Oblast (Russian: Пско́вская о́бласть,
Pskovskaya oblast') is a federal subject of
Russia (an oblast),
located in the west of the country. Its administrative center is the
city of Pskov. As of the 2010 Census, its population
3.1 First secretaries of the
Oblast CPSU Committee
4 Administrative divisions
4.1 Restricted access
7 Culture and recreation
8 See also
Oblast is the westernmost federal subject of contiguous Russia
(Kaliningrad Oblast, while located further to the west, is an
exclave). It borders with Leningrad
Oblast in the north, Novgorod
Oblast in the east, Tver and Smolensk Oblasts in the southeast,
Belarus in the south, and with the countries of
Estonia in the west. In the northwest,
limited by Lake Peipus, which makes up most of the state border with
The oblast is located in the
Baltic Sea drainage basin, mostly in the
basin of the Narva River. The biggest river of this basin is the
Velikaya, which flows across the whole oblast from south to north and
drains into Lake Peipus. The drainage basin of the Velikaya covers the
whole territory of the oblast, with the exception of relatively minor
areas in its southern, eastern, and northeastern parts. The rivers in
the southeast drain into the Lovat, which has its source in Belarus
Oblast from south to north, continuing to Novgorod
Oblast. The Lovat is a major tributary of
Lake Ilmen and is itself in
the Neva River's basin. Another tributary of
Lake Ilmen is the Shelon
River, which flows in the eastern part of the oblast. Finally, minor
areas in the south lie in the basin of the Western Dvina. A short
stretch of the Western Dvina makes up the border between
The north of the oblast is flat and swampy, whereas the central and
the southern parts are formed by glacial landscapes. There are many
lakes, especially in the south. The biggest one, after Lake Peipus, is
Lake Zhizhitskoye, with an area of 51.3 square kilometers
(19.8 sq mi). It is located in the southeast of the oblast,
in the basin of the Western Dvina.
Wood is one of the most important natural resources in the oblast,
with forests taking up to one-third of the territory. Total wood
reserves as of January 1, 2005 were estimated to be at
331,200,000 cubic meters (1.170×1010 cu ft).
The final period of the Livonian War. The solid line shows the border
Russia (east) and Poland (west) by 1600
Pskov was first mentioned in chronicles under the year 903, and
several versions of the Trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks
ran through its current territory, along the Velikaya and the Lovat
rivers. Until the 1230s,
Pskov was a principality; subsequently it was
subordinated to Novgorod and became a republic, one of the two feudal
republics in Rus. In the
Pskov Republic, the highest authority was the
assembly of citizens. In 1348, the
Treaty of Bolotovo was concluded,
recognizing the independence of Pskov. However,
Pskov quickly ran into
dependence from the Grand Duchy of Moscow, the emerging regional
superpower, and after 1399
Moscow appointed viceroys to Pskov. Formal
independence ended in 1510, when
Pskov was occupied by the troops of
Vasili III of Russia, the Grand Prince of Moscow. Throughout
Pskov lands were always situated in the west of Russian
Lands, and its rulers were almost constantly at war. In 1242 the
Battle of the Ice
Battle of the Ice on
Lake Peipus stopped the expansion of the Teutonic
Knights to the east. During the Livonian War, in 1581, the Polish
troops laid siege to Pskov. The areas which now constitute the
southern part of the oblast changed hands many times, but after the
Livonian War, they were made part of Poland and remained as such until
First Partition of Poland
First Partition of Poland in 1772. The southeastern part of the
oblast then became part of the
Principality of Toropets before it was
Moscow in the 15th century.
December 29 [O.S. December 18], 1708
Tsar Peter the Great
issued an edict which established seven governorates. The
north of the present area of
Pskov Oblast, which at the time belonged
to Russia, was a part of Ingermanland Governorate, which was renamed
Saint Petersburg Governorate
Saint Petersburg Governorate in 1710. In 1727, a separate Novgorod
Governorate was established, and the area was transferred there. It
was subdivided into five provinces, and the current area of Pskov
Oblast was split between two of them -
Pskov and Velikiye Luki
Provinces. In 1772, in order to accommodate areas acquired by Russia
as a result of the First Partition of Poland,
Pskov Governorate with
the seat in Opochka was created. It quickly proved to be
unmanageable and was split in 1776 into
Pskov and Polotsk
Pskov was made the administrative center of Pskov
Governorate. In 1777,
Pskov Governorate was transformed into Pskov
Viceroyalty. In 1796, the viceroyalty was abolished, and the emperor
Paul I issued a decree restoring
Pskov Governorate. The southern
Oblast wento through a number of administrative reforms,
before ending up in
Vitebsk Governorate. After 1919, Vitebsk
Governorate was a part of Russian Soviet Federative Socialist
Republic. In 1924,
Vitebsk Governorate was abolished, and its
northeastern part was transferred to
Pskov Governorate. Besides, in
1920 the westernmost areas of the
Pskov Governorate including Pechory,
Pytalovo that since 1918 were occupied by the
North-Western Army, Latvian and Estonian republican units, were ceded
from Russian SFR to
Estonia respectively under the Tartu
Peace Treaty and
Riga Peace Treaty.
