Region (Port Said, Ismailia & Suez). It was established in 1974. It is well-known for its no ...
(1989), where tuition fees are totally subsidized by the government.


Kenya

In Kenya, the Ministry of Education controls all of the public universities. Students are enrolled after completing the 8-4-4 system of education and attaining a mark of C+ or above. Students who meet the criteria determined annually by the Kenya Universities and Colleges Central Placement Service (KUCCPS) receive government sponsorship, as part of their university or college fee is catered for by the government. They are also eligible for a low interest loan from the Higher Education Loan Board. They are expected to pay back the loan after completing higher education.


Nigeria

In Nigeria public universities can be established by both the federal government and by state governments.


South Africa

South Africa has 26 public tertiary educational institutions, either categorised as a traditional university or a comprehensive university (providing theoretical and vocational training).


Tunisia

In Tunisia, the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research controls all of the public universities. For some universities, the ministry of higher education coordinates with other ministries like: the Ministry of Public health or the Ministry of Information and Communication Technologies. Admission in a public university in Tunisia is assured after successfully succeeding in the
Tunisian Baccalaureate The Tunisian Baccalaureate, or Examen National du Baccalauréat, is a standardized test that was founded in 1891, a decade after the beginning of the Tunisian War of Independence (1881–1956). Students who successfully complete the baccalaureate a ...
: Students are classified according to a Formula score based on their results in the Baccalaureate. Then, the students make a wishlist with the universities they want to attend on a state website dedicated for orientation. Thus, the high-ranking-students get priority to choose.


Asia


Bangladesh

There are 40 public universities in
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia. It is the eighth-most populous country in the world, with a population exceeding 163 million people, in an area of , ma ...
. The universities do not deal directly with the government, but with the University Grants Commission, which in turn deals with the government. Recently many private universities are established under the Private Universities Act of 2010 which governs the procedure of the operation and academic matters of the private universities of Bangladesh.


Brunei

Almost all universities in Brunei are public universities.


China

In mainland China, nearly all universities and research institutions are public and currently, all important and significant centers for higher education in the country are publicly administered. The public universities are usually run by the
provincial Provincial may refer to: Government & Administration * Provincial capitals, an administrative sub-national capital of a country * Provincial city (disambiguation) * Provincial minister (disambiguation) * Provincial Secretary, a position in Canadi ...
governments; there are also circumstances where the
municipal A municipality is usually a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. The term ''municipality'' may also mean the ...
governments administer the universities. Some public universities are
national National may refer to: Common uses * Nation or country ** Nationality – a ''national'' is a person who is subject to a nation, regardless of whether the person has full rights as a citizen ** National (distribution), a type of product or publi ...
, which are directly administered by the
central government A central government is the government that is a controlling power over a unitary state. Always equivalent in a federation is the federal government, which may have distinct powers at various levels authorized or delegated to it by its federated s ...
. Private undergraduate colleges do exist, which are mostly vocational colleges sponsored by private enterprises. The majority of such universities are not entitled to award bachelor's degrees. Public universities usually enjoy higher reputation domestically.


Hong Kong

Eight institutions are funded by the University Grants Committee. The Academy for Performing Arts also receives funding from the
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, executive, and judiciary. Government is a ...
. The
Open University of Hong Kong The Open University of Hong Kong (OUHK) is a statutory university located in Ho Man Tin, Hong Kong. Established by the British Hong Kong Government in 1989, the OUHK consists of five schools, namely the School of Arts and Social Sciences, Lee S ...
is also a public university, but it is largely self-financed. The Shue Yan University is the only private institution with the status of a university, but it also receives some financial support from the government since it was granted university status.


India

In India, most universities and nearly all research institutions are public. There are some private undergraduate colleges, mostly engineering schools, but a majority of these are affiliated to public universities. Some of these private schools are also partially aided by the national or state governments. India also has an "open" public university, the
Indira Gandhi National Open University Indira Gandhi National Open University known as IGNOU, is a Central University located at Maidan Garhi, New Delhi, India. Named after former Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi, the university was established in 1985 with a budget of 20&nbs ...
(IGNOU), which mostly offers distance education, and in terms of the number of enrolled students is now the largest university in the world with over 4 million students.


Indonesia

There are public and private educational institutes in Indonesia. The government (Ministry Education and Culture) provide public universities, institutes, high schools and academies in each province. The private educational institution usually provided by religious organizations, public organizations, and some big companies.


Iran

Some of Iran's prestigious universities are public. State-run universities are highly selective.


Israel

There are nine official universities in
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל; ar, إِسْرَائِيل), officially known as the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, '), is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Se ...
. In addition, there are a few dozen colleges and other institutes of higher learning, as well as about a dozen foreign university extensions. All are academically supervised by the
Council for Higher Education in Israel The Council for Higher Education in Israel ( he, המועצה להשכלה גבוהה, ''HaMo'atza LeHaskala Gevoha'') is a supervisory body for universities and colleges in Israel. It is the only organization with the authority to award academic ed ...
(CHEI). The main difference between a university and a college in Israel is that only a university can issue
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degrees. Theoretically, a college can apply to the CHEI to upgrade its status to university.


