PSKOV OBLAST (Russian : Пско́вская о́бласть,
Pskovskaya oblast') is a federal subject of
Russia (an oblast ),
located in the west of the country. Its administrative center is the
Pskov . As of the 2010 Census , its population was 673,423.
* 1 Geography
* 2 History
* 3 Politics
* 3.1 First secretaries of the
Oblast CPSU Committee
* 3.2 Governors
* 4 Administrative divisions
* 4.1 Restricted access
* 5 Demographics
* 5.1 Religion
* 6 Economy
* 6.1 Industry
* 6.2 Agriculture
* 6.3 Transportation
* 7 Culture and recreation
* 8 See also
* 9 References
* 9.1 Notes
* 9.2 Sources
Oblast is the westernmost federal subject of contiguous Russia
Oblast , while located further to the west, is an exclave
). It borders with Leningrad
Oblast in the north, Novgorod
the east, Tver and Smolensk Oblasts in the southeast,
Belarus in the south, and with the countries of
Latvia and Estonia
in the west. In the northwest,
Oblast is limited by Lake Peipus
, which makes up most of the state border with
The oblast is located in the
Baltic Sea drainage basin , mostly in
the basin of the
Narva River . The biggest river of this basin is the
Velikaya , which flows across the whole oblast from south to north and
drains into Lake Peipus. The drainage basin of the Velikaya covers the
whole territory of the oblast, with the exception of relatively minor
areas in its southern, eastern, and northeastern parts. The rivers in
the southeast drain into the Lovat , which has its source in Belarus
Oblast from south to north, continuing to Novgorod
Oblast. The Lovat is a major tributary of
Lake Ilmen and is itself in
Neva River 's basin. Another tributary of
Lake Ilmen is the Shelon
River , which flows in the eastern part of the oblast. Finally, minor
areas in the south lie in the basin of the Western Dvina . A short
stretch of the Western Dvina makes up the border between
The north of the oblast is flat and swampy, whereas the central and
the southern parts are formed by glacial landscapes. There are many
lakes, especially in the south. The biggest one, after Lake Peipus, is
Lake Zhizhitskoye , with an area of 51.3 square kilometers (19.8 sq
mi). It is located in the southeast of the oblast, in the basin of the
Wood is one of the most important natural resources in the oblast,
with forests taking up to one third of the territory. Total wood
reserves as of January 1, 2005 were estimated to be at 331,200,000
cubic meters (1.170×1010 cu ft).
The final period of the Livonian War. The solid line shows the
Russia (east) and Poland (west) by 1600
Pskov lands had significant importance in Russian history. Pskov
itself was first mentioned in chronicles under the year 903, and
several versions of the Trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks
ran through the current territory of the oblast, along the Velikaya
and the Lovat. Until the 1230s
Pskov was a principality, and
subsequently was subordinated to Novgorod and became a republic, one
of the two feudal republics in Rus. In
Pskov Republic the highest
authority belonged to the assembly of citizens. In 1348, the Treaty of
Bolotovo was concluded, recognizing independence of Pskov. However,
Pskov quickly run into dependence from the
Grand Duchy of Moscow
Grand Duchy of Moscow , the
emerging regional superpower, and after 1399
vice-roys to Pskov. The formal independence ended in 1510, when Pskov
was occupied by the troops of Vasili III of
Russia , the Grand Prince
of Moscow. Throughout the history,
Pskov Lands were always located in
the west of Russian Lands and were almost constantly at war. In
particular, in 1242 the
Battle of the Ice on
Lake Peipus stopped the
expansion of the
Teutonic Knights to the East. During the Livonian War
in 1581, the Polish troops laid siege to Pskov. The areas which now
constitute the southern part of the oblast changed hands multiple
times, but after the
Livonian War found themselves in Poland and
stayed there until the
First Partition of Poland in 1772. The
southeastern part of the oblast was a part of the Principality of
Toropets before it was appended to
Moscow in the 15th century.
