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Procopius
Procopius
of Caesarea
Caesarea
(Greek: Προκόπιος ὁ Καισαρεύς Prokópios ho Kaisareús; Latin: Procopius Caesariensis; c. 500 – c. after 565) was a prominent late antique Byzantine Greek scholar from Palaestina Prima.[a] Accompanying the Byzantine general Belisarius
Belisarius
in Emperor Justinian's wars, Procopius
Procopius
became the principal Byzantine historian of the 6th century, writing the History of the Wars, the Buildings, and the Secret History. He is commonly classified as the last major historian of the ancient Western world.

Contents

1 Life 2 Writings

2.1 History of the Wars 2.2 Secret History 2.3 The Buildings

3 Style 4 Legacy 5 List of selected works 6 Notes 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

9.1 Texts of Procopius 9.2 Secondary material

Life[edit] Apart from his own writings, the main source for Procopius's life is an entry in the Suda,[2] a Greek encyclopaedia written sometime after 975, which discusses his early life. He was a native of Caesarea
Caesarea
in the province of Palaestina Prima.[3] He would have received a conventional elite education in the Greek classics and rhetoric,[4] perhaps at the famous school at Gaza.[5] He may have attended law school, possibly at Berytus (present-day Beirut) or Constantinople
Constantinople
(now Istanbul),[6][b] and became a lawyer (rhetor).[2] He evidently knew Latin, as was natural for a man with legal training.[c] In 527, the first year of the reign of the emperor Justinian I, he became the legal adviser (adsessor) for Belisarius, a general whom Justinian made his chief military commander in a great attempt to restore control over the lost western provinces of the empire.[d] Procopius
Procopius
was with Belisarius
Belisarius
on the eastern front until the latter was defeated at the Battle of Callinicum
Battle of Callinicum
in 531[10] and recalled to Constantinople.[11] Procopius
Procopius
witnessed the Nika riots of January, 532, which Belisarius
Belisarius
and his fellow general Mundus repressed with a massacre in the Hippodrome.[12] In 533, he accompanied Belisarius
Belisarius
on his victorious expedition against the Vandal kingdom in North Africa, took part in the capture of Carthage, and remained in Africa with Belisarius's successor Solomon the Eunuch when Belisarius
Belisarius
returned east to the capital. Procopius
Procopius
recorded a few of the extreme weather events of 535–536, although these were presented as a backdrop to Byzantine military activities, such as a mutiny in and around Carthage.[13][e] He rejoined Belisarius
Belisarius
for his campaign against the Ostrogothic kingdom in Italy and experienced the Gothic siege of Rome that lasted a year and nine days, ending in mid-March 538. He witnessed Belisarius's entry into the Gothic capital, Ravenna, in 540. Both the Wars[14] and the Secret History suggest that his relationship with Belisarius
Belisarius
cooled thereafter. When Belisarius
Belisarius
was sent back to Italy in 544 to cope with a renewal of the war with the Goths, now led by the able king Totila, Procopius
Procopius
appears to have no longer been on Belisarius's staff. As magister militum, Belisarius
Belisarius
was an "illustrious man" (Latin: vir illustris; Greek: ἰλλούστριος, illoústrios); being his adsessor, Procopius
Procopius
must therefore have had at least the rank of a "visible man" (vir spectabilis). He thus belonged to the mid-ranking group of the senatorial order (ordo senatorius). However, the Suda, which is usually well informed in such matters, also describes Procopius
Procopius
himself as one of the illustres. Should this information be correct, Procopius
Procopius
would have had a seat in the Constantinople's senate, which was restricted to the illustres under Justinian. It is not certain when Procopius
Procopius
died. Many historians—including Howard-Johnson, Cameron, and Greatrex—date his death to 554, but there was an urban prefect of Constantinople
Constantinople
(praefectus urbi Constantinopolitanae) called Procopius
Procopius
in 562. In that year, Belisarius
Belisarius
was implicated in a conspiracy and was brought before this urban prefect. In fact, evidence shows that Procopius
Procopius
died at least a few years after 565 as he unequivocally states in the beginning of his Secret History that he wrote it AFTER the death of Justinian for fear he would be tortured and killed by the emperor (or even by general Belisarius) if the emperor (or the general) learned about what Procopius
Procopius
wrote (his scathing criticism of the emperor, of his wife, of Belisarius, of the general's wife, Antonia: calling the former "demons in human form" and the latter incompetent and treacherous) in this later history. Surely, the book took some years to write so it is likely he died at the minimum a few years after 565 and perhaps even much later as there is no mention of his death we know of and it would be only sheer speculation to mention any date after 565.