Japan

In Japan, public universities are universities that are not
national universities#REDIRECT National university (disambiguation) {{R from ambiguous ...
but are run by local governments, either prefectural or municipal. According to the
Ministry of Education An education ministry is a national or subnational government agency politically responsible for education. Various other names are commonly used to identify such agencies, such as Ministry of Education, Department of Education, and Ministry of Publ ...
, public universities have "provided an opportunity for higher education in a region and served the central role of intellectual and cultural base for the local community in the region", and are "expected to contribute to social, economical and cultural development in the region"; this contrasts to research-oriented aspects of national universities. As of 2010, there were 95 public universities, compared to 86
national universities#REDIRECT National university (disambiguation) {{R from ambiguous ...
and 597 private universities, and 127,872 students attended the schools. The number of the public universities has increased sharply in recent years; in 1980 there were only 34 public universities and in 1993 there were 46. Since July 2003 when the Local Independent Administrative Institutions Law was put into effect, public universities have been allowed to be incorporated. The average tuition in public universities for 2007 fiscal year was 536,238 yen, the average entrance fee 399,351 yen and the average application fee 17,095 yen.


Kyrgyzstan

Manas University ) , type = Public Research university , president = Alpaslan CEYLAN Asilbek Kulmirzayev , city = Bishkek , country = Kyrgyzstan , students = 5500 (all campuses) , undergrad = 5000 , postgrad = 200 ...

Manas University
, the public university in
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan, officially the Kyrgyz Republic, also known as Kirghizia (in Russian), is a landlocked country in Central Asia. It is bordered by Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and China. Its capital and largest city is Bishkek. Kyrgyzstan's ...

Kyrgyzstan
, is the public higher education institution which offers associate degrees, undergraduate degrees, and graduate and post graduate degrees.


Macau

University of Macau The University of Macau (UM, Portuguese: ''Universidade de Macau'', Chinese: 澳門大學) is the only public research university in Macau. The UM campus is located in the east of Hengqin Island, Guangdong province in Mainland China, on a piece of l ...
is the only public university in
Macau Macau (; , ; ), also spelled Macao and officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (Chinese: 中華人民共和國澳門特別行政區), is a city and special administrative region of the People's Republ ...
. Also, the Macau Polytechnic Institute and Institute for Tourism Studies are the public educational institute which can offer undergraduate education.


Malaysia

There are 20 public universities in Malaysia, which are funded by the government but governed as self-managed institutions.


Nepal

Tribhuvan University Tribhuvan University (TU; ne, त्रिभुवन विश्वविद्यालय) is a public university for higher education, located in Kirtipur, which is an ancient city in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal. The university, establis ...

Tribhuvan University
is the first public university of
Nepal Nepal (; ne, नेपाल ), officially Nepal, is a sovereign country in South Asia. It is mainly in the Himalayas, but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. It is the 49th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by ...
. The university runs various programs in a wide number of academic disciplines. It operates through six different schools, and also provides affiliation to various colleges across the country.
Kathmandu University Kathmandu University (KU) ( ne, काठमाण्डौ विश्वविद्यालय) is a public autonomous university in Nepal. It is the third oldest university in Nepal, located in Dhulikhel of Kavrepalanchok District, about 30& ...

Kathmandu University
is also a public university founded by a government act in 1991. Due to high fee and single person's administration, many people think that this university is a private university, but it is not. The university offers new and demanding subjects especially in the field of science and technology through different schools. Another government-funded school is
Pokhara University Pokhara University (PU or PoU ne, पोखरा विश्वविद्यालय) was established in 1997 as Nepal's fifth university. Its central office is in Pokhara Lekhnath municipality, Kaski district, Western Development Region. Alo ...
. It was established in 1997 under the Pokhara University Act. Pokhara University, a non-profit autonomous institution, is financed by the government of Nepal. Pokhara University is affiliated with around 58 colleges for bachelor's, master's and M.Phil. degree programs. Pokhara University has gained popularity in recent years. It has relations already established with 42 national and international universities.


Pakistan

In
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's fifth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212.2 million, and has the wor ...
, universities receive guidance and recognition by the
Higher Education Commission (Pakistan) The Higher Education Commission (colloquially sknown as HEC) is a statutory body formed by the government of Pakistan. Its main functions are funding, overseeing, regulating and accrediting the higher education institutions in the country. It was ...
(HEC) (formerly the University Grants Commission (Pakistan)). There are around 107 public and 76 private universities in
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's fifth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212.2 million, and has the wor ...
.
University of the Punjab The University of the Punjab ( pnb, , ur, ), also referred to as Punjab University, is a public research university located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.The Senate house now known as Punjab university old campus,Lahore Designed by architect Bhai ...
is the biggest public university followed by
University of Karachi The University of Karachi ( ur, ); informally Karachi University or UoK) is a public research university located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. Established through a national emergence and a followup of the University of Sindh in Jamshoro, the univer ...
.


Philippines

Universities and colleges in the Philippines are controlled and managed by the
Commission on Higher Education Commission or commissioning may refer to: Business and contracting * Commission (remuneration), a form of payment to an agent for services rendered ** Commission (art), the purchase or the creation of a piece of art most often on behalf of another ...
, especially the
University of the Philippines The University of the Philippines (UP; Filipino: ''Pamantasan ng Pilipinas'' or ''Unibersidad'' ''ng Pilipinas'') is a state university system in the Philippines, and is the country's national university. Founded by the American colonial governme ...
. There are more than 500 government-run higher education institutions, of which 436 are state colleges and universities, including satellite campuses, 31 local colleges and universities, and a handful of community colleges. In 2008, through Republic Act 9500, the University of the Philippines was bestowed as the National University to distinguish it from all other state universities and colleges. Aside from the University of the Philippines, there are other notable state colleges and universities within the archipelago. These include the
Polytechnic University of the Philippines , mottoeng = ''Light of the Nation'' , established = October 19, 1904 , closed = , type = State coeducational research university system , parent = , affiliation = , religious_affiliation = , academic_affiliation = , endowment = , budget = ...
,
Technological University of the Philippines The Technological University of the Philippines ( fil, Pamantasang Teknolohiya ng Pilipinas or ''Teknolohikal na Unibersidad na Pilipinas''), commonly known as TUP, is a coeducational state university in the Philippines. It was established in 1901 ...
,
Philippine Normal University The Philippine Normal University (PNU; fil, Pamantasang Normal ng Pilipinas) is a public research university in Manila, Philippines established during the early days of American colonial rule. Pursuant to Republic Act No. 9647, it is now funde ...