December 29 , 1708
Peter the Great
Peter the Great issued an edict which
established seven governorates. The north of the present area of
Pskov Oblast, which at the time belonged to Russia, was a part of
Ingermanland Governorate, which was renamed Saint Petersburg
Governorate in 1710. In 1727, a separate
Novgorod Governorate was
established, and the area was transferred there. It was subdivided
into five provinces, and the current area of
Oblast was split
between two of them -
Velikiye Luki Provinces . In 1772, in
order to accommodate areas acquired by
Russia as a result of the First
Partition of Poland,
Pskov Governorate with the seat in Opochka was
created. It quickly proved to be unmanageable and was split in 1776
Polotsk Governorates .
Pskov was made the
administrative center of
Pskov Governorate. In 1777,
was transformed into
Pskov Viceroyalty. In 1796, the viceroyalty was
abolished, and the emperor Paul I issued a decree restoring Pskov
Governorate. The southern part of
Oblast wento through a number
of administrative reforms, before ending up in
Vitebsk Governorate .
Vitebsk Governorate was a part of Russian Soviet
Federative Socialist Republic . In 1924,
Vitebsk Governorate was
abolished, and its northeastern part was transferred to Pskov
Governorate. Besides, in 1920 the westernmost areas of the Pskov
Vyshgorodok and Pytalovo
that since 1918 were occupied by the North-Western Army , Latvian and
Estonian republican units, were ceded from Russian SFR to
Estonia respectively under
Tartu Peace Treaty and
Riga Peace Treaty .
On August 1, 1927 the governorates were abolished, and the area
became a part newly established Leningrad
Oblast . The southern part
was soon split off and went through a number of administrative
reforms, being at different times located in Western
Oblast , Smolensk
Oblast , and Kalinin
Oblast . Between autumn of 1941 and spring of
World War II
World War II , the current area of
occupied by German troops. In particular, the partisan movement was
pretty active in the area. After the liberation, on August 22, 1944,
Oblast was established, with the center in Velikiye
Luki, and on the following day, August 23, 1944,
established. In 1945 areas ceded by Russian SFR to
Latvia and Estonia
in 1920 were transferred back from Estonian and Latvian Soviet
Socialist Republics to
Pskov Oblast, including the town of
(with minor exceptions). Together,
Velikiye Luki Oblasts now
contained all the areas which currently constitute
Pskov Oblast. On
October 2, 1957,
Oblast was abolished and split between
Pskov and Kalinin Oblasts. After Kholmsky and Ploskoshsky Districts
were transferred to Novgorod and Kalinin Oblasts, respectively, in
July 1958, the borders of
Oblast did not change.
Seat of the
Pskov Administration and parliament, House of the
During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared
between three persons: The first secretary of the
Pskov CPSU Committee
(who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast
Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive
Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and
the head of the
Oblast administration, and eventually the governor was
appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament .
The Charter of
Oblast is the fundamental law of the region. The
Legislative Assembly of
Oblast is the province's standing
legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Assembly exercises
its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and
by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other
legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Oblast
Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as
district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate
development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast
administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the
highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast
Charter in accordance with the Constitution of
FIRST SECRETARIES OF THE PSKOV OBLAST CPSU COMMITTEE
In the period when they were the most important authority in the
oblast (1944 to 1991), the following first secretaries were appointed,
* 1944-1949 Leonty Makarovich Antyufeyev;
* 1949-1951 Gennady Nikolayevich Shubin;
* 1951-1961 Mikhail Yakovlevich Kanunnikov;
* 1961-1971 Ivan Stepanovich Gustov ;
* 1971-1987 Alexey Mironovich Rybakov;
* 1987-1988 Yury Nikolayevich Pogorelov;
* 1988-1990 Alexey Nikolayevich Ilyin;
* 1990-1991 Vladimir Stepanovich Nikitin.
