Avalon was the area around the settlement of Ferryland,
Newfoundland and Labrador, in the 17th century, which upon the success
of the colony grew to include the land held by Sir William Vaughan and
all the land that lay between
Ferryland and Petty Harbour.
1.1 The London and Bristol Company
1.2 George Calvert
2 See also
4 External links
Avalon Peninsula was one of the first European-inhabited areas in
North America. In 1497 the Bristol Guild of Merchants financed a
John Cabot to Newfoundland, where he is reported to have
landed at Cape Bonavista. Breton, Basque, and Portuguese fishermen
spoke of "a land of codfish". They were familiar with the Avalon
Peninsula where many would set up temporary shelters to dry fish.
The London and Bristol Company
Main article: London and Bristol Company
In the early 17th century English merchants began to take an interest
in the Newfoundland fishery. The Bristol Society of Merchant Venturers
London and Bristol Company
London and Bristol Company (the Newfoundland Company)
in 1608 and sent John Guy, to locate a favourable location for a
colony. The first permanent English settlement was established at
Cuper's Cove in 1610.
The company was granted a charter by James I on 2 May 1610 giving it a
monopoly in agriculture, mining, fishing and hunting on the Avalon
Peninsula. They retained exclusive rights until 1616 when the Crown
began to grant lands to others.
George Calvert acquired a large land holding on the peninsula. and
hired an agent Captain Edward Wynne to set up headquarters in
Ferryland. The initial colony grew to a population of 100, becoming
the first successful permanent settlement on Newfoundland island. In
1620 Calvert obtained a grant from Sir William Vaughan for all of the
land that lay north of a point between Fermeuse and Aquaforte to as
far north as Caplin Bay (now Calvert) on the southern shore of the
In 1623 Calvert was given a
Royal Charter extending the Royal lands
and granting them the name the Province of
Avalon "in imitation of Old
Avalon in Somersetshire wherein Glassenbury stands, the first fruits
of Christianity in Britain". The charter created the province as a
palatinate in which Calvert had absolute authority. Calvert wished to
make the colony a refuge for
Roman Catholics facing persecution in
England. In 1625 Calvert was made the first Lord Baltimore.
A series of crises and calamities led Calvert to quit the colony in
1629 for "some other warmer climate of this new world", which turned
out to be Maryland, though his family maintained agents to govern
Avalon until 1637, when the entire island of Newfoundland was granted
by charter to Sir
David Kirke and James Hamilton, 1st Duke of
Hamilton. Calvert's son, Cecilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore, fought
against the new charter, and in 1660 gained official recognition of
the old Charter of Avalon, but never attempted to retake the colony.
The site of the colony was designated a National Historic Site of
Canada in 1953 It was also designated a Municipal Heritage District
List of communities in Newfoundland and Labrador
British colonisation of the Americas
William Vaughan (writer)
^ "John Day letter to the Lord Grand Admiral, Winter 1497/8", The
Smugglers' City, Dept. of History, University of Bristol
^ "European fishermen in Newfoundland". Retrieved 7 September
^ ""Charter of the London and Bristol Company. Earl of Northhampton
and Associates." Volume III 1701–1705: The Labrador Boundary Dispute
Documents". Heritage.nf.ca. Archived from the original on 21 October
2013. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
^ Ross, Andrew; Smith, Andrew (2011). Canada's Entrepreneurs: From The
Fur Trade to the 1929 Stock Market Crash: Portraits from the
Dictionary of Canadian Biography. University of Toronto Press.
^ "The Cupids Colony and John Guy". Heritage Newfoundland and
Labrador. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
^ Naylor, R. T. (2006). Canada in the European Age, 1453–1919.
McGill-Queen's Press. p. 56. ISBN 9780773575462.
^ Chambers, Anne Lorene (1997). Married Women and Property Law in
Victorian Ontario. University of Toronto Press. p. 34.
^ Kevin Major, As Near to Heaven by Sea: A History of Newfoundland and
Labrador, 2001, ISBN 0-14-027864-8
^ Colony of
Avalon National Historic Site of Canada. Directory of
Federal Heritage Designations. Parks Canada. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
^ Colony of
Special Preservation Area Municipal Heritage
District. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
Official Colony of
Coordinates: 47°01′21″N 52°52′45″W / 47.0226°N
52.8791°W / 47.0226; -52.8791
National Historic Sites of Canada
National Historic Sites of Canada by location
Newfoundland and Labrador
Prince Edward Island