Philippine Normal University
, and
Mindanao State University Mindanao () is the second-largest island in the Philippines, after Luzon. Located in the southern region of the archipelago, the island is part of an island group of the same name that also includes its adjacent islands, notably the Sulu Archi ...
. In 2008, state colleges and universities have a
PHP PHP is a general-purpose scripting language especially suited to web development. It was originally created by Danish-Canadian programmer Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994. The PHP reference implementation is now produced by The PHP Group. PHP originally s ...
26.2-billion budget, out of which
PHP PHP is a general-purpose scripting language especially suited to web development. It was originally created by Danish-Canadian programmer Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994. The PHP reference implementation is now produced by The PHP Group. PHP originally s ...
19.4 billion will be funded by direct subsidies.


Singapore


South Korea

In
South Korea South Korea (Korean: /, RR: ''Hanguk''; literally /, RR: ''Namhan'', or /, MR: ''Namchosŏn'' in North Korean usage), officially the Republic of Korea (ROK; Korean: /, RR: ''Daehan Minguk''), is a country in East Asia, constituting the ...
, most public universities are
National Universities#REDIRECT National university (disambiguation) {{R from ambiguous ...
. Only
University of Seoul The University of Seoul (UOS) (Korean: ) is a public university located in Seoul, South Korea. UOS is famous in South Korea for a large number of alumni working as national or municipal government officials. UOS is specialized in urban science ...
is a municipal university.


Sri Lanka

In
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකා, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO; ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island countr ...
only fifteen universities are public universities, with most funded by government via the University Grants Commission which handles undergraduate placements and staff appointments. Therefore, these are not independent institutions. In recent years large numbers of private institutions have opened islandwide,


Taiwan

Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The main island of Ta ...
has more than 150 universities (two-thirds were established after the 1980s), while only a third of them are public universities. Tuition fees at public universities are less than half those of private universities because the Taiwan government puts more funding to the public universities. Additionally, there are ten public universities (established before the 1980s) which are more accredited and more prestigious in Taiwan and the majority of top-ranking schools are public. Therefore, most students choose public universities for their tertiary education.


Thailand

Currently, Thailand has 24 public universities. In the late 19th century, there was a high demand for professional talents in the central government of
Thailand ) , royal_anthem = ''Sansoen Phra Barami''( en, "Glorify His prestige") , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Bangkok , coordinates = , largest_city = Bangkok , official_languages = Thai

Belgium

Universities in Belgium are run by the
Communities A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as norms, religion, values, customs, or identity. Communities may share a sense of place situated in a given geographical area (e.g. a country, village, town, or neighbo ...
. The
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * D ...
-speaking
Flemish Community The Flemish Community ( nl, Vlaamse Gemeenschap ; french: Communauté flamande ; german: Flämische Gemeinschaft ) is one of the three institutional communities of Belgium, established by the Belgian constitution and having legal responsibilities on ...
, the
French Community The French Community (french: Communauté française) was an association of former French colonies, most of which in French Africa. In 1958 it replaced the French Union, which had itself succeeded the French colonial empire in 1946. The Communi ...
and the German Community thus determine which institutes of higher education they organise or recognise, and which diplomas may be legally issued by these institutes.


Croatia

Most universities are public and run by the state. Academically well-performing students pay only administrative fees (less than €100 per year). Only those who fail multiple classes in a year, and have to retake them, pay a partial or full tuition fee.


Denmark

Almost all universities are public and are held in higher esteem than their private counterparts. Attending university is free in Denmark.


Finland

All universities are public and free of charge.


France

Most higher education organizations (
universities A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines. Universities typically offer both undergraduate and postgraduate programs. ...
and
grandes écolesGrandes may refer to: *Agustín Muñoz Grandes, Spanish general and politician *Banksia ser. Grandes, a series of plant species native to Australia * Grandes y San Martín, a municipality located in the province of Ávila, Castile and León, Spain * ...
) are public and charge very low tuition fees (less than €1000 per year). Major exceptions are business schools such as
HEC School of Management HEC Paris (french: École des hautes études commerciales de Paris) is an international business school established in 1881 and located in Jouy-en-Josas, France. Among the most selective French ''grandes écoles'' (institutions of higher education ...
. Article L731-14 of the "Code de l'éducation" states that "Private higher education establishments can in no case take the title of "university"". But many private institutions such as the
Catholic University of Lyon The Catholic University of Lyon (''Université Catholique de Lyon''), or the Lyon Catholic University also known as the Catholic Institute of Lyon (''Institut catholique de Lyon''), is a private university based in Lyon, France. History The Cath ...
, use "university" as their marketing name.


Germany

Most higher education institutions are public and operated by the
states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, United States * ''Our Sta ...

states
and all professors are public servants. In general, public universities are held in higher esteem than their private counterparts. From 1972 through 1998, public universities were free of tuition fees; since then, however, some states have adopted low tuition fees.