Since 1991, governors were sometimes appointed, and sometimes
* 1991-1992 Anatoly Alexeyevich Dobryakov , head of the
* 1992-1996 Vladislav Nikolayevich Tumanov , head of the
* 1996-2005 Yevgeny Eduardovich Mikhaylov , governor, elected;
* 2005-2009 Mikhail Varfolomeyevich Kuznetsov , governor, elected;
* 2009 Andrey Anatolyevich Turchak , governor, appointed.
Main article: Administrative divisions of
The oblast is administratively divided into two cities and towns
under the oblast jurisdiction (
Velikiye Luki ) and
twenty-four districts. Another twelve towns have the status of the
towns of district significance.
The areas close to Estonian-Russian and Latvian-Russian border are
included into the border security zone , intended to protect the
borders of Russian Federation from unwanted activity. None of towns or
urban-type settlements is currently included in the border security
zone. In order to visit the zone, a permit issued by the local FSB
department is required.
Vital statistics for 2012 The
Pskov region has the worst ratio of
births to deaths in Russia.
* Births: 7 323 (11.0 per 1000)
* Deaths: 12 949 (19.5 per 1000)
* TOTAL FERTILITY RATE:
2009 - 1.52 2010 - 1.51 2011 - 1.54 2012 - 1.66 2013 - 1.68
2014 - 1.70 2015 - 1.74 2016 - 1.79(e)
According to the 2010 Census, the ethnic composition was:
* 95% Russian
* 1.3% Ukrainian
* 0.5% Romani
* 0.4% Armenian
* 0.1% Estonian
* 1.7% others
* 24,630 people were registered from administrative databases, and
could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of
ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.
A notable ethnic minority are the
Setos , an ethnic group related to
Setos are traditionally Orthodox Christians and live in
Pechorsky District in the west of the oblast.
Pskov (2012) Russian Orthodox (49.6%) Unaffiliated
Christian (5%) Other Orthodox (2%)
Rodnover (1%) Old Believers
(1%) Atheist (19%)
Spiritual but not religious (17%) Other or
According to a 2012 survey 49.6% of the population of
adheres to the
Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Orthodox Church , 5% are unaffiliated generic
Christians , 2% are Orthodox
Christian believers who don't belong to
any church or are members of other (non-Russian) Orthodox Churches ,
1% of the population adheres to the
Slavic native faith movement
(Rodnovery), 1% to the
Old Believers ' church. In addition, 17% of the
population declares to be "spiritual but not religious ", 19% is
atheist , and 6.4% follows other religions or did not give an answer
to the question.
Enterprises of electrotechnical industry and food industry in 2009
jointly produced over 50% of the industrial output of the oblast. The
two cities with the biggest concentration of industrial enterprises
Pskov and Velikiye Luki.
The main specializations of agriculture in
Oblast are cattle
breeding with milk and meat production.
The railway connecting Bologoye and
Pskov via Dno and Porkhov crosses
the district from east to west. It continues to
Pechory and across the
Tartu , though there is no railway passenger connections
Pskov and Estonia. In Pskov, it crosses another railroad
Saint Petersburg with
Riga via Plyussa, Ostrov, and
Pytalovo. Gdov is connected by railroad with Veymarn via Slantsy .
This is a part of the railway which continued south to Pskov, however,
the stretch between Gdov and
Pskov was destroyed during World War II
and never rebuilt. In the south, the railway connecting
Riga crosses the oblast from east to west, passing through Velikiye
Luki, Novosokolniki, and Sebezh. Another railway, running in the east
of the oblast in the north-south direction, connects Saint Petersburg
via Dno and Novosokolniki with Nevel. In Nevel it splits into two
railway lines, both running southeast into Belarus: One line to
Vitebsk , and another one to
Polotsk and Molodechno .
Velikiye Luki is a terminus of the railway line running
northeast to Bologoye.
