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The Info List - Pre-Hilalian Dialects


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PRE-HILALIAN DIALECTS are a continuum of Arabic dialects native to North Africa. They constitute, along with the Hilalian dialects , the larger Maghrebi Arabic
Maghrebi Arabic
family .

HISTORY

Pre- Hilalian dialects are a result of early Arabization phases that lasted from the 7th to the 12th centuries, and that concerned the main urban settlements ( Kairouan
Kairouan
, Constantine , Tlemcen
Tlemcen
and Fez
Fez
) and the neighboring harbors (respectively Mahdia
Mahdia
and Sousse
Sousse
, Jijel and Collo , Rachgun and Honaine , and Badis and Tangiers ), as well as the –triangular– areas between them.

This early Arabization also concerned various Jewish communities and a few urban centers outside the main Arabized areas, such as Tunis
Tunis
and Salé
Salé
.

VARIANTS

Pre-Hilalian Arabic dialects are classified in three types:

* (Old) Urban dialects: those of the major historical urban settlements such as Kairouan
Kairouan
, Tunis
Tunis
, Constantine , Bougie , Algiers , Tlemcen
Tlemcen
, Taza , Fez
Fez
, Rabat
Rabat
, Tetouan and Chefchaouen ;

* "Village" and Mountain dialects: those of the areas between the four original urban settlements (Kairouan, Constantine, Tlemcen
Tlemcen
and Fez) and their respective harbors:

* Sahel dialects in the Sahel, Tunisia ; * Lesser Kabylia dialects in Lesser Kabylia , Constantinois (eastern Algeria
Algeria
) ; * Trara dialects in the Trara mountains, Oranais (western Algeria
Algeria
) ; * Mountain dialects in the southern and western part of the Rif
Rif
, northern Morocco
Morocco
;

* All Jewish dialects of the Maghreb
Maghreb
.

Two geographical groups of pre- Hilalian dialects are distinguished:

* Eastern dialects, those spoken in Libya, the Tunisian Sahel and the Constantinois ; * Western dialects, those spoken in the Oranais and Morocco
Morocco
.

Additionally, the Maltese language
Maltese language
is often classified as pre-Hilalian, since it shares many pre-Hilalian features.

Pre-Hilalian Urban dialects were formerly spoken in other cities such as Tripoli
Tripoli
, Mascara
Mascara
and Azemmour , where they are extinct, replaced by the more widespread Hilalian dialects. Currently, many (Old) Urban dialects are endangered because of the prevalence of the Hilalian-based new Urban koinés in everyday communication.

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C Dominique Caubet, « Questionnaire de dialectologie du Maghreb
Maghreb
», in: EDNA vol.5 (2000-2001), pp.73–92 * ^ Kees Versteegh, « The Dialects of Arabic », in: The Arabic Language, Columbia University Press (1997), pp.148–172 * ^ Martine Vanhove, « De quelques traits prehilaliens en maltais », in: Peuplement et Arabisation au Maghreb
Maghreb
Occidental (Dialectologie et Histoire), Casa Velazquez - Universidad de Zaragoza (1998), pp.97-108

* v * t * e

Varieties of Arabic
Varieties of Arabic

PRE-ISLAMIC

* Old Arabic
Old Arabic

MODERN LITERARY

* Classical * Modern Standard * Maltese

NILO-EGYPTIAN

* Egyptian * Chadian * Sa\'idi * Sudanese

PENINSULAR

NORTHEASTERN

* Gulf

* Omani * Shihhi * Dhofari * Kuwaiti

* Najdi

WESTERN

* Bareqi

* Hejazi

* Sedentary * Bedouin

SOUTHERN

* Baharna

* Yemeni

* Hadhrami * San\'ani * Ta\'izzi-Adeni * Tihami * Judeo-Yemeni

NORTHWESTERN

* Northwest Arabian

EASTERN

MESOPOTAMIAN

* North Mesopotamian

* Cypriot * Anatolian * Judeo-Iraqi

* South Mesopotamian

* Baghdad Koiné * Khuzestani

CENTRAL ASIAN

* Afghani * Khorasani * Central Asian Arabic

LEVANTINE

NO