Greece

In
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2018; Athens is its largest and capital city, followed by Thessaloniki. Situated on th ...
according to its Constitution all Higher Education Institutions HEIs are universities which comprise universities, technical universities (polytechnic universities), formerly technological educational institutes (TEIs) (1982–2019) or institute of technology, and specialist HEIs. Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) undergraduate programmes are government funding have free education which can be attended free, without any payment of tuition fee. Especially, about 1 out of the 4 (one-fourth of) HEIs postgraduate programmes offered free without tuition fee, and also a 30% percentage of students can be entitled without tuition fee (non fee-paying students) to attend all the statutory tuition fee postgraduate programmes after they be assessed on an individual basis of criteria. The private HEIs (universities, colleges and other type HEIs) cannot be operated in Greece nor considered Greece universities nor recognised as Greece degree-awarding bodies by the Greek government.


Ireland

In Ireland, nearly all
universities A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines. Universities typically offer both undergraduate and postgraduate programs. ...
,
institutes of technology An institute of technology (also referred to as: technological university, technical university, university of technology, technological educational institute, technical college, polytechnic university or just polytechnic) is an institution of ter ...
, colleges of education and some other third-level institutions are public, and the state pays the cost of educating its undergraduates. There are a few private institutions of higher learning, for example the
National College of Ireland National College of Ireland (NCI) or ''Coláiste Náisiúnta na hÉireann'' (''CNÉ'') in Irish is a not-for-profit, state-aided third-level education institution in Dublin. Founded as a Jesuit venture in 1951 along with Trade Unions, it is now ...
but none of them have university status and they are highly specialised.


Italy

Almost all the universities are public, but they enjoy de jure institutional autonomy (limited by the state in practice, like in Greece). The majority of the funds came from the state and, therefore, students pay quite low tuition fees, decided by each university and related mainly to the student's family wealth, to the course and to the student's performances in the exams. A few scholarships, both at undergraduate and postgraduate level, are also available for the best low-income students. Private funding, even for research, ranges from low to non-existent, compared to most other European countries.


The Netherlands

Almost all universities are public and are largely funded by the Ministry of Education. Dutch citizens and citizens of other European Union countries who are enrolling for their first Bachelor and/or first Master level degree are subject to an annually adjusted, yearly tuition fee regardless of University or program. The fee was set at 1,951 euros in 2015. Non-European Union students, and students who want to complete a second Bachelor or master's degree pay the 'legal school fee' which should cover the additional costs of the student, which is no longer funded by the government. These fees range between approximately 7,000 (for relatively cheap bachelor programs) and 30,000 euros (for master programs in medicine) a year. All universities are supervised by the Ministry of Education, even the private ones.


Norway

Almost all universities are public and state funded.


Poland

Universities are divided into a few categories; private universities which are operated by private citizens, societies or companies, and public universities created by Acts of Parliament. The Government pays all tuition fees, and other costs of students. Most private universities charge tuition fees directly to students, and these institutions are generally held in lower regard than public universities. A small number of private universities do not charge fees, such as
John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin ( pl, Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II, la, Universitas Catholica Lublinensis Ioannis Pauli II, abbreviation KUL), established in 1918, is the third oldest functioning university in Poland. ...
, founded in 1918 and property of the
Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''Epistle to the Romans'', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in ...
Episcopacy An episcopal polity is a hierarchical form of church governance ("ecclesiastical polity") in which the chief local authorities are called bishops. (The word "bishop" derives, via the British Latin and Vulgar Latin term ''*ebiscopus''/''*biscop ...
of Poland; the Polish Government pays all costs.


Portugal

There are 13 public universities, a
university institute An institute is an organisational body created for a certain purpose. They are often research organisations (research institutes) created to do research on specific topics. An institute can also be a professional body, or an educational unit impar ...
and a
distance university Distance education, also called distance learning, is the education of students who may not always be physically present at a school. Traditionally, this usually involved correspondence courses wherein the student corresponded with the school vi ...
.
Higher education in Portugal Higher education in Portugal is divided into two main subsystems: university and polytechnic education. It is provided in autonomous public and private universities, university institutes, polytechnic institutes and higher education institutions o ...
provided by state-run institutions is not free, as a tuition fee must be paid, although being much lower than the tuition fees of the private ones. The highest tuition fee allowed by law in public universities is €871.52 per year, as of 2019. The public universities include some of the most selective and demanding higher learning institutions in the country, noted for high competitiveness and nationwide reputation.


Russia

In Russia, about 7.5 million students study in thousands of universities.


Serbia

A vast majority of students (over 85%) study at public universities that are run by the state. Academically well-performing students pay only administrative fees (less than €100 per year), while those who fail multiple classes in a year, and have to retake them, pay a partial or full tuition fee (ranging from €500 to €2000 per year for full tuition fee, depending on which faculty). Private universities have existed since 1989 but are considered easier than public universities and thus hold less esteem.