The road network in the oblast is relatively dense, excluding
depopulated swampy areas in the east of the oblast. The two most
significant highways are the M9 highway which connects
Moscow and Riga
and runs in the east-west direction, and the M20 highway which
Saint Petersburg and
Kiev , running from north to south. The
two highways cross near Pustoshka. A number of road stretches are toll
roads. Ostrov is the northern terminus of the
European route E262 ,
which proceeds to
Kaunas via Rēzekne and Daugavpils.
The oblast is served by airports in
Velikiye Luki . Pskov
Airport (Kresty) serves regular flights to
Moscow Domodedovo and Saint
Petersburg Pulkovo . These flights are operated by
Pskovavia , a
The very lowest part of the Velikaya is navigable.
CULTURE AND RECREATION
The Pozdnoyev House,
Pskov, similarly to Novgorod, avoided the Mongol invasion of Rus\' ,
and therefore it conserved the best examples of Old Russian
architecture. The Christ's Transfiguration Cathedral of Mirozhsky
Monastery in Pskov, built in the 12th century, contains the
12th-century frescoes, which are extremely rare in Russia. The only
other pre-Mongol building is
Oblast is the katholikon of the
Ivanovsky Monastery in Pskov, which was constructed in the 1140s and
is allegedly the oldest surviving building in the oblast. In
its immediate surroundings there are several dozens churches built
between the end of the 14th and the 17th century. They all have a very
simple architecture, painted white from the outside, and most of them
have a bellfry constructed just on the main church building. Another
architecture feature of
Pskov is a resence of a large number of the
17th century living houses (palatas). Pre-18th century civil
architecture is extremely rare in Russia, only a handful of building
Pskov contains several dozens of the best samples of
Pskov for a considerably part of its history was located at the west
border of Russia, and therefore the fortification architecture was
particularly useful in the area. The best surviving examples are the
Pskov Kremlin , the walls and the towers surrounding the historic
center of Pskov, the fortress in
Izborsk , the Pskov-Caves Monastery
in the town of Pechory, and the fortress in Porkhov.
Pskov Governorate happened to be the location of the family estate of
Alexander Pushkin , a Russian poet credited with the creation of
Russian language . He spent considerable time at the
estate, and once was banished there for two years. In Soviet times,
the estate and surrounding areas were transformed into the
Mikhaylovskoye Museum Reserve and became a primary tourist attraction.
The estate which belonged to the family of the composer Modest
Mussorgsky in Kunyinsky District is also preserved as a museum.
* List of Chairmen of
* List of rural localities in
Pitelis Lake on the border with Latvia
Wikimedia Commons has media related to PSKOV OBLAST .
* ^ Article 4 of the Charter of
Oblast states that the oblast
may have an anthem, providing that an oblast law is adopted to that
effect. As of 2014, no such law is in place.
* ^ Президент Российской Федерации.
Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном
представителе Президента Российской
Федерации в федеральном округе».
Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован:
"Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст.
2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree
#849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the
President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective
as of May 13, 2000.).
* ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации.
№ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г.
экономических регионов. 2.
Экономические районы», в ред.
Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (
Gosstandart of the Russian
Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of
Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment
#5/2001 OKER. ).
* ^ Decree of August 23, 1944
* ^ Official website of
Pskov Oblast. Andrey Anatolyevich Turchak,
Oblast (in Russian)
* ^ Charter of
Pskov Oblast, Article 43
* ^ Charter of
Pskov Oblast, Article 23
* ^ Федеральная служба
государственной статистики (Federal State
Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число
районов, населённых пунктов и
сельских администраций по субъектам
Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of
Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal
Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская
перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia
Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics
Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
* ^ A B C
Russian Federal State Statistics Service
Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011).
"Всероссийская перепись населения 2010
года. Том 1" . Всероссийская перепись
населения 2010 года (2010 All-
Russia Population Census)
(in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service . Retrieved June 29,
* ^ The density value was calculated by dividing the population
reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field.
Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified
in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the
Oblast Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics
Service . Оценка численности постоянного
населения Псковской области на 1
января 2014 года (in Russian)
* ^ Правительство Российской
Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от
3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в
ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03
июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в
Федеральный закон "Об исчислении
времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении
шестидесяти дней после дня
официального опубликования (6 августа
2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская
газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian
Federation . Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time,
as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending
Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days
following the day of the official publication.).
* ^ Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article
68.1 of the Constitution of
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* ^ Лесненко, В. К.; В. Н. Абросов. Озера
Псковской области (IN RUSSIAN). RETRIEVED NOVEMBER 3,
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Псковской области (IN RUSSIAN).
Администрация Псковской области.
RETRIEVED 5 NOVEMBER 2012.
* ^ Указ об учреждении губерний и о
росписании к ним городов (in Russian)
* ^ Архивный отдел Администрации
Мурманской области. Государственный
Архив Мурманской области. (1995).
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* ^ Снытко, О.В.; et al. (2009). С.Д. Трифонов;
Т.Б. Чуйкова; Л.В. Федина; А.Э.
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* ^ "Decree of the Supreme Council of USSR on establishing of Pskov
Oblast (23 August 1944)". Retrieved January 1, 2017.
* ^ "Supreme Council of the USSR, Decree on founding of Pskov
Oblast (published image version)". Retrieved January 2, 2017.
* ^ Справочник по истории
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* ^ Shuster, Simon (9 May 2011). Abandon All Hope: The Russian
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* ^ Государственный комитет
Российской Федерации по статистике.
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сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г.
деления. Код 58», в ред. изменения №275/2015
от 1 сентября 2015 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the
Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on
Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1,
1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division .
Code 58, as amended by the Amendment #275/2015 of September 1, 2015.
* ^ "Приказ ФСБ РФ от 2 июня 2006 года N 237
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* ^ Russian population changes NYTimes, July 28, 2017
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(IN RUSSIAN). RETRIEVED 31 OCTOBER 2012.
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* ^ The schedule of
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* Псковское областное Собрание
депутатов. №1-У 12 апреля 2001 г. «Устав
Псковской области», в ред. Закона
№1609-ОЗ от 15 декабря 2015 г. «О поправках
в статьи 44 и 49 Устава Псковской
области». Вступил в силу 18 апреля 2001 г.
Опубликован: "Губернские ведомости",
№11, 18 апреля 2001 г. (
Oblast Council of Deputies.
#1-U April 12, 2001 Charter of
Pskov Oblast, as amended by the Law
#1609-OZ of December 15, 2015 On Amending Articles 44 and 49 of the
Pskov Oblast. Effective as of April 18, 2001.).
* Президиум Верховного Совета СССР.
Указ от 23 августа 1944 г. «Об образовании
Псковской области в составе РСФСР».
Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. Decree of August 23,
1944 On Establishing
Oblast Within the RSFSR. ).
‹ The template below (Geographic location ) is being considered for
deletion. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus. ›
ADJACENT PLACES OF PSKOV OBLAST
Ida-Viru , Jõgeva , Põlva and Tatru ,
Ida-Viru and Võru ,
Alūksne , Baltinava , Cibla , Kārsava , Ludza , Viļaka and
Vitebsk Region ,
Tver and Smolensk Oblasts
* Crimea 1
* Nizhny Novgorod
* St. Petersburg
* Khanty-Mansi 2
* Nenets 3
* Yamalo-Nenets 2
* 1Claimed by
Ukraine and considered by most of the international
community to be part of Ukraine
* 2Administratively subordinated to Tyumen
* 3Administratively subordinated to Arkhangelsk
INTERNAL ADDITIONAL NON-CONSTITUTIONAL DIVISIONS BY DIFFERENT
* Economic regions (by Ministry of Economic Development )
* Military districts (by Ministry of Defence )
* Federal districts (by President )
* Judicial districts (by law "On arbitratio