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The Info List - Psittacoidea



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Psittacidae
Psittacidae
Psittrichasiidae
Psittrichasiidae
Psittaculidae

The TRUE PARROTS are about 350 species of colorful flighted (with a few notable exceptions ) hook-billed, mostly herbivorous birds forming the superfamily PSITTACOIDEA, one of the three superfamilies in the biological order Psittaciformes
Psittaciformes
(parrots). True parrots are widespread, with species in Mexico
Mexico
, Central and South America
South America
, sub-Saharan Africa , India
India
, Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
, Australia
Australia
, and eastwards across the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
as far as Polynesia
Polynesia
. The true parrots include many of the familiar parrots including macaws , conures , lorikeets , eclectus , Amazon parrots , African gray parrot , and budgerigar .

CONTENTS

* 1 Overview

* 1.1 Distribution and habitat

* 2 Conservation status * 3 Taxonomy * 4 Species lists * 5 Further reading * 6 References * 7 Notes * 8 External links

OVERVIEW

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True parrots have a beak with a characteristic curved shape, the jaw with a mobility slightly higher than where it connects with the skull, and a generally upright position. They also have a large cranial capacity and are one of the most intelligent bird groups. They are good fliers and skillful climbers on branches of trees.

Some species can imitate the human voice and other sounds, although they do not have vocal cords — instead possessing a vocal organ at the base of the trachea known as the syrinx .

Like most parrots the Psittacidae
Psittacidae
are primarily seed eaters. Some variation is seen in the diet of individual species, with fruits, nuts, leaves, and even insects and other animal prey being taken on occasion by some species. The lorikeets are predominantly nectar feeders; many other parrots drink nectar, as well. Most Psittacidae are cavity-nesting birds which form monogamous pair bonds.

DISTRIBUTION AND HABITAT

The true parrots are distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
, covering many different habitats , from the humid tropical forests to deserts in Australia
Australia
, India
India
, Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
, sub-Saharan Africa , Central and South America
South America
, and two species, one extinct (the Carolina parakeet ), formerly in the United States. However, the larger populations are native to Australasia
Australasia
, South America
South America
, and Central America .

CONSERVATION STATUS

Many species are classified as threatened by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (see IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of birds), as well as national and nongovernmental organizations. Trade in birds and other wild animals is governed by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Nearly all parrots are listed on CITES appendices, trade limited or prohibited. Trapping wild parrots for the pet trade , hunting , habitat loss , and competition from invasive species have diminished wild populations, with parrots being subjected to more exploitation than any other group of birds. Of the animals removed from the wild to be sold, very few survive during capture and transport, and those that do often die from poor conditions of captivity, poor diet, and stress. Measures taken to conserve the habitats of some high-profile charismatic species have also protected many of the less charismatic species living in the same ecosystems .

About 18 species of parrots have gone extinct since 1500 (see List of extinct birds# Psittaciformes
Psittaciformes
), nearly all in superfamily Psittacoidea.

TAXONOMY

Further information: Parrot
Parrot
§ Taxonomy

Psittaciformes
Psittaciformes

PSITTACOIDEA

Psittaculidae

Agapornithinae

Loriinae

Platycercinae

Psittacellinae

Psittaculinae

Psittrichasiidae
Psittrichasiidae

Psittrichasinae

Coracopsinae
Coracopsinae

Psittacidae
Psittacidae

Arinae
Arinae

Psittacinae
Psittacinae

Cacatuoidea
Cacatuoidea

Strigopoidea

Phylogeny and relationships of Psittacoidea
Psittacoidea

The parrot family Psittacidae
Psittacidae
(along with the family Cacatuidae comprising the order Psittaciformes) was traditionally considered to contain two subfamilies , the Psittacinae
Psittacinae
(typical parrots and allies) and the Loriinae (lories and lorikeets ). However, the tree of the parrot family now has been reorganized under the superfamily Psittacoidea: family Psittacidae
Psittacidae
has been split into three families, tribes Strigopini and Nestorini split out and placed under superfamily Strigopoidea and a new monotypic superfamily Cacatuoidea
Cacatuoidea
created containing family Cacatuidae.

The following classification is based on the most recent proposal, which in turn is based on all the relevant recent findings.

Family Psittacidae
Psittacidae
, New World and African parrots

* Subfamily
Subfamily
Psittacinae
Psittacinae
: Two African genera, Psittacus and Poicephalus

* Subfamily
Subfamily
Arinae
Arinae

* Tribe Arini : 17 genera, and one extinct genus * Tribe Androglossini : seven genera * clade (proposed tribe Amoropsittacini) four genera * clade (proposed tribe Forpini) one genus * (other tribes) five genera

Family Psittrichasiidae
Psittrichasiidae
, Indian Ocean island parrots

* Subfamily
Subfamily
Psittrichasinae : one species, Pesquet\'s parrot * Subfamily
Subfamily
Coracopsinae
Coracopsinae
: one genus with several species

Family Psittaculidae , Asian and Australasian parrots, and lovebirds

* Subfamily
Subfamily
Platycercinae

* Tribe Pezoporini : ground parrots and allies * Tribe Platycercini : broad-tailed parrots

* Subfamily
Subfamily
Psittacellinae : one genus (Psittacella ) with several species

* Subfamily
Subfamily
Loriinae

* Tribe Loriini : lories and lorikeets * Tribe Melopsittacini : one species, the budgerigar * Tribe Cyclopsittini : fig parrots

* Subfamily
Subfamily
Agapornithinae : three genera

* Subfamily
Subfamily
Psittaculinae

* Tribe Polytelini : three genera * Tribe Psittaculi