Spain

There are a total of 74 universities. Most of them (52), including the most prestigious ones, are public, and are funded by the
autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma oc, comunautat autonòma an, comunidat autonoma ast, comunidá autónoma , alt_name = , map = , category = Autonomous administrative division , ...
in which they are based. As such, university funding may differ (though not significantly) depending on which Spanish region the university is based on. However, the central government establishes by law homogeneous tuition fees for all public universities, and as such university fees are much lower than those of their private counterparts. The highest tuition fee allowed by law was, as of 2010, of 14.97 euros per academic credit, amounting to roughly 840 euros/year for an average 60 credit full-time course; tuition fees in private universities might reach 18,000 euros/year in comparison. Public universities are state-owned but granted a considerable degree of independence when it comes to self-government; they cannot, however, make free use of their assets (i.e., buy and sell assets as a private company would), and are subject to Spanish administrative law as any other public body of the state. In turn, public university administrators, lecturers and professors are granted civil servant status, which serves as a tenure because only under exceptional and very well justified circumstances can a civil servant lose his job under Spanish law. Research funding can be allocated either by the autonomous community or by the central government; in the former case, funding amount and conditions vary greatly from one autonomous community to another.


Sweden

Most universities are public.
Education in Sweden Education in Sweden is mandatory for children between ages 7 and 15. The school year in Sweden runs from mid/late August to early/mid June. The Christmas holiday from mid December to early January divides the Swedish school year into two terms. P ...
is normally free, so there are no tuition fees at any university in Sweden.


Turkey

For academic year 2016, there are 183
universities A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines. Universities typically offer both undergraduate and postgraduate programs. ...

universities
and
academies An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary or tertiary higher learning, research, or honorary membership. Academia is the worldwide group composed of professors and researchers at in ...
total in
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest; the Black Sea to the north; Georgia to the northeast; Arme ...

Turkey
: 118 of them are state universities (five of which are
technical universities An institute of technology (also referred to as: technological university, technical university, university of technology, technological educational institute, technical college, polytechnic university or just polytechnic) is an institution of ter ...
, two of which are
institutes of technology An institute of technology (also referred to as: technological university, technical university, university of technology, technological educational institute, technical college, polytechnic university or just polytechnic) is an institution of ter ...

institutes of technology
, and one of which is
fine arts 250px, ''The Art of Painting''; by Johannes Vermeer; 1666–1668; oil on canvas; 1.3 × 1.1 m; Kunsthistorisches Museum (Vienna, Austria) In European academic traditions, fine art is art developed primarily for aesthetics or beauty, ...
university). Turkey's higher learning institutions, governed by Ministry of Higher Education or YOK Ministry, are accepting more and more international students. Of the current 65 private foundation
universities A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines. Universities typically offer both undergraduate and postgraduate programs. ...
(seven of which are two-year granting institutions). In addition, there is a category called "special" including four
military academies A military academy or service academy (in the United States) is an educational institution which prepares candidates for service in the officer corps. It normally provides education in a military environment, the exact definition depending on ...

military academies
and one
police academy A police academy is a training school for police recruits. It is also known as a law enforcement academy, college, or university. It involves a variety of background checks. These include examinations, physical requirements, medical requirements, ...
.


