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A PROTECTORATE, in its inception adopted by modern international law , is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state . In exchange for this, the protectorate usually accepts specified obligations, which may vary greatly, depending on the real nature of their relationship. Therefore, a protectorate remains an autonomous part of a sovereign state. They are different from colonies as they have local rulers and people ruling over the territory and experience rare cases of immigration of settlers from the country it has suzerainty of. However, a state which remains under the protection of another state but still retains independence is known as a PROTECTED STATE and is different from protectorates.

CONTENTS

* 1 Rationale

* 1.1 Amical protection * 1.2 Colonial protection of the International Law * 1.3 Foreign relations

* 2 Belgian protectorates * 3 British protectorates * 4 Chinese protectorates * 5 Dutch protectorates

* 6 French protectorates

* 6.1 Asia * 6.2 Arab world and Madagascar
Madagascar
* 6.3 Sub-Saharan Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa
* 6.4 Oceania

* 7 German protectorates * 8 Italian protectorates * 9 Japanese protectorates * 10 Polish protectorates * 11 Portuguese protectorates * 12 Russian protectorates * 13 Spanish protectorates

* 14 United States
United States
Protectorates

* 14.1 Contemporary usage by the United States
United States

* 15 United Nations protectorates * 16 Joint protectorates * 17 See also * 18 Notes

* 19 References

* 19.1 French

RATIONALE

AMICAL PROTECTION

In amical protection, the terms are often very favorable for the protectorate. The political interest of the protector is frequently moral (a matter of accepted moral obligation, prestige, ideology, internal popularity, dynastic , historical, or ethno-cultural ties) or countering a rival or enemy power (e.g., preventing the rival from obtaining or maintaining control of areas of strategic importance). This may involve a very weak protectorate surrendering control of its external relations; this, however, may not constitute any real sacrifice, as the protectorate may not have been able to have similar use of them without the protector's strength.

Amical protection was frequently extended by the great powers to other Christian (generally European) states and to smaller states that had no significant importance. In the post-1815 period, non-Christian states (such as China\'s Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
) also provided amical protection towards other much weaker states.

In modern times, a form of amical protection can be seen as an important or defining feature of microstates . According to the definition proposed by Dumienski (2014): "microstates are modern protected states, i.e. sovereign states that have been able to unilaterally depute certain attributes of sovereignty to larger powers in exchange for benign protection of their political and economic viability against their geographic or demographic constraints". Examples of microstates understood as modern protected states include Bhutan
Bhutan
, Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
, San Marino
San Marino
, Monaco
Monaco
, Niue
Niue
, the Cook Islands , and Palau
Palau
.

COLONIAL PROTECTION OF THE INTERNATIONAL LAW

Conditions regarding protection are generally much less generous for areas of colonial protection. The protectorate was often reduced to a de facto condition similar to a colony, but using the pre-existing native state as an agent of indirect rule . Occasionally, a protectorate was established by or exercised by the other form of indirect rule: a chartered company , which becomes a de facto state in its European home state (but geographically overseas), allowed to be an independent country which has its own foreign policy and generally its own armed forces.

In fact, protectorates were declared despite not being duly entered into by the traditional states supposedly being protected, or only by a party of dubious authority in those states. Colonial protectors frequently decided to reshuffle several protectorates into a new, artificial unit without consulting the protectorates, a logic disrespectful of the theoretical duty of a protector to help maintain its protectorates' status and integrity. The Berlin agreement of February 26, 1885 allowed the colonial powers to establish protectorates in Black Africa (the last region to be divided among them) by diplomatic notification, even without actual possession on the ground. A similar case is the formal use of such terms as colony and protectorate for an amalgamation, convenient only for the colonizer or protector, of adjacent territories over which it held (de facto) sway by protective or "raw" colonial logic.

FOREIGN RELATIONS

In practice, a protectorate often has direct foreign relations only with the protecting power , so other states must deal with it by approaching the protector. Similarly, the protectorate rarely takes military action on its own, but relies on the protector for its defence. This is distinct from annexation , in that the protector has no formal power to control the internal affairs of the protectorate.