Writings[edit] Emperor Justinian The writings of Procopius
Procopius
are the primary source of information for the rule of the emperor Justinian I. Procopius
Procopius
was the author of a history in eight books on the wars prosecuted by Justinian, a panegyric on the emperor's public works projects throughout the empire, and a book (written after 565) known as the Secret History that claims to report the scandals that Procopius
Procopius
could not include in his officially sanctioned history for fear of angering the emperor, his wife, Belisarius, and the general's wife and had to waut that all these die in order to escape revenge for his writing at their hand.

History of the Wars[edit] Procopius's Wars or History of the Wars (Greek: Ὑπὲρ τῶν Πολέμων Λόγοι, Hypèr tōn Polémon Lógoi, "Words on the Wars"; Latin: De Bellis, "On the Wars") is his most important work, although less well known than the Secret History. The first seven books seem to have been largely completed by 545 and may have been published as a unit. They were, however, updated to mid-century before publication, with the latest mentioned event occurring in early 551. The eighth and final book brings the history to 553.

The first two books—often known as The Persian War (Latin: De Bello Persico)—deal with the conflict between the Romans and Sassanid Persia in Mesopotamia, Syria, Armenia, Lazica, and Iberia (present-day Georgia).[f] It details the campaigns of the Sassaniad shah Kavadh I, the 532 'Nika' revolt, the war by Kavadh's successor Khosrau I in 540, his destruction of Antioch and deportation of its inhabitants to Mesopotamia, and the great plague that devastated the empire from 542. The Persian War also covers the early career of Procopius's patron Belisarius
Belisarius
in some detail.

The Wars’ next two books—known as The Vandal or Vandalic War (De Bello Vandalico)—cover Belisarius's successful campaign against the Vandal kingdom that had occupied Rome's provinces in northwest Africa for the last century.

The final four books—known as The Gothic War (De Bello Gothico)—cover the Italian campaigns by Belisarius
Belisarius
and others against the Ostrogoths. It includes accounts of the 1st and 2nd sieges of Naples and the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd sieges of Rome. The last book describes the eunuch Narses's successful conclusion of the Italian campaign and includes some coverage of campaigns along the empire's eastern borders as well. The Wars was influential on later Byzantine historiography.[16] Histories, a continuation of Procopius's work in a similar style, was undertaken by Agathias
Agathias
in the 570s.

Secret History[edit] Belisarius
Belisarius
may be this bearded figure on the right of Emperor Justinian I
Justinian I
in the mosaic in the Church of San Vitale, Ravenna, which celebrates the reconquest of Italy by the Roman army under the skillful leadership of Belisarius. Procopius's now famous Anecdota also known as Secret History (Greek: Ἀπόκρυφη Ἱστορία, Apókryphe Historía; Latin: Historia Arcana) was discovered centuries later at the Vatican Library in Rome[17] and published in Lyon
Lyon
by Niccolò Alamanni in 1623. Its existence was already known from the Suda, which referred to it as Procopius's "unpublished works" (Ἀνέκδοτα, Anékdota; Anecdota). The Secret History covers roughly the same years as the first seven books of The History of the Wars and appears to have been written after they were published. Current consensus generally dates it to 550 or 558, although others set it as late as 562. In the eyes of many scholars, the Secret History reveals an author who had become deeply disillusioned with Emperor Justinian, his wife Theodora, the general Belisarius, and his wife Antonina. The work claims to expose the secret springs of their public actions, as well as the private lives of the emperor and his entourage. Justinian is portrayed as cruel, venal, prodigal, and incompetent. In one passage, it is even claimed that he was possessed by demonic spirits or was himself a demon:

.mw-parser-output .templatequote overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px .mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0 And some of those who have been with Justinian at the palace late at night, men who were pure of spirit, have thought they saw a strange demoniac form taking his place. One man said that the Emperor suddenly rose from his throne and walked about, and indeed he was never wont to remain sitting for long, and immediately Justinian's head vanished, while the rest of his body seemed to ebb and flow; whereat the beholder stood aghast and fearful, wondering if his eyes were deceiving him. But presently he perceived the vanished head filling out and joining the body again as strangely as it had left it.[18]

Similarly, the Theodora of the Secret History is a garish portrait of vulgarity and insatiable lust juxtaposed with cold-blooded self-interest, shrewishness, and envious and fearful mean-spiritedness. Among the more titillating (and dubious) revelations in the Secret History is Procopius's account of Theodora's thespian accomplishments:

Often, even in the theatre, in the sight of all the people, she removed her costume and stood nude in their midst, except for a girdle about the groin: not that she was abashed at revealing that, too, to the audience, but because there was a law against appearing altogether naked on the stage, without at least this much of a fig-leaf. Covered thus with a ribbon, she would sink down to the stage floor and recline on her back. Slaves to whom the duty was entrusted would then scatter grains of barley from above into the calyx of this passion flower, whence geese, trained for the purpose, would next pick the grains one by one with their bills and eat.[19]

On the other hand, it has been argued that Procopius
Procopius
prepared the Secret History as an exaggerated document out of fear that a conspiracy might overthrow Justinian's regime, which—as a kind of court historian—might be reckoned to include him. The unpublished manuscript would then have been a kind of insurance, which could be offered to the new ruler as a way to avoid execution or exile after the coup. If this hypothesis were correct, the Secret History would not be proof that Procopius
Procopius
hated Justinian or Theodora.[20]

The Buildings[edit] Triumphal arch at the entrance to the Sangarius Bridge The Buildings (Greek: Περὶ Κτισμάτων, Perì Ktismáton; Latin: De Aedificiis, "On Buildings") is a panegyric on Justinian's public works projects throughout the empire.[21] The first book may date to before the collapse of the first dome of Hagia Sophia in 557, but some scholars think that it is possible that the work postdates the building of the bridge over the Sangarius in the late 550s.[22] Historians consider Buildings to be an incomplete work due to evidence of the surviving version being a draft with two possible redactions.[21][23] Buildings was likely written at Justinian's behest, and it is doubtful that its sentiments expressed are sincere. It tells us nothing further about Belisarius, and it takes a sharply different attitude towards Justinian. He is presented as an idealised Christian emperor who built churches for the glory of God and defenses for the safety of his subjects. He is depicted showing particular concern for the water supply, building new aqueducts and restoring those that had fallen into disuse. Theodora, who was dead when this panegyric was written, is mentioned only briefly, but Procopius's praise of her beauty is fulsome. Due to the panegyrical nature of Procopius's Buildings, historians have discovered several discrepancies between claims made by Procopius and accounts in other primary sources. A prime example is Procopius's starting the reign of Justinian in 518, which was actually the start of the reign of his uncle and predecessor Justin I. By treating the uncle's reign as part of his nephew's, Procopius
Procopius
was able to credit Justinian with buildings erected or begun under Justin's administration. Such works include renovation of the walls of Edessa after its 525 flood and consecration of several churches in the region. Similarly, Procopius
Procopius
falsely credits Justinian for the extensive refortification of the cities of Tomis and Histria in Scythia Minor. This had actually been carried out under Anastasius I, who reigned before Justin.[24]

Style[edit] Procopius
Procopius
belongs to the school of late antique historians who continued the traditions of the Second Sophistic. They wrote in Attic Greek; their models were Herodotus, Polybius and—particularly—Thucydides; and their subject matter was secular history. They avoided vocabulary unknown to Attic Greek and inserted an explanation when they had to use contemporary words. Thus Procopius includes glosses of monks ("the most temperate of Christians") and churches (as equivalent to a "temple" or "shrine"), since monasticism was unknown to the ancient Athenians and their ekklesía had been a popular assembly.[25] The secular historians eschewed the history of the Christian church; ecclesiastical history was left to a separate genre after Eusebius. However, Cameron has argued convincingly that Procopius's works reflect the tensions between the classical and Christian models of history in 6th-century Constantinople. This is supported by Whitby's analysis of Procopius's depiction of the capital and its cathedral in comparison to contemporary pagan panegyrics.[26] Procopius
Procopius
can be seen as depicting Justinian as essentially God's vicegerent, making the case for buildings being a primarily religious panegyric.[27] Procopius
Procopius
indicates that he planned to write an ecclesiastical history himself[28] and, if he had, he would probably have followed the rules of that genre. As far as known, however, such an ecclesiastical history was never written.

Legacy[edit] A number of historical novels based on Procopius's works (along with other sources) have been written. Count Belisarius
Belisarius
was written by poet and novelist Robert Graves
Robert Graves
in 1938. Procopius
Procopius
himself appears as a minor character in Felix Dahn's A Struggle for Rome and in L. Sprague de Camp's alternate history novel Lest Darkness Fall. The novel's main character, archaeologist Martin Padway, derives most of his knowledge of historical events from the Secret History.[29]

List of selected works[edit] Procopii Caesariensis opera omnia. Edited by J. Haury; revised by G. Wirth. 3 vols. Leipzig: Teubner, 1962–64. Greek text. Procopius. Edited by H. B. Dewing. 7 vols. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press and London, Hutchinson, 1914–40. Greek text and English translation. Procopius, The Secret History, translated by G. A. Williamson. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1966. A readable and accessible English translation of the Anecdota. Recently re-issued by Penguin (2007) with an updated and livelier translation by Peter Sarris, who has also provided a new commentary and notes. Prokopios, The Secret History, translated by Anthony Kaldellis. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 2010. This edition includes related texts, an introductory essay, notes, maps, a timeline, a guide to the main sources from the period and a guide to scholarship in English. The translator uses blunt and precise English prose in order to adhere to the style of the original text. Notes[edit]

^ "Like many Byzantine scholars, Procopius
Procopius
affected a remarkable traditional form of writing".[1]

^ For an alternative reading of Procopius
Procopius
as a trained engineer, see Howard-Johnson.[7]

^ Procopius
Procopius
uses and translates a number of Latin
Latin
words in his Wars. Börm suggests a possible acquaintance with Vergil and Sallust.[8]

^ Procopius
Procopius
speaks of becoming Belisarius's advisor (symboulos) in that year.[9]

^ Before modern times, European and Mediterranean historians, as far as weather is concerned, typically recorded only the extreme or major weather events for a year or a multi-year period, preferring to focus on the human activities of policy makers and warriors instead.

^ A detailed analysis is provided by Börm.[15]

References[edit]

^ "Procopius", John Moorhead, Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing: M–Z, Vol. II, Kelly Boyd, (Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 1999), 962.

^ a b Suda
Suda
pi.2479. See under 'Procopius' on Suda
Suda
On Line.

^ Procopius, Wars of Justinian I.1.1; Suda
Suda
pi.2479. See under 'Procopius' on Suda
Suda
On Line.

^ Cameron, Averil: Procopius
Procopius
and the Sixth Century, London: Duckworth, 1985, p.7.

^ Evans, James A. S.: Procopius. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1972, p. 31.

^ Cameron, Procopius
Procopius
and the Sixth Century, p. 6.

^ Howard-Johnson, James: 'The Education and Expertise of Procopius'; in Antiquité Tardive 10 (2002), 19–30.

^ Börm, Henning (2007) Prokop und die Perser, p.46. Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart. .mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em ISBN 978-3-515-09052-0

^ Procopius, Wars, 1.12.24.

^ Wars, I.18.1-56

^ Wars, I.21.2

^ Wars, I.24.1-58

^ 1.

^ Wars, VIII.

^ Börm, Henning. Prokop und die Perser. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2007.

^ Cresci, Lia Raffaella. "Procopio al confine tra due tradizioni storiografiche". Rivista di Filologia e di Istruzione Classica 129.1 (2001) 61–77.

^ http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2011/01/03/110103fa_fact_mendelsohn

^ Procopius, Secret History 12.20–22, trans. Atwater.

^ Procopius
Procopius
Secret History 9.20–21, trans. Atwater.

^ Cf. Börm (2015).

^ a b Downey, Glanville: "The Composition of Procopius, De Aedificiis", in Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 78: pp. 171–183; abstract from JSTOR

^ Whitby, Michael: "Procopian Polemics: a review of A. Kaldellis Procopius
Procopius
of Caesarea. Tyranny, History, and Philosophy at the End of Antiquity", in The Classical Review 55 (2006), pp. 648–

^ Cameron, Averil. Procopius
Procopius
and the Sixth Century. London: Routledge, 1985.

^ Croke, Brian and James Crow: " Procopius
Procopius
and Dara", in The Journal of Roman Studies 73 (1983), 143–159.

^ Wars, 2.9.14 and 1.7.22.

^ Buildings, Book I.

^ Whitby, Mary: "Procopius' Buildings Book I: A Panegyrical Perspective", in Antiquité Tardive 8 (2000), 45–57.

^ Secret History, 26.18.

^ de Camp, L. Sprague (1949). Lest Darkness Fall. Ballantine Books. p. 111. |access-date= requires |url= (help)