United Kingdom

In the UK, all universities are autonomous bodies, legally independent of the state. However, universities and other higher education providers are regulated and universities may be considered public bodies for some purposes. The degree of regulation varies between the countries of the United Kingdom and varies depending on the constitutional form of the university and whether it receives public funding. Historically, the
University of London The University of London (abbreviated as Lond or more rarely Londin in post-nominals) is a federal public research university located in London, England, United Kingdom. The university was established by royal charter in 1836, as a degree-awardi ...
was a true public university from its establishment as an examining board in 1836 to its reconstitution as a more traditional teaching university in 1900. It has been described as "what today would be called a
quango The term quango or QUANGO (less often QuANGO or QANGO) is a (normally pejorative) description of an organisation to which a government has devolved power, but which is still partly controlled and/or financed by government bodies. The term was orig ...
", operating out of government premises, staffed by civil servants, and directly accountable to the Treasury for its expenditure. The right to award UK degrees and the right to use the title "university" or "university college" is controlled for all higher education providers. These rights are granted by the
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for institutions in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland and by the
Office for Students The Office for Students (OfS) is a non-departmental public body of the Department for Education, acting as the regulator and competition authority for the higher education sector in England. In February 2021, James Wharton, Baron Wharton of Yarm w ...
for institutions in England. The Office for Students can also, with the agreement of parliament, revoke degree-awarding powers for institutions in England. Almost all British universities, including all universities in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, receive public funding for teaching via block grants from the Office for Students (England), the
Higher Education Funding Council for Wales The Higher Education Funding Council for Wales (HEFCW) is the Welsh Government Sponsored Body responsible for funding the higher education sector. What it does HEFCW distributes funds for education, research and related activities at Wales's hi ...
, the
Department for the Economy The Department for the Economy (DfE, ga, An Roinn Geilleagair) is a devolved Northern Ireland government department in the Northern Ireland Executive. The minister with overall responsibility for the department is the Minister for the Economy ...
(Northern Ireland) or the
Scottish Funding Council The Scottish Funding Council (Scottish Gaelic: '; SFC), referred to more formally as the Scottish Further and Higher Education Funding Council, is the non-departmental public body charged with funding Scotland's further and higher education i ...
. Universities (and other higher education providers) receiving public funding in this manner are treated as public authorities for various purposes, including the public sector equality duty of the
Equality Act 2010 The Equality Act 2010 is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom passed during the Brown ministry with the primary purpose of consolidating, updating and supplementing the numerous prior Acts and Regulations, that formed the basis of anti-discr ...
and the
Freedom of Information Act 2000 The Freedom of Information Act 2000 (c. 36) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that creates a public "right of access" to information held by public authorities. It is the implementation of freedom of information legislation in th ...
(the
Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002 The Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002 (asp 13) was an Act of the Scottish Parliament passed in 2002. It covers public bodies over which the Scottish Parliament has jurisdiction, fulfilling a similar purpose to the UK-level Freedom of Infor ...
for Scottish institutions), and are "likely to be public bodies for the purpose of the
Human Rights Act 1998 The Human Rights Act 1998 (c. 42) is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom which received Royal Assent on 9 November 1998, and came into force on 2 October 2000. Its aim was to incorporate into UK law the rights contained in the European Conv ...
". Additionally, universities that are incorporated as higher education corporations are regarded as public authorities for some purposes regardless of whether they receive public funding. Acceptance of public funding also brings government regulation of the level of
tuition fees Tuition payments, usually known as tuition in American English and as tuition fees in Commonwealth English, are fees charged by education institutions for instruction or other services. Besides public spending (by governments and other public bod ...
charged for courses. In principle, any university can choose to leave the regulated fees system at any time by not accepting public funding; for most universities (those not incorporated as higher education corporations) this would also remove their status as public authorities. In England, the only jurisdiction in the UK to have non-publicly funded universities, registration as a higher education provider (which is obligatory for universities, whether or not they are publicly funded) requires adherence to public interest governance principles. Additional public interest governance principles apply to providers with degree awarding powers (which includes all universities) and to publicly funded providers. All registered providers in England must also be members of the
Office of the Independent Adjudicator The Office of the Independent Adjudicator for Higher Education (OIA) is a company limited by guarantee and a registered charity which has been designated under the Higher Education Act 2004 to run the higher education student complaints scheme wit ...
. Universities that are constituted as civil corporations (Oxford and Cambridge),
statutory corporation A statutory corporation is a corporation created by the state. Their precise nature varies by jurisdiction, thus, they might be ordinary companies/corporations owned by a government with or without other shareholders, or they might be a body witho ...
s (Durham, London, Newcastle, Royal Holloway and the
ancient universities of Scotland The ancient universities of Scotland () are medieval and renaissance universities which continue to exist in the present day. The majority of the ancient universities of the British Isles are located within Scotland, and have a number of distincti ...
, some of which also have royal charters) or chartered corporations (all other institutions in the university sector before 1992, except the LSE) must, due to their constitutional form, obtain permission from the Privy Council to modify their statutes. This is unrelated to whether or not they receive public funding. Direct government funding for teaching and research has been substantially reduced since 2012, with a study in 2012 indicating that annual government funding for teaching and research would make up just 15 percent of English universities' income by 2015. As of 2014, funding council grants made up 15 to 20 percent of the income of universities as disparate as UCL (18 percent; large research university, 2014 income £1 billion), Durham (17 percent; small research university, 2014 income £300 million) and Hertfordshire (15 percent; teaching focused university, 2014 income £240 million). By 2018, this had fallen to 15 percent at UCL, 11 percent at Durham and 8 percent at Hertfordshire. However currently there are only five fully fledged private universities in the United Kingdom. Each of the four nations within the UK has responsibility for its own system of funding resident students. Scotland offers free tuition for residents for their first undergraduate degree studied in Scotland (meaning a Scottish student who chooses to study in England receives nothing) with the potential to fund five out of four years (known as "false-start" funding) should a student be required to repeat a year or decide to change course. The Welsh Assembly chose to go the other way and has funding follow the Welsh student, even if they choose to study outside of Wales, however they only cover around two-thirds of tuition costs. England and Northern Ireland both expect students to take out student loans to cover the cost of tuition.


Oceania


Australia

In Australia, there are 37 public universities and 5 private universities. The private universities are
Bond University Bond University is Australia's first private not-for-profit university and is located in Robina, Gold Coast, Queensland. Since its founding on 15 May 1989, Bond University has primarily been a teaching-focused higher education institution featur ...

Bond University
, the
University of Notre Dame Australia The University of Notre Dame Australia is a national Roman Catholic private university with campuses in and in Western Australia and Sydney in New South Wales. The university also has eight clinical schools as part of its school of medicine l ...
,
University of Divinity The University of Divinity is an Australian collegiate university of specialisation in divinity. It is constituted by eleven theological colleges from eight denominations. The University of Divinity is the direct successor of the second oldest deg ...
, and
Torrens University Australia Torrens University is a private university in Australia. It is part of the Laureate International Universities network with campuses in Adelaide, Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane. Upon commission, Torrens University became the 33rd university in Au ...
, with one international private university with a campus in Adelaide: Carnegie Mellon University, Australia (USA). Adelaide formerly had campuses of Cranfield University (UK) (2007-2010), and University College London (UK) (2010-2017). Some of Australia's public universities are variously grouped as below: * The Group of Eight (Australian universities), Group of Eight, which has some of the oldest public universities in Australia, including the Universities of University of Queensland, Queensland, University of Sydney, Sydney, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, University of New South Wales, New South Wales, University of Adelaide, Adelaide and University of Western Australia, Western Australia together with the Australian National University and Monash University. Three were established in the 19th and 20th century. * The Australian Technology Network universities largely grew from the former Institutes of Technology and include RMIT University, Queensland University of Technology, Curtin University, the University of Technology Sydney and the University of South Australia. They gained university status in the late 1980s to the early 1990s as a result of the reforms of the then Minister for Employment, Education and Training, John Dawkins. * Innovative Research Universities Australia, Innovative research universities represent a number of research-intensive institutions, with most being established in the 1960s and 1970s. The group includes Charles Darwin University, Flinders University, Griffith University, James Cook University, La Trobe University, Murdoch University and University of Newcastle, Australia, University of Newcastle. * The Regional Universities Network is a group of seven universities which come from regional Australia. The group includes Central Queensland University, Southern Cross University, Federation University, the University of Southern Queensland, the University of the Sunshine Coast, University of New England (Australia) and Charles Sturt University. * The NUW Alliance is a group of three universities which are located in New South Wales. The group consists of University of Newcastle, Australia, University of Newcastle, University of New South Wales, and University of Wollongong.


New Zealand

In New Zealand, all eight universities are public. Public funding is supported by research grants. The oldest (University of Otago) was established in 1869 by Provinces of New Zealand, Provincial Ordinance. From 1870 to 1961, there was effectively a single university structure - the University of New Zealand - with constituent colleges located in Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch and Dunedin. In 1961, the constituent colleges were dissolved into four independent universities by the New Zealand Parliament to become the University of Auckland, Victoria University of Wellington, University of Canterbury and University of Otago. This change also established a new university in Hamilton, the University of Waikato. Two associated agricultural colleges - Massey University, Massey and Lincoln University, New Zealand, Lincoln - subsequently become universities in 1963 and 1990 respectively. An eighth university (Auckland University of Technology) was formed in 2000 by an Order in Council under the Education Act 1989.


The Americas


Argentina

In Argentina the national universities, also called "public or state-run universities", is the name used to refer to all those institutions whose creation arose from the enactment of a National Congress Act, except for those whose creation preceded that of the state itself (as is the case of the National University of Córdoba and the University of Buenos Aires). They lie as Public Law legal entities and their regular operation funding comes from the national state, pursuant to what is set out on the annual national budget act. National universities hold the largest share of the entire Argentine university system: counting over 80% of the undergraduate population and with campuses stretched throughout to all provinces comprising the national territory, they account for over 50% of the country's scientific research while additionally providing technical assistance to both the public and private sectors. Public universities are absolutely free (no fee is paid during the studies), as is the access to books in the universities' libraries. Buying in bookstores and studying material (such as photocopies of books which are very common) is, however, usually paid for by each student. For low-income students there is a great variety of scholarships.


Brazil

In Brazil, there are a few hundred public universities funded by the Federal or State governments, and they include the most renowned universities in the country, such as the University of São Paulo, University of Campinas, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Federal University of Bahia, and the Federal Institutes. Professors are public servants, most of them tenured and selected by public contests, where international research publications is a major criterion for hiring. Teaching load is usually modest and leaves time for research. In contrast, most private institutions are for-profit enterprises which hire teachers on a per-hour basis and have little research when compared with the public ones, notable exceptions are certain private but non-profit universities, mostly affiliated with religious organizations, such as the Mackenzie Presbyterian University of São Paulo and the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro. Public universities are responsible for granting nearly all the graduate degrees in Brazil, such as doctoral and masters (called in Portuguese, respectively, "doutorado" and "mestrado"). These graduate programs in public universities are also the main source of Brazilian academic research. There are no tuition or entrance fees in public universities (a right established in the Brazilian Federal Constitution), but since they have thousands of applicants every year, only the best students can pass the entrance examinations, being either the Vestibular exam, vestibular (a specific test for each university) or the country-wide ENEM. In many universities, there are quotas for students whose secondary (high school) education was made entirely in a public funded school (generally, the quota is 50%), and there are also racial quotas, but usually restricted to students from public high school too. Some universities, like Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, UFMG, the largest federal university in Brazil, give extra points in their admission tests instead of quotas. In UFMG a public high school student is granted a 10% bonus over his test grade, if he previously agrees to receive this advantage. Public school students that declare themselves as blacks or "pardos" (mixed race) have a 15% bonus, also if they previously agree to receive race based benefits. In recent years public funded higher education has grown a lot. Since 2005 the Brazilian Government has been offering a limited number of tuition grants to enable poor students to attend private universities.


Canada

In Canada, education is a Constitution of Canada, constitutional responsibility of the individual Provinces of Canada, provinces. Many early universities were privately endowed (e.g. McGill University, McGill) or founded by church denominations (e.g. Université Laval, Laval, Saint Mary's University (Halifax), Saint Mary's, Queen's University at Kingston, Queen's, Dalhousie University, Dalhousie, Mount Allison University, Mount Allison, McMaster University, McMaster, University of Ottawa, Ottawa) but in the 20th century became publicly funded and secular. Provincial governments established the University of Toronto on the Oxbridge model and elsewhere (Alberta, Manitoba etc.) in the pattern of American state universities. All major Canadian universities are now publicly funded but maintain institutional autonomy, with the ability to decide on admission, tuition and governance. The U15 Group of Canadian Research Universities, U15 is an organization of the country's fifteen leading research-intensive universities. Additionally, McGill University and the University of Toronto are members of the Association of American Universities, along with sixty public and private institutions in the United States. Private universities in Canada are relatively new and mostly exist at the undergraduate level.


Chile

In Chile, older, so called "traditional" universities are more prestigious than the ones created after 1980. Even though some of those "traditional" universities are non-profit private entities, they belong to same superior university council called ''Consejo de Rectores'' (Council of Chancellors); the ''Consejo de Rectores'' runs its own admission system called ''Prueba de Selección Universitaria'' or ''PSU'', which is roughly similar to SAT. Even though state run universities are much cheaper than the private ones, they are not tuition free for the students. It is remarkable that Chile spends only 4% in education, compared to the 7% of GDP recommended by the UN for developed nations. And in Chile the financing of higher education, private and public, is contributed by 75% by self-effort of families. The most prestigious universities in Chile are the state run Universidad de Chile, the private with State contributions Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, the private with State contributions Universidad de Concepción and the private with state contributions Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, these four universities admit the largest numbers of high scoring students in the PSU admission test and are responsible for the largest portion of research (with the Universidad de Chile at the top). The non-traditional universities are, the most part, for-profit universities, and, with a few exceptions, don't have the same prestige as the above "traditional" ones.