Protectorates differ from League of Nations mandates and their successors, United Nations Trust Territories , whose administration is supervised, in varying degrees, by the international community. A protectorate formally enters into the protection through a bilateral agreement with the protector, while international mandates are stewarded by the world community-representing body, with or without a de facto administering power.

BELGIAN PROTECTORATES

See also: Ruanda-Urundi

During the East African Campaign of World War I, the north-west part of German East Africa
German East Africa
, Ruanda-Urundi , was invaded by Belgian and Congolese troops in 1916 and was still occupied by them at the end of the war in 1918. As part of the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
the major part of German East Africa
German East Africa
was handed over to British control but Ruanda-Urundi, twice the size of Belgium
Belgium
but only about 2% of the size of the Congo, was confirmed as a Belgian protectorate by a League of Nations mandate in 1924, later renewed as a United Nations Trust Territory
Territory
. The territory was granted independence in 1962 as the separate countries of Rwanda
Rwanda
and Burundi
Burundi
, bringing the Belgian colonial empire to an end.

BRITISH PROTECTORATES

Main article: British Protectorate

CHINESE PROTECTORATES

Han dynasty
Han dynasty
:

* Protectorate of the Western Regions

Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
:

* Protectorate General to Pacify the West * Protectorate General to Pacify the North * Protectorate General to Pacify the East

Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
:

* Goryeo
Goryeo
(1270–1356)

Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
:

* Choseon (1636–1895; relations with Chinese Empire
Empire
were handled through Libu ) 。 * Ryukyu Kingdom
Ryukyu Kingdom
(1644-1879)

DUTCH PROTECTORATES

* Aruba
Aruba
, Curaçao , Sint Maarten
Sint Maarten
(all are presently separate constituent countries , formerly part of the Netherlands Antilles
Netherlands Antilles
)

* Various sultanates in the Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
(present Indonesia)

* Trumon Sultanate
Sultanate
(1770?), Langkat Sultanate
Sultanate
(26 October 1869), Deli Sultanate
Sultanate
(22 August 1862), Asahan Sultanate
Sultanate
(27 September 1865), Siak Sultanate
Sultanate
(1 February 1858) and Indragiri Sultanate
Sultanate
(1838?) in Sumatra * Jogjakarta Sultanate
Sultanate
(13 February 1755), Mataram Empire
Empire
and Surakarta Sunanate (26 February 1677), Duchy of Mangkunegara (24 February 1757) and Duchy of Paku Alaman (22 June 1812) in Java. * Sumbawa Sultanate
Sultanate
(?) and Bima Sultanate
Sultanate
(8 December 1669) in Lesser Sunda Islands. * Pontianak Sultanate
Sultanate
(16 August 1819), Sambas Sultanate
Sultanate
(1819), Kubu Sultanate
Sultanate
(4 June 1823), Landak Sultanate
Sultanate
(?), Mempawah Sultanate (?), Matan Sultanate
Sultanate
(?), Sanggau Sultanate
Sultanate
(?), Sekadau Sultanate (?), Simpang Sultanate
Sultanate
(?), Sintang Sultanate
Sultanate
(1822), Sukadana Sultanate
Sultanate
(?), Kota Waringin Sultanate
Sultanate
(?), Kutai Kertanegara Sultanate
Sultanate
(8 August 1825), Gunung Tabur Sultanate
Sultanate
(?) and Bulungan Sultanate
Sultanate
(?) in Borneo. * Gowa Sultanate
Sultanate
(1669), Bone Sultanate
Sultanate
(?), Sidenreng Sultanate (?), Soppeng Sultanate
Sultanate
(?), Butung Sultanate
Sultanate
(?), Muna Sultanate
Sultanate
(?) and Banggai Sultanate
Sultanate
(?) in Celebes. * Ternate (12 October 1676) and Batjan Sultanate
Sultanate
(?) in The Moluccas. * Kaimana Sultanate
Sultanate
(?) in Dutch New Guinea.

FRENCH PROTECTORATES

* Saar Protectorate
Saar Protectorate
(1947–1956), not colonial or amical, but a former part of Germany that would by referendum return to it, in fact a re-edition of a former League of Nations mandate
League of Nations mandate
. Most French protectorates were colonial.