On August 1, 1927 the governorates were abolished, and the area
became a part of newly established Leningrad Oblast. The southern
part was soon split off and went through a number of administrative
reforms, being at different times located in Western Oblast, Smolensk
Oblast, and Kalinin Oblast. Between autumn of 1941 and spring of 1944,
during World War II, the current area of
Oblast was occupied by
German troops. In particular, the partisan movement was pretty active
in the area. After the liberation, on August 22, 1944, Velikiye
Oblast was established, with the center in Velikiye Luki, and on
the following day, August 23, 1944,
Oblast was established.
In 1945 areas ceded by Russian SFR to
Estonia in 1920 were
transferred back from Estonian and Latvian Soviet Socialist Republics
Pskov Oblast, including the town of Pechory (with minor
Velikiye Luki Oblasts now contained
all the areas which currently constitute
Pskov Oblast. On
October 2, 1957,
Oblast was abolished and split
Pskov and Kalinin Oblasts. After Kholmsky and Ploskoshsky
Districts were transferred to Novgorod and Kalinin Oblasts,
respectively, in July 1958, the borders of
Oblast did not
Seat of the
Pskov Administration and parliament, House of the Soviets
During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared
between three persons: the first secretary of the
Pskov CPSU Committee
(who in reality had the most authority), the chairman of the oblast
Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive
Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and
the head of the
Oblast administration, and eventually the governor was
appointed/elected alongside the elected regional parliament.
The Charter of
Oblast is the fundamental law of the region. The
Legislative Assembly of
Oblast is the province's standing
legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Assembly exercises
its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and
by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other
legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Oblast
Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as
district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate
development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast
administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the
highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast
Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.
First secretaries of the
Oblast CPSU Committee
In the period when they were the most important authority in the
oblast (1944 to 1991), the following first secretaries were
1944-1949 Leonty Antyufeyev
1949-1951 Gennady Shubin
1951-1961 Mikhail Kanunnikov
1961-1971 Ivan Gustov
1971-1987 Alexey Rybakov
1987-1988 Yury Pogorelov
1988-1990 Alexey Ilyin
1990-1991 Vladimir Nikitin
Since 1991, governors were sometimes appointed, and sometimes
1991-1992 Anatoly Dobryakov, head of the administration, appointed
1992-1996 Vladislav Tumanov, head of the administration, appointed
1996-2005 Yevgeny Mikhaylov, governor, elected
2005-2009 Mikhail Kuznetsov, governor, elected
2009-2017 Andrey Turchak, governor, appointed, elected
2017-present Mikhail Vedernikov (acting)
Main article: Administrative divisions of
The oblast is administratively divided into two cities and towns under
the oblast jurisdiction (
Pskov and Velikiye Luki) and twenty-four
districts. Another twelve towns have the status of the towns of
The areas close to Estonian-Russian and Latvian-Russian border are
included into the border security zone, intended to protect the
borders of Russian Federation from unwanted activity. None of towns or
urban-type settlements is currently included in the border security
zone. In order to visit the zone, a permit issued by the local FSB
department is required.
Population: 673,423 (2010 Census); 760,810 (2002 Census);
846,449 (1989 Census).
Vital statistics for 2012
Pskov region has the worst ratio of births to deaths in
Births: 7 323 (11.0 per 1000)
Deaths: 12 949 (19.5 per 1000) 
Total fertility rate:
2009 - 1.52 2010 - 1.51 2011 - 1.54 2012 - 1.66 2013 - 1.68
2014 - 1.70 2015 - 1.74 2016 - 1.79(e)
According to the 2010 Census, the ethnic composition was:
24,630 people were registered from administrative databases, and could
not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of
ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared
A notable ethnic minority are the Setos, an ethnic group related to
Setos are traditionally Orthodox Christians and live in
Pechorsky District in the west of the oblast.
Oblast as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas)
Rodnovery and other native faiths
Spiritual but not religious
Atheism and irreligion
Other and undeclared
According to a 2012 survey 49.6% of the population of
adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 5% are unaffiliated generic
Christians, 2% are Orthodox
Christian believers who don't belong to
any church or are members of other (non-Russian) Orthodox Churches, 1%
of the population adheres to the
Slavic native faith
Slavic native faith movement
(Rodnovery), 1% to the Old Believers' church. In addition, 17% of the
population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 19% is
atheist, and 6.4% follows other religions or did not give an answer to
Enterprises of electrotechnical industry and food industry in 2009
jointly produced over 50% of the industrial output of the oblast.
The two cities with the biggest concentration of industrial
Pskov and Velikiye Luki.
The main specializations of agriculture in
Oblast are cattle
breeding with milk and meat production.
The railway connecting Bologoye and
Pskov via Dno and Porkhov crosses
the district from east to west. It continues to
Pechory and across the
border to Tartu, though there is no railway passenger connections
Pskov and Estonia. In Pskov, it crosses another railroad
Saint Petersburg with
Riga via Plyussa, Ostrov, and
Pytalovo. Gdov is connected by railroad with Veymarn via Slantsy. This
is a part of the railway which continued south to Pskov, however, the
stretch between Gdov and
Pskov was destroyed during
World War II
World War II and
never rebuilt. In the south, the railway connecting
Moscow with Riga
crosses the oblast from east to west, passing through Velikiye Luki,
Novosokolniki, and Sebezh. Another railway, running in the east of the
oblast in the north-south direction, connects
Saint Petersburg via Dno
and Novosokolniki with Nevel. In Nevel it splits into two railway
lines, both running southeast into Belarus: One line to Vitebsk, and
another one to
Polotsk and Molodechno. Finally, Velikiye
Luki is a terminus of the railway line running northeast to Bologoye.
The road network in the oblast is relatively dense, excluding
depopulated swampy areas in the east of the oblast. The two most
significant highways are the M9 highway which connects
Moscow and Riga
and runs in the east-west direction, and the M20 highway which
Saint Petersburg and Kiev, running from north to south. The
two highways cross near Pustoshka. A number of road stretches are toll
roads. Ostrov is the northern terminus of the European route E262,
which proceeds to
Kaunas via Rēzekne and Daugavpils.
The oblast is served by airports in
Pskov and Velikiye Luki. Pskov
Airport (Kresty) serves regular flights to
Moscow Domodedovo and Saint
Petersburg Pulkovo. These flights are operated by Pskovavia, a
The very lowest part of the Velikaya is navigable.
Culture and recreation
The Pozdnoyev House, Pskov
Pskov, similarly to Novgorod, avoided the Mongol invasion of Rus', and
therefore it conserved the best examples of Old Russian architecture.
The Christ's Transfiguration Cathedral of
Mirozhsky Monastery in
Pskov, built in the 12th century, contains the 12th-century frescoes,
which are extremely rare in Russia. The only other pre-Mongol building
Oblast is the katholikon of the Ivanovsky Monastery in Pskov,
which was constructed in the 1140s and is allegedly the oldest
surviving building in the oblast. In
Pskov and its immediate
surroundings there are several dozens churches built between the end
of the 14th and the 17th century. They all have a very simple
architecture, painted white from the outside, and most of them have a
bellfry constructed just on the main church building. Another
architecture feature of
Pskov is a resence of a large number of the
17th century living houses (palatas). Pre-18th century civil
architecture is extremely rare in Russia, only a handful of building
Pskov contains several dozens of the best samples of
Pskov for a considerably part of its history was located at the west
border of Russia, and therefore the fortification architecture was
particularly useful in the area. The best surviving examples are the
Pskov Kremlin, the walls and the towers surrounding the historic
center of Pskov, the fortress in Izborsk, the
Pskov-Caves Monastery in
the town of Pechory, and the fortress in Porkhov.
Pskov Governorate happened to be the location of the family estate of
Alexander Pushkin, a Russian poet credited with the creation of
contemporary Russian language. He spent considerable time at the
estate, and once was banished there for two years. In Soviet times,
the estate and surrounding areas were transformed into the
Mikhaylovskoye Museum Reserve
Mikhaylovskoye Museum Reserve and became a primary tourist attraction.
The estate which belonged to the family of the composer Modest
Mussorgsky in Kunyinsky District is also preserved as a museum.
List of Chairmen of
List of rural localities in
Pitelis Lake on the border with Latvia
Wikimedia Commons has media related to
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Псковское областное Собрание
депутатов. №1-У 12 апреля 2001 г.
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силу 18 апреля 2001 г.
Опубликован: "Губернские ведомости",
№11, 18 апреля 2001 г. (
Oblast Council of
Deputies. #1-U April 12, 2001 Charter of
as amended by the Law #1609-OZ of December 15, 2015 On
Amending Articles 44 and 49 of the Charter of
Effective as of April 18, 2001.).
Президиум Верховного Совета
СССР. Указ от 23 августа 1944 г.
«Об образовании Псковской области в
составе РСФСР». (
Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the
USSR. Decree of August 23, 1944 On Establishing
Oblast Within the RSFSR. ).
Subdivisions of Russia
Ukraine and considered by most of the international
community to be part of Ukraine
2Administratively subordinated to Tyumen Oblast
3Administratively subordinated to Arkhangelsk Oblast
Internal additional non-constitutional divisions by different
Economic regions (by Ministry of Economic Development)
Military districts (by Ministry of Defence)
Federal districts (by President)
Judicial districts (by law "On arbitration courts")
ISNI: 0000 0004 0542 3432