This article is based on an earlier version by James Allan Evans, originally posted at Nupedia. Further reading[edit] Adshead, Katherine: Procopius' Poliorcetica: continuities and discontinuities, in: G. Clarke et al. (eds.): Reading the past in late antiquity, Australian National UP, Rushcutters Bay 1990, pp. 93–119 Alonso-Núñez, J. M.: Jordanes
Jordanes
and Procopius
Procopius
on Northern Europe, in: Nottingham Medieval Studies 31 (1987), 1–16. Amitay, Ory: Procopius
Procopius
of Caesarea
Caesarea
and the Girgashite Diaspora, in: Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha 20 (2011), 257–276. Anagnostakis, Ilias: Procopius's dream before the campaign against Libya: a reading of Wars 3.12.1-5, in: C. Angelidi and G. Calofonos (eds.), Dreaming in Byzantium and Beyond, Farnham: Ashgate Publishing 2014, 79–94. Bachrach, Bernard S.: Procopius, Agathias
Agathias
and the Frankish Military, in: Speculum 45 (1970), 435–441. Bachrach, Bernard S.: Procopius
Procopius
and the chronology of Clovis's reign, in: Viator 1 (1970), 21–32. Baldwin, Barry: An Aphorism in Procopius, in: Rheinisches Museum für Philologie 125 (1982), 309–311. Baldwin, Barry: Sexual Rhetoric
Rhetoric
in Procopius, in: Mnemosyne 40 (1987), pp. 150–152 Belke, Klaus: Prokops De aedificiis, Buch V, zu Kleinasien, in: Antiquité Tardive 8 (2000), 115–125. Börm, Henning: Prokop und die Perser. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2007. (Review in English by G. Greatrex and Review in English by A. Kaldellis) Börm, Henning: Procopius
Procopius
of Caesarea, in Encyclopaedia Iranica Online, New York 2013. Börm, Henning: Procopius, his predecessors, and the genesis of the Anecdota: Antimonarchic discourse in late antique historiography, in: H. Börm (ed.): Antimonarchic discourse in Antiquity. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag 2015, 305–346. Braund, David: Procopius
Procopius
on the Economy of Lazica, in: The Classical Quarterly 41 (1991), 221–225. Brodka, Dariusz: Die Geschichtsphilosophie in der spätantiken Historiographie. Studien zu Prokopios von Kaisareia, Agathias
Agathias
von Myrina und Theophylaktos Simokattes. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2004. Burn, A. R.: Procopius
Procopius
and the island of ghosts, in: English Historical Review 70 (1955), 258–261. Cameron, Averil: Procopius
Procopius
and the Sixth Century. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985. Cameron, Averil: The scepticism of Procopius, in: Historia 15 (1966), 466–482. Colvin, Ian: Reporting Battles and Understanding Campaigns in Procopius
Procopius
and Agathias: Classicising Historians' Use of Archived Documents as Sources, in: A. Sarantis (ed.): War and warfare in late antiquity. Current perspectives, Leiden: Brill 2013, 571–598. Cresci, Lia Raffaella: Procopio al confine tra due tradizioni storiografiche, in: Rivista di Filologia e di Istruzione Classica 129 (2001), 61–77. Cristini, Marco: Il seguito ostrogoto di Amalafrida: confutazione di Procopio, Bellum Vandalicum 1.8.12, in: Klio 99 (2017), 278-289. Croke, Brian and James Crow: Procopius
Procopius
and Dara, in: The Journal of Roman Studies 73 (1983), 143–159. Downey, Glanville: The Composition of Procopius, De Aedificiis, in: Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 78 (1947), 171–183. Evans, James A. S.: Justinian and the Historian Procopius, in: Greece & Rome 17 (1970), 218–223. Evans, James A. S.: Procopius. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1972. Gordon, C. D.: Procopius
Procopius
and Justinian's Financial Policies, in: Phoenix 13 (1959), 23–30. Greatrex, Geoffrey: Procopius
Procopius
and the Persian Wars, D. Phil. thesis, Oxford, 1994. Greatrex, Geoffrey: The dates of Procopius' works, in: BMGS 18 (1994), 101–114. Greatrex, Geoffrey: The Composition of Procopius' Persian Wars and John the Cappadocian, in: Prudentia 27 (1995), 1–13. Greatrex, Geoffrey: Rome and Persia at War, 502–532. London: Francis Cairns, 1998. Greatrex, Geoffrey: Recent work on Procopius
Procopius
and the composition of Wars VIII, in: BMGS 27 (2003), 45–67. Greatrex, Geoffrey: Perceptions of Procopius
Procopius
in Recent Scholarship, in: Histos 8 (2014), 76–121 and 121a–e (addenda). Howard-Johnson, James: The Education and Expertise of Procopius, in: Antiquité Tardive 10 (2002), 19–30 Kaegi, Walter: Procopius
Procopius