ASIA

* Present India: Arkat (Arcot/Carnatic) was 1692–1750 a French protectorate until 1763 independence recognized under British protectorate

* French Indochina
French Indochina
until 1953/54:

* Cambodia
Cambodia
11 August 1863 * Annam and Tonkin 6 June 1884 * Laos
Laos
3 October 1893

ARAB WORLD AND MADAGASCAR

* Comoros
Comoros
21 April 1886 French protectorate (Anjouan) until 25 July 1912 when annexed. * Present Djibouti
Djibouti
was originally, since 24 June 1884, the Territory of Obock and Protectorate of Tadjoura (Territoires Français d'Obock, Tadjoura, Dankils et Somalis), a French protectorate recognized by Britain on 9 February 1888, renamed on 20 May 1896 as French Somaliland (Côte Française des Somalis).

* Mauritania
Mauritania
on 12 May 1903 French protectorate; within Mauritanian several traditional states:

* Adrar emirate since 9 January 1909 French protectorate (before Spanish) * The Taganit confederation's emirate (founded by Idaw `Ish dynasty), since 1905 under French protectorate. * Brakna confederation's emirate * Emirate of Trarza : 15 December 1902 placed under French protectorate status.

* Morocco
Morocco
– most of the sultanate was under French protectorate (30 March 1912 – 7 April 1956) although, in theory, it remained a sovereign state under the Treaty of Fez ; this fact was confirmed by the International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
in 1952.

* The northern part of Morocco
Morocco
was under Spanish protectorate in the same period.

* Traditional Madagascar
Madagascar
States

* Kingdom of Imerina under French protectorate, 6 August 1896. French Madagascar
Madagascar
colony, 28 February 1897.

* Tunisia
Tunisia
(12 May 1881 – 20 March 1956): became a French protectorate by treaty

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

The legal regime of "protection" was the formal legal structure under which French colonial forces expanded in Africa between the 1830s and 1900. Almost every pre-existing state in the area later covered by French West Africa
French West Africa
was placed under protectorate status at some point, although direct rule gradually replaced protectorate agreements. Formal ruling structures, or fictive recreations of them, were largely retained as the lowest level authority figure in the French Cercles , with leaders appointed and removed by French officials.

* Benin
Benin
traditional states

* Independent of Danhome , under French protectorate, from 1889 * Porto-Novo
Porto-Novo
a French protectorate, 23 February 1863 – 2 January 1865. Cotonou a French Protectorate, 19 May 1868. Porto-Novo
Porto-Novo
French protectorate, 14 April 1882.

* Central African Republic
Central African Republic
traditional states:

* French protectorate over Dar al-Kuti (1912 Sultanate
Sultanate
suppressed by the French), 12 December 1897 * French protectorate over the Sultanate
Sultanate
of Bangassou
Bangassou
, 1894

* Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
was since 20 February 1895 a French protectorate named Upper Volta (Haute-Volta) * Chad
Chad
: Baghirmi state 20 September 1897 a French protectorate * Côte d'Ivoire: 10 January 1889 French protectorate of Ivory Coast

* Guinea
Guinea
: 5 August 1849 French protectorate over coastal region; (Riviéres du Sud). * Niger
Niger
, Sultanate of Damagaram
Sultanate of Damagaram
( Zinder
Zinder
), 30 July 1899 under French protectorate over the native rulers, titled Sarkin Damagaram or Sultan * Senegal
Senegal
: 4 February 1850 First of several French protectorate treaties with local rulers

OCEANIA

* French Polynesia
French Polynesia
, mainly the Society Islands
Society Islands
(several other were immediately annexed) All eventually were annexed by 1889.

* Otaheiti (native king styled Ari`i rahi ) becomes a French protectorate known as Tahiti, 1842–1880 * Raiatea and Tahaa (after temporary annexation by Otaheiti; (title Ari`i) a French protectorate, 1880) * Mangareva
Mangareva
(one of the Gambier Islands
Gambier Islands
; ruler title `Akariki ) a French protectorate, 16 February 1844 (unratified) and 30 November 1871

* Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna
:

* Wallis declared to be a French protectorate by King of Uvea and Captain Mallet, 4 November 1842. Officially in a treaty becomes a French protectorate, 5 April 1887 until 1917 when it was annexed. * Sigave and Alo on the islands of Futuna and Alofi signed a treaty establishing a French protectorate on 16 February 1888 until annexed in 1917.