Costa Rica

In Costa Rica the University of Costa Rica, the National University of Costa Rica, National University, the Distance State University, National Technical University (Costa Rica), National Technical University and the Costa Rica Institute of Technology, are all public universities.


Mexico

In Mexico, the UNAM (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), sometimes simply known as the "National University of Mexico", was founded in 1910. It is the largest university in the country and one of the largest in the world with over 250,000 students including its system of high schools. By percentage, it contributes the most to the country's academic research and cultural development although there are other significant public institutions such as the National Polytechnic Institute, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, and the federal state-run universities.


Peru

In Peru, the admission test required to enter national (public) universities requires higher scores. The public opinion sees this from the four century old National University of San Marcos (the oldest university of the Americas, founded in May 1551), that it has seen as the most respected public education institution in the country. Also many other public universities follow the same rigorous pattern used at San Marcos university, like National Agrarian University, the National University of Engineering and Federico Villarreal University.


United States

In the United States, most public universities are State university system, state universities founded and operated by U.S. state, state government entities. States generally charge higher tuition to out-of-state students. The higher fees are based on the theory that students from the state, or much more often their parents, have contributed to subsidizing the university by paying state taxes, while out-of-state students and their parents have not. Every U.S. state has at least one public university to its name, and the largest states have more than thirty. This is partly as a result of the 1862 Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act, Morrill Land-Grant Acts, which gave each eligible state of federal land to sell to finance public institutions offering courses of study in practical fields in addition to the liberal arts. With the help of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Higher Education Act of 1965 and the Education Amendments of 1972, public universities became even more accessible for women, minorities and lower income applicants. Public universities generally rely on subsidies from their respective state governments. "The historical data for private and public institutions reveal that public institutions have always been more dependent on external support than have private institutions." Recently, state support of public universities has been declining, forcing many public universities to seek private support. The real level of state funding for public higher education has doubled from $30 billion in 1974 to nearly $60 billion in 2000. Meanwhile, the percent of state appropriations for the cost of schooling per student at public university has fallen from 78% in 1974 to 43% in 2000. The increasing use of teaching assistants in public universities is a testament to waning state support. To compensate, some professional graduate programs in law, business, and medicine rely almost solely on private funding. According to a 2020 study of the state university system in the U.S. state of Georgia, access to public universities had massively positive economic impacts on students, as well as led to net fiscal benefits for the state of Georgia. The oldest public universities in the United States are the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, The College of William & Mary, and University of Georgia, The University of Georgia. The College of William & Mary, founded in 1693, and Rutgers University, founded in 1766, were two of the nine colonial colleges. Both were private universities until the 20th century, with William & Mary becoming public in 1908 and Rutgers becoming public in 1945. Various other universities also claim to be among the oldest in the United States. Many U.S. public universities began as Normal school, teacher training institutions and eventually were expanded into comprehensive universities. Examples include UCLA, formerly the southern branch of California State Normal School; Arizona State University, originally the History of Arizona State University, Tempe Normal School; the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, formerly Milwaukee Normal School; and Missouri State University, formerly Southwest Missouri State Teachers College. It has never been determined whether the United States Constitution, U.S. Constitution would allow the Federal Government of the United States, federal government to establish a federal university system; the only federally chartered public universities that currently exist are the United States Service academies, military-associated educational institutions administered by the United States Department of Defense, and Haskell Indian Nations University, which is governed by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. In addition, Georgetown University was the first federally chartered private university in Washington, D.C. (1815), and was later followed by other colleges and universities in the Washington, D.C., District of Columbia, including Gallaudet University (1864), Howard University (1867), and American University (1893). Historically, many of the prestigious universities in the United States have been private, most notably the Ivy League. However, some public universities are also highly prestigious and increasingly selective: Richard Moll (author), Richard Moll designated such prestigious public universities Public Ivies. UC Berkeley, for instance, is often College and university rankings, ranked as a top-ten university in the world and the top public university in the United States. There are a number of public Liberal arts colleges in the United States, liberal arts colleges, including the members of the Council of Public Liberal Arts Colleges.


Puerto Rico

* University of Puerto Rico **University of Puerto Rico at Aguadilla, Aguadilla Campus **University of Puerto Rico at Arecibo, Arecibo Campus **University of Puerto Rico at Bayamon, Bayamón Campus **University of Puerto Rico at Carolina, Carolina Campus **University of Puerto Rico at Cayey, Cayey Campus **University of Puerto Rico at Humacao, Humacao Campus **University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez, Mayagüez Campus **University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, Medical Sciences Campus at San Juan, Puerto Rico, San Juan **University of Puerto Rico at Ponce, Ponce Campus **University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, Río Piedras Campus at San Juan, Puerto Rico, San Juan **University of Puerto Rico at Utuado, Utuado Campus * Conservatory of Music of Puerto Rico * Escuela de Artes Plásticas y Diseño de Puerto Rico


See also

*Private university *State university system *National university *Prefectural university


Footnotes


References


External links

* {{Authority control Types of university or college Public universities,