the military historian, in: Byzantinische Forschungen. 15, 1990, ISSN 0167-5346, 53–85 (online (PDF; 989 KB)). Kaldellis, Anthony: Classicism, Barbarism, and Warfare: Prokopios and the Conservative Reaction to Later Roman Military Policy, American Journal of Ancient History, n.s. 3-4 (2004-2005 [2007]), 189-218. Kaldellis, Anthony: Identifying Dissident Circles in Sixth-Century Byzantium: The Friendship of Prokopios and Ioannes Lydos, Florilegium, Vol. 21 (2004), 1-17. Kaldellis, Anthony: Procopius
Procopius
of Caesarea: Tyranny, History and Philosophy at the End of Antiquity. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004. Kaldellis, Anthony: Prokopios’ Persian War: A Thematic and Literary Analysis, in: R. Macrides, ed., History as Literature in Byzantium, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2010, 253-273. Kaldellis, Anthony: Prokopios’ Vandal War: Thematic Trajectories and Hidden Transcripts, in: S. T. Stevens & J. Conant, eds., North Africa under Byzantium and Early Islam, Washington, D.C: Dumbarton Oaks, 2016, 13-21. Kaldellis, Anthony: The Date and Structure of Prokopios’ Secret History and his Projected Work on Church History, in: Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies, Vol. 49 (2009), 585-616. Kruse, Marion: The Speech of the Armenians in Procopius: Justinian's Foreign Policy and the Transition between Books 1 and 2 of the Wars, in: The Classical Quarterly 63 (2013), 866–881. Lillington-Martin, Christopher, 2007–2017: 2007, "Archaeological and Ancient Literary Evidence for a Battle near Dara Gap, Turkey, AD 530: Topography, Texts and Trenches" in BAR –S1717, 2007 The Late Roman Army in the Near East from Diocletian to the Arab Conquest Proceedings of a colloquium held at Potenza, Acerenza and Matera, Italy edited by Ariel S. Lewin and Pietrina Pellegrini, pp. 299–311; 2009, "Procopius, Belisarius
Belisarius
and the Goths" in Journal of the Oxford University History Society,(2009) Odd Alliances edited by Heather Ellis and Graciela Iglesias Rogers. ISSN 1742-917X, pages 1– 17, https://sites.google.com/site/jouhsinfo/issue7specialissueforinternetexplorer; 2011, "Secret Histories", http://classicsconfidential.co.uk/2011/11/19/secret-histories/; 2012, "Hard and Soft Power on the Eastern Frontier: a Roman Fortlet between Dara and Nisibis, Mesopotamia, Turkey: Prokopios’ Mindouos?" in The Byzantinist, edited by Douglas Whalin, Issue 2 (2012), pp. 4–5, http://oxfordbyzantinesociety.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/obsnews2012final.pdf; 2013, Procopius
Procopius
on the struggle for Dara and Rome, in A. Sarantis, N. Christie (eds.): War and Warfare in Late Antiquity: Current Perspectives (Late Antique Archaeology 8.1–8.2 2010–11), Leiden: Brill 2013, pp. 599–630, ISBN 978-90-04-25257-8; 2013 “La defensa de Roma por Belisario” in: Justiniano I el Grande (Desperta Ferro) edited by Alberto Pérez Rubio, no. 18 (July 2013), pages 40-45, ISSN 2171-9276; 2017, Procopius
Procopius
of Caesarea: Literary and Historical Interpretations (editor), Routledge (July 2017), www.routledge.com/9781472466044; 2017, "Introduction" and chapter 10, “Procopius, πάρεδρος / quaestor, Codex Justinianus, I.27 and Belisarius’ strategy in the Mediterranean” in Procopius
Procopius
of Caesarea: Literary and Historical Interpretations above. Maas, Michael Robert: Strabo and Procopius: Classical Geography for a Christian Empire, in H. Amirav et al. (eds.): From Rome to Constantinople. Studies in Honour of Averil Cameron, Leuven: Peeters, 2007, 67–84. Martindale, John: The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire III, Cambridge 1992, 1060–1066. Meier, Mischa: Prokop, Agathias, die Pest und das ′Ende′ der antiken Historiographie, in Historische Zeitschrift
Historische Zeitschrift
278 (2004), 281–310. Pazdernik, Charles F.: Xenophon's Hellenica in Procopius' Wars: Pharnabazus and Belisarius, in Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 46 (2006), 175–206. Rance, Philip: " Narses
Narses