GERMAN PROTECTORATES

The German Empire
Empire
used the word Schutzgebiet, literally protectorate, for all of its colonial possessions until they were lost during World War I, regardless of the actual level of government control. Cases involving indirect rule included:

* German New Guinea
Guinea
* Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands
* Nauru
Nauru
, various officials posted with the Head Chiefs * Northern Solomon islands
Solomon islands
* Samoa
Samoa
, formerly Western Samoa * Sultanate
Sultanate
of Witu, called Wituland
Wituland
, in present-day Kenya * German South-West Africa
German South-West Africa
(later Namibia
Namibia
) * Togoland
Togoland
* Rwanda
Rwanda
, a Resident with the native Mwami (king) * Urundi , a Resident with the native Mwami (king; 1908 Sultan)

During World War II
World War II
, Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
designated the rump of occupied Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
as a protectorate:

* Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
, 1939-1945

ITALIAN PROTECTORATES

In Europe:

* Albania
Albania
(1917–1920 and 1939–1940) * Independent State of Croatia
Independent State of Croatia
(1941–1943) * Monaco
Monaco
under amical Protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia 20 November 1815 to 1860.

In the colonial empire:

* Ethiopia
Ethiopia
: 2 May 1889 Treaty of Wuchale , in the Italian language version, stated that Ethiopia
Ethiopia
was to become an Italian protectorate, while the Ethiopian Amharic language
Amharic language
version merely stated that the Emperor could, if he so chose, go through Italy to conduct foreign affairs. When the differences in the versions came to light, Emperor Menelik II abrogated first the article in question (XVII), and later the whole treaty. The event culminated in the First Italo-Ethiopian War , in which Ethiopia
Ethiopia
was victorious and defended her sovereignty in 1896. * Libya
Libya
: on 15 October 1912 Italian protectorate declared over Cirenaica (Cyrenaica) until 17 May 1919.

* Somalia
Somalia
: 3 August 1889 Benadir Coast Italian protectorate (in the northeast; unoccupied until May 1893), until 16 March 1905 when it changed to Italian Somaliland
Italian Somaliland
.

* Majeerteen Sultanate
Sultanate
since 7 April 1889 under Italian protectorate (renewed 7 April 1895), then in 1927 incorporated into the Italian colony. * Sultanate of Hobyo
Sultanate of Hobyo
since December 1888 under Italian protectorate (renewed 11 April 1895), then in October 1925 incorporated into the Italian colony (known as Obbia).

JAPANESE PROTECTORATES

* Korean Empire
Empire
(1905–1910)

POLISH PROTECTORATES

* Kaffa (1462-1475)

PORTUGUESE PROTECTORATES

* Kingdom of Kongo (1390–1914) * Cabinda (Portuguese Congo) (1885–1974) – Portugal
Portugal
first claimed sovereignty over Cabinda in the February 1885 Treaty of Simulambuco , which gave Cabinda the status of a protectorate of the Portuguese Crown
Portuguese Crown
under the request of "the princes and governors of Cabinda". * Gaza Empire
Empire
(1824–1895) * Angoche Sultanate (1903–1910)

RUSSIAN PROTECTORATES

* Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti
Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti
(1783–1801) * Kingdom of Imereti
Kingdom of Imereti
(1804–1810) * Revolutionary Serbia (1807–12) and Principality
Principality
of Serbia (1826–56) * Emirate of Bukhara (1873–1920) * Khanate of Khiva (1873–1920)

SPANISH PROTECTORATES

* Mauritania: Adrar emirate since 1886 under Spanish protectorate till 9 January 1909, then a French protectorate. * Spanish Morocco
Morocco
protectorate from 27 November 1912 until 2 April 1958 (Northern zone until 7 April 1956, Southern zone ( Cape Juby ) until 2 April 1958).

