1.1 Analysis 1.2 Concept 1.3 Synthesis
2 Demand-pull innovation and invention-push innovation
Analysis Concept Synthesis
Depending on the kind of product being designed, the latter two sections are most often revisited (e.g. depending on how often the design needs revision, to improve it or to better fit the criteria). This is a continuous loop, where feedback is the main component. Koberg and Bagnell offer more specifics on the process: In their model, "analysis" consists of two stages, "concept" is only one stage, and "synthesis" encompasses the other four. (These terms notably vary in usage in different design frameworks. Here, they are used in the way they're used by Koberg and Bagnell.) Analysis
Accept Situation: Here, the designers decide on committing to the project and finding a solution to the problem. They pool their resources into figuring out how to solve the task most efficiently. Analyze: In this stage, everyone in the team begins research. They gather general and specific materials which will help to figure out how their problem might be solved. This can range from statistics, questionnaires, and articles, among many other sources.
Define: This is where the key issue of the matter is defined. The conditions of the problem become objectives, and restraints on the situation become the parameters within which the new design must be constructed.
Ideate: The designers here brainstorm different ideas, solutions for their design problem. The ideal brainstorming session does not involve any bias or judgment, but instead builds on original ideas. Select: By now, the designers have narrowed down their ideas to a select few, which can be guaranteed successes and from there they can outline their plan to make the product. Implement: This is where the prototypes are built, the plan outlined in the previous step is realized and the product starts to become an actual object. Evaluate: In the last stage, the product is tested, and from there, improvements are made. Although this is the last stage, it does not mean that the process is over. The finished prototype may not work as well as hoped so new ideas need to be brainstormed.
Demand-pull innovation and invention-push innovation
Most product designs fall under one of two categories: demand-pull
innovation or invention-push innovation.
Demand-pull happens when there is an opportunity in the market to be
explored by the design of a product. This product design attempts
to solve a design problem. The design solution may be the development
of a new product or developing a product that's already on the market,
such as developing an existing invention for another purpose.
Invention-push innovation happens when there is an advancement in
intelligence. This can occur through research or it can occur when the
product designer comes up with a new product design idea.
So-called "color chips" or color samples, used in the plastic industry to help designers visually identify available colors of plastic pellets.
The manufacturer is concerned with production cost; in the end, the manufacturer wants an economically produced product. The purchaser looks at price, appearance, and prestige value. The end user is concerned with usability and functionality of the final product. The maintenance and repair department focuses on how well the final product can be maintained: is the product easily reassembled, disassembled, diagnosed, and serviced?
Stakeholders' needs vary from one another and it is the product designer's job to incorporate those needs into their design. Trends in product design Product designers need to consider all of the details: the ways people use and abuse objects, faulty products, errors made in the design process, and the desirable ways in which people wish they could use objects. Many new designs will fail and many won't even make it to market. Some designs eventually become obsolete. The design process itself can be quite frustrating usually taking 5 or 6 tries to get the product design right. A product that fails in the marketplace the first time may be re-introduced to the market 2 more times. If it continues to fail, the product is then considered to be dead because the market believes it to be a failure. Most new products fail, even if it's a great idea. All types of product design are clearly linked to the economic health of manufacturing sectors. Innovation provides much of the competitive impetus for the development of new products, with new technology often requiring a new design interpretation. It only takes one manufacturer to create a new product paradigm to force the rest of the industry to catch up - fueling further innovation. Products designed to benefit people of all ages and abilities—without penalty to any group—accommodate our swelling aging population by extending independence and supporting the changing physical and sensory needs we all encounter as we grow older. See also
Axiomatic product development lifecycle APDL Industrial design Sustainable design Transgenerational design Virtual Product Development Universal Design
^ Morris 2009, p. 22.
^ Luchs, M., & Swan, K. S. (2011). Perspective: The Emergence of
Archer, B. (1974).
Luchs, M., & Swan, K. S. (2011). Perspective: The Emergence of
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