and the Battle of Taginae (552 AD): Procopius and Sixth-Century Warfare", Historia. Zeitschrift für alte Geschichte 30.4 (2005) 424-472. Rubin, Berthold: Prokopios, in Realencyclopädie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft 23/1 (1957), 273–599. Earlier published (with index) as Prokopios von Kaisareia, Stuttgart: Druckenmüller, 1954. Stewart, Michael, Contests of Andreia in Procopius’ Gothic Wars, Παρεκβολαι 4 (2014), pp. 21–54. Stewart, Michael, The Andreios Eunuch-Commander Narses: Sign of a Decoupling of martial Virtues and Hegemonic Masculinity in the early Byzantine Empire?, Cerae 2 (2015), pp. 1–25. Treadgold, Warren: The Early Byzantine Historians, Basingstoke: Macmillan 2007, 176–226. The Secret History of Art by Noah Charney
Noah Charney
on the Vatican Library
Vatican Library
and Procopius. An article by art historian Noah Charney
Noah Charney
about the Vatican Library and its famous manuscript, Historia Arcana by Procopius. Whately, Conor, Battles and Generals: Combat, Culture, and Didacticism in Procopius' Wars. Leiden, 2016. Whitby, L. M. " Procopius
Procopius
and the Development of Roman Defences in Upper Mesopotamia", in P. Freeman and D. Kennedy (ed.), The Defence of the Roman and Byzantine East, Oxford, 1986, 717–35. External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about:Procopius Texts of Procopius[edit] Complete Works, Greek text (Migne Patrologia Graeca) with analytical indexes The Secret History, English translation (Atwater, 1927) at the Internet Medieval Sourcebook The Secret History, English translation (Dewing, 1935) at LacusCurtius The Buildings, English translation (Dewing, 1935) at LacusCurtius The Buildings, Book IV Greek text with commentaries, index nominum, etc. at Sorin Olteanu's LTDM Project Works by Procopius
Procopius
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Procopius
Procopius
at Internet Archive H. B. Dewing's Loeb edition of the works of Procopius: vols. I–VI at the Internet Archive
Internet Archive
(History of the Wars, Secret History) Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society (1888): Of the buildings of Justinian by Procopius, (ca 560 A.D) Complete Works 1, Greek ed. by K. W. Dindorf, Latin
Latin
trans. by Claude Maltret in Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae
Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae
Pars II Vol. 1, 1833. (Persian Wars I–II, Vandal Wars I–II) Complete Works 2, Greek ed. by K. W. Dindorf, Latin
Latin
trans. by Claude Maltret in Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae
Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae
Pars II Vol. 2, 1833. (Gothic Wars I–IV) Complete Works 3, Greek ed. by K. W. Dindorf, Latin
Latin
trans. by Claude Maltret in Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae
Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae
Pars II Vol. 3, 1838. (Secret History, Buildings of Justinian) Secondary material[edit]  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). " Procopius
Procopius
of Caesarea" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Entry for Procopius
Procopius
from the Suda. vteByzantine historians5th century Annianus of Alexandria Eunapius John Rufus Malchus Olympiodorus of Thebes Panodorus of Alexandria Philostorgius Priscus Sabinus of Heraclea Socrates of Constantinople Sozomen Theodoret 6th century Agathias Cyril of Scythopolis Eustathius of Epiphania Evagrius Scholasticus Hesychius of Miletus John of Ephesus John of Epiphania Joshua the Stylite Jordanes John Malalas Liberatus of Carthage Marcellinus Comes Menander Protector Nonnosus Peter the Patrician Procopius Theodorus Lector Theophanes of Byzantium Zacharias Rhetor Zosimus 7th century Chronicon Paschale John of Antioch Trajan the Patrician Theophylact Simocatta 8th century Hippolytus of Thebes 9th century Theophanes the Confessor George Syncellus Nikephoros I of Constantinople George Hamartolos Scriptor Incertus 10th century Chronicle of Monemvasia Constantine VII Joseph Genesius John Kaminiates Leo the Deacon Pseudo-Simeon Symeon the Metaphrast Theophanes Continuatus 11th century Michael Attaleiates George Kedrenos Michael Psellos John Skylitzes John Xiphilinus Yahya of Antioch 12th century Nikephoros Bryennios the Younger Niketas Choniates Eustathius of Thessalonica Michael Glykas Anna Komnene John Kinnamos Constantine Manasses Joannes Zonaras 13th century George Akropolites Theodore Skoutariotes 14th century Nicephorus Gregoras Nikephoros Kallistos Xanthopoulos John VI Kantakouzenos George Kodinos George Pachymeres Michael Panaretos 15th century John Anagnostes John Cananus Laonikos Chalkokondyles Michael Critobulus Doukas George Sphrantzes

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