UNITED STATES PROTECTORATES

* Liberia
Liberia
(1822–1847) * Cuba (1898–1904) * Haiti
Haiti
(1915-1935) * Honduras
Honduras
(1903–1925) * Nicaragua
Nicaragua
(1912–1933) * Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
(1914–1924) * Sultanate of Sulu
Sultanate of Sulu
(1903–1915) * Germany (1945-1949) * South Korea (1945-1948) * Ryukyu Islands (1945-1972) * Commonwealth of the Philippines
Commonwealth of the Philippines
(1934–1946): Under the provisions of the Tydings–McDuffie Act
Tydings–McDuffie Act
, the territory would become self-governing although its military and foreign affairs would be under the United States. * Hawaii (1850s–1894/1898) * Compact of Free Association

The Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands
, the Federated States of Micronesia
Federated States of Micronesia
, and Palau
Palau
have a similar status (associated state ) since their independence.

CONTEMPORARY USAGE BY THE UNITED STATES

Some agencies of the United States government
United States government
, such as the United States Environmental Protection Agency , still use the term protectorate to refer to insular areas of the United States
United States
such as Guam
Guam
, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands , Commonwealth of Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
and the U.S. Virgin Islands
U.S. Virgin Islands
. This was also the case with the Philippines
Philippines
and (it can be argued via the Platt Amendment
Platt Amendment
) Cuba at the end of Spanish colonial rule . Liberia
Liberia
was the only African nation that was a colony for the United States
United States
but the government had no control over the land as it was controlled by the privately owned American Colonization Society. It was, however, a protectorate from January 7, 1822 until the Liberian Declaration of Independence from the American Colonization Society
American Colonization Society
in July 26, 1847. Liberia
Liberia
was founded and established as a homeland for freed African-Americans and ex-Caribbean slaves who left the United States and the Caribbean islands with help and support from the American Colonization Society . However, the agency responsible for the administration of those areas, the Office of Insular Affairs (OIA) within the United States
United States
Department of Interior , uses only the term "insular area" rather than protectorate.

UNITED NATIONS PROTECTORATES

* West Papua (then known as West New Guinea
Guinea
or West Irian): United Nations Temporary Executive Authority (1962–1963) * Cambodia
Cambodia
: United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (1992–1993) * Eastern Croatia
Croatia
: United Nations Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium (1996–1998) * East Timor
East Timor
: United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (1999–2002) * Kosovo
Kosovo
: United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (since 1999)

JOINT PROTECTORATES

Further information: Condominium (international law)

* The Adriatic Republic of Ragusa
Republic of Ragusa
(present-day Dubrovnik in Croatian Dalmatia) was a joint Habsburg Austrian–Ottoman Turkish protectorate from 20 August 1684 to 24 August 1798 (exceptionally both a Catholic and a Muslim protector). * The United States
United States
of the Ionian Islands were a federal Septinsular Republic of seven formerly Venetian (see Provveditore ) Ionian islands ( Corfu
Corfu
, Cephalonia
Cephalonia
, Zante , Santa Maura , Ithaca
Ithaca
, Cerigo , and Paxos ), officially under joint protectorate of the Allied Christian Powers, de facto a UK amical protectorate from 1815 to 1864. * Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
were a joint Austrian and Hungarian protectorate since 1878 which formally still belonged to the Ottoman Empire
Empire
until 1908 when it was annexed by Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
(see Bosnian crisis ). Since the 1995 Dayton Agreement
Dayton Agreement
, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
is again sometimes described as a de facto international protectorate.

SEE ALSO

* Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
( Peace Implementation Council , High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
, European Union Police Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
, EUFOR Althea
EUFOR Althea
) * British Protected Person * Chinese Protectorate * Dominion
Dominion
* Protector (titles for Heads of State and other individual persons) * Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
* Suzerainty * Tributary (political) * Tribute
Tribute
* Vassal state

NOTES

* ^ Dumieński, Zbigniew (2014). "Microstates as Modern Protected States: Towards a New Definition of Micro-Statehood" (PDF). Occasional Paper. Centre for Small State Studies. Retrieved 20 August 2014. * ^ Bedjaoui, Mohammed (1991), International Law: Achievements and Prospects, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, pp. 51–, ISBN 92-3-102716-6

* ^ "A History of Korea: From Antiquity to the Present, by Michael J. Seth", p112 * ^ 『韓国 堕落の2000年史』 崔基鎬 * ^ Sakamaki, Shunzō (1964). "Ryukyu and Southeast Asia". Journal of Asian Studies . 23 (3): 382–4. doi :10.2307/2050757 . * ^ Bedjaoui, Mohammed (1 January 1991). "International Law: Achievements and Prospects". Martinus Nijhoff Publishers – via Google Books. * ^ Capaldo, Giuliana Ziccardi (1 January 1995). "Repertory of Decisions of the International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
(1947-1992)". Martinus Nijhoff Publishers – via Google Books.

* ^ See the classic account on this in Robert Delavignette. Freedom and Authority in French West Africa. London: Oxford University Press, (1950). The more recent statndard studies on French expansion include: Robert Aldrich. Greater France: A History of French Overseas Expansion. Palgrave MacMillan (1996) ISBN 0-312-16000-3 . Alice L. Conklin. A Mission to Civilize: The Republican Idea of Empire
Empire
in France
France
and West Africa 1895-1930. Stanford: Stanford University Press (1998), ISBN 978-0-8047-2999-4 . Patrick Manning. Francophone Sub-Saharan Africa, 1880-1995. Cambridge University Press (1998) ISBN 0-521-64255-8 . Jean Suret-Canale. Afrique Noire: l'Ere Coloniale (Editions Sociales, Paris, 1971); Eng. translation, French Colonialism
Colonialism
in Tropical Africa, 1900 1945. (New York, 1971). * ^ C. W. Newbury. Aspects of French Policy in the Pacific, 1853–1906. The Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 27, No. 1 (Feb., 1958), pp. 45–56 * ^ Gonschor, Lorenz Rudolf (August 2008). Law as a Tool of Oppression and Liberation: Institutional Histories and Perspectives on Political Independence in Hawaiʻi, Tahiti Nui/ French Polynesia
French Polynesia
and Rapa Nui. Honolulu: University of Hawaii at Manoa. pp. 56–59. hdl :10125/20375 .

REFERENCES

* "Index of Colonies and Possessions". World Statesmen.org. Retrieved 2008-08-06.

FRENCH

* Larousse, Pierre; Paul Augé ; Claude Augé (1925). Nouveau Petit Larousse Illustré: Dictionnaire Encyclopédique. Larousse.

* v * t * e

Colonial empires

American · Austro-Hungarian · Belgian · British · Couronian · Danish · Dutch · English · French · German · Italian

Japanese · Sovereign Military Order of Malta
Sovereign Military Order of Malta
· Ottoman · Portuguese · Russian · Soviet · Spanish · Swedish

Colonies in antiquity
Colonies in antiquity

* v * t * e

Designations for types of administrative territorial entities

ENGLISH TERMS

COMMON ENGLISH TERMS1

AREA

* Insular area * Local government
Local government
area * Protected area
Protected area
* Special
Special
area

* Statistical area

* Combined statistical area
Combined statistical area
* Metropolitan statistical area
Metropolitan statistical area
* Micropolitan statistical area
Micropolitan statistical area

* Urban area
Urban area

CANTON Half-canton

BOROUGH

* County borough
County borough
* Metropolitan borough
Metropolitan borough

CAPITAL

* Federal capital * Imperial capital

CITY

* City
City
state * Autonomous city * Charter city * Independent city * Incorporated city
Incorporated city
* Imperial city
Imperial city
* Free imperial city
Free imperial city
* Royal free city

COMMUNITY

* Autonomous community * Residential community

COUNTY

* Administrative county * Autonomous county * Consolidated city-county

* Metropolitan county
Metropolitan county

* Non-metropolitan

* Viscountcy

COUNTRY

* Overseas country
Overseas country

DEPARTMENT

* Overseas department
Overseas department

DISTRICT

* Capital district * City
City
district * Congressional district
Congressional district
* Electoral district
Electoral district
* Federal district * Indian government district * Land district

* Metropolitan district
Metropolitan district

* Non-metropolitan district
Non-metropolitan district

* Military district * Municipal district * Police district * Regional district * Rural district * Sanitary district * Subdistrict * Urban district * Special
Special
district

DIVISION

* Census division * Police division * Subdivision

MUNICIPALITY

* County
County
municipality

* Norway * Nova Scotia * Regional county municipality

* Direct-controlled municipality * District
District
municipality * Mountain resort municipality
Mountain resort municipality
* Neutral municipality * Regional municipality * Resort municipality * Rural municipality * Specialized municipality

PREFECTURE

* Autonomous prefecture
Autonomous prefecture
* Subprefecture
Subprefecture
* Super-prefecture * Praetorian prefecture
Praetorian prefecture

PROVINCE

* Autonomous province * Overseas province * Roman province
Roman province

REGION

* Administrative region
Administrative region
* Autonomous region
Autonomous region
* Capital region * Development region * Economic region * Mesoregion * Microregion
Microregion
* Overseas region
Overseas region
* Planning region * Special
Special
administrative region * Statistical region * Subregion

RESERVE

* Biosphere reserve
Biosphere reserve
* Ecological reserve * Game reserve * Indian reserve * Nature reserve
Nature reserve

STATE

* Federal state
Federal state
* Free state * Sovereign state
Sovereign state

TERRITORY

* Capital territory

* Federal capital territory

* Dependent territory * Federal territory * Military territory * Organized incorporated territory * Overseas territory * Union territory * Unorganized territory

TOWN

* Census town * Market town
Market town

TOWNSHIP

* Charter township * Civil township
Civil township
* Paper township * Survey township
Survey township
* Urban township

UNIT

* Autonomous territorial unit * Local administrative unit * Municipal unit * Regional unit

ZONE

* Economic zone

* Exclusive economic zone
Exclusive economic zone
* Free economic zone
Free economic zone
* Special
Special
economic zone

* Free-trade zone * Neutral zone * Self-administered zone
Self-administered zone

OTHER ENGLISH TERMS

CURRENT

* Alpine resort * Bailiwick

* Banner

* Autonomous

* Block * Cadastre
Cadastre
* Circle * Circuit * Colony
Colony
* Commune * Condominium * Constituency * Duchy * Eldership * Emirate
Emirate
* Federal dependency * Governorate * Hamlet * Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
* Indian reservation
Indian reservation

* Manor
Manor

* Royal

* Muftiate * Neighbourhood
Neighbourhood
* Parish * Periphery * Precinct * Principality
Principality
* Protectorate * Quarter * Regency * Autonomous republic * Riding

* Sector

* Autonomous

* Shire
Shire
* Sultanate
Sultanate
* Suzerainty * Townland
Townland

* Village
Village

* Administrative * Summer

* Ward *

HISTORICAL

* Agency * Barony * Burgh
Burgh
* Exarchate * Hide * Hundred * Imperial Circle
Imperial Circle
* March * Monthon
Monthon
* Presidency * Residency * Roman diocese
Roman diocese
* Seat * Tenth * Tithing

NON-ENGLISH OR LOANWORDS

CURRENT

* Amt * Bakhsh * Barangay
Barangay
* Bezirk * Regierungsbezirk
Regierungsbezirk
* Comune
Comune
* Frazione * Fu * Gemeinde * Județ

* Kunta / kommun

* Finland * Sweden
Sweden

* Län * Località * Megye * Muban

* Oblast
Oblast

* Autonomous

* Okrug * Ostān * Poblacion
Poblacion
* Purok * Shahrestān * Sum * Sýsla * Tehsil * Vingtaine

HISTORICAL

* Commote
Commote
* Gau * Heerlijkheid * Köping * Maalaiskunta

* Nome

* Egypt * Greece

* Pagus * Pargana * Plasă * Satrapy * Socken * Subah * Syssel * Zhou

* v * t * e

Arabic
Arabic
terms for country subdivisions

FIRST-LEVEL

* Muhafazah (محافظة governorate) * Wilayah (ولاية province) * Mintaqah (منطقة region) * Mudiriyah (مديرية directorate) * Imarah (إمارة emirate) * Baladiyah (بلدية municipality) * Shabiyah (شعبية "popularate")

SECOND / THIRD-LEVEL

* Mintaqah (منطقة region) * Qadaa (قضاء district) * Nahiyah (ناحية subdistrict) * Markaz (مركز district) * Mutamadiyah (معتمدية "delegation") * Daerah / Daïra (دائرة circle) * Liwa (لواء banner / sanjak )

CITY / TOWNSHIP-LEVEL

* Amanah (أمانة municipality) * Baladiyah (بلدية municipality) * Ḥai (حي neighborhood / quarter) * Mahallah
Mahallah
(محلة) * Qarya (قرية) * Sheyakhah (شياخة "neighborhood subdivision")

English translations given are those most commonly used.

* v * t * e

French terms for country subdivisions

* arrondissement * département * préfecture * subprefectures

* v * t * e

Greek terms for country subdivisions

MODERN

* apokentromenes dioikiseis / geniki dioikisis § / diamerisma § / periphereia * nomos § / periphereiaki enotita * demos / eparchia § / koinotita §

HISTORICAL

* archontia/archontaton * bandon * demos * despotaton * dioikesis * doukaton * droungos * eparchia * exarchaton * katepanikion * kephalatikion * kleisoura * meris * naukrareia * satrapeia * strategis * thema * toparchia * tourma

§ signifies a defunct institution

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Portuguese terms for country subdivisions

REGIONAL SUBDIVISIONS

* Estado * Distrito federal * Província * Região * Distrito * Comarca * Capitania

LOCAL SUBDIVISIONS

* Município * Concelho
Concelho
* Freguesia * Comuna * Circunscrição

SETLEMENTS

* Cidade * Vila * Aldeia * Bairro
Bairro
* Lugar

* Historical subdivisions in italics.

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Slavic terms for country subdivisions

CURRENT

* dzielnica * gmina * krai * kraj * krajina / pokrajina * městys * obec * oblast / oblast\' / oblasti / oblys / obwód / voblast\' * okręg * okres * okrug * opština / općina / občina / obshtina * osiedle * powiat / povit * raion * selsoviet / silrada * sołectwo * voivodeship / vojvodina * županija

HISTORICAL

* darugha * gromada * guberniya / gubernia * jurydyka * khutor * obshchina * okolia * opole * pogost * prowincja * sorok * srez * starostwo / starostva * uyezd * volost * ziemia * župa

* v * t * e

Spanish terms for country subdivisions

NATIONAL, FEDERAL

* Comunidad autónoma * Departamento * Distrito federal * Estado * Provincia * Región

REGIONAL, METROPOLITAN

* Cantón * Comarca * Comuna * Corregimiento * Delegación * Distrito * Mancomunidad
Mancomunidad
* Merindad * Municipalidad * Municipio
Municipio

* Parroquia

* Ecuador * Spain
Spain

URBAN, RURAL

* Aldea * Alquería * Anteiglesia

* Asentamiento

* Asentamiento informal * Pueblos jóvenes

* Barrio * Campamento * Caserío

* Ciudad

* Ciudad autónoma

* Colonia * Lugar * Masía * Pedanía * Población * Ranchería
Ranchería
* Sitio
Sitio
* Vereda * Villa
Villa
* Village
Village
(Pueblito/Pueblo)

* Historical subdivisions in italics.

* v * t * e

Turkish terms for country subdivisions

MODERN

* il (province) * ilçe (district) * şehir (city) * kasaba (town) * belediye (municipality) * belde (community) * köy (village) * mahalle (neighbourhood/quarter)

HISTORICAL

* ağalık (feudal district) * bucak (subdistrict) * beylerbeylik (province) * kadılık (subprovince) * kaza (sub-province) * hidivlik (viceroyalty) * mutasarrıflık (subprovince) * nahiye (nahiyah) * paşalık (province) * reya (Romanian principalities) * sancak (prefecture) * vilayet (province) * voyvodalık (Romanian provinces)

1 Used by ten or more countries or having derived terms. Historical derivations in italics. See also: