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The Info List - Pre-Hilalian Dialects


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Pre- Hilalian dialects are a continuum of Arabic dialects native to North Africa. They constitute, along with the Hilalian dialects, the larger Maghrebi Arabic
Maghrebi Arabic
family. History[edit] Pre- Hilalian dialects are a result of early Arabization
Arabization
phases that lasted from the 7th to the 12th centuries, and that concerned the main urban settlements (Kairouan, Constantine, Tlemcen
Tlemcen
and Fez) and the neighboring harbors (respectively Mahdia
Mahdia
and Sousse, Jijel
Jijel
and Collo, Rachgun and Honaine, and Badis
Badis
and Tangiers), as well as the –triangular– areas between them.[1] This early Arabization
Arabization
also concerned various Jewish communities and a few urban centers outside the main Arabized areas, such as Tunis
Tunis
and Salé.[1] Variants[edit] Pre-Hilalian Arabic dialects are classified in three types:[1]

(Old) Urban dialects (fr): those of the major historical urban settlements such as Kairouan, Tunis, Constantine, Bougie, Algiers, Tlemcen, Taza, Fez, Rabat, Tetouan
Tetouan
and Chefchaouen ; "Village" and Mountain dialects: those of the areas between the four original urban settlements (Kairouan, Constantine, Tlemcen
Tlemcen
and Fez) and their respective harbors:

Sahel dialects in the Sahel, Tunisia ; Lesser Kabylia
Lesser Kabylia
dialects in Lesser Kabylia, Constantinois
Constantinois
(eastern Algeria) ; Trara dialects in the Trara mountains, Oranais (western Algeria) ; Mountain dialects in the southern and western part of the Rif, northern Morocco ;

All Jewish dialects of the Maghreb.

Two geographical groups of pre- Hilalian dialects are distinguished:[2]

Eastern dialects, those spoken in Tripolitania, Tunisia and the Constantinois, forming the ancient "Ifriqiya" province ; Western dialects, those spoken in the Algérois, Oranais and Morocco.

Additionally, the Maltese language
Maltese language
is often classified as pre-Hilalian, since it shares many pre-Hilalian features.[3] Pre-Hilalian Urban dialects were formerly spoken in other cities such as Tripoli, Mascara and Azemmour, where they are extinct, replaced by the more widespread Hilalian dialects. Currently, many (Old) Urban dialects are endangered because of the prevalence of the Hilalian-based new Urban koinés in everyday communication. References[edit]

^ a b c Dominique Caubet, « Questionnaire de dialectologie du Maghreb », in: EDNA vol.5 (2000-2001), pp.73–92 ^ Kees Versteegh, « The Dialects of Arabic », in: The Arabic Language, Columbia University Press (1997), pp.148–172 ^ Martine Vanhove, « De quelques traits prehilaliens en maltais », in: Peuplement et Arabisation au Maghreb
Maghreb
Occidental (Dialectologie et Histoire), Casa Velazquez - Universidad de Zaragoza (1998), pp.97-108

v t e

Varieties of Arabic

Pre-Islamic

Old Arabic

Modern literary

Classical Modern Standard

Nilo-Egyptian

Egyptian Chadian Sa'idi Sudanese

Peninsular

Northeastern

Gulf

Omani Shihhi Dhofari Kuwaiti

Najdi

Western

Bareqi Hejazi

Sedentary Bedouin

Southern

Baharna Yemeni

Hadhrami San'ani Ta'izzi-Adeni Tihami Judeo-Yemeni

Northwestern

Northwest Arabian

Eastern

Mesopotamian

North Mesopotamian

Cypriot Anatolian Judeo-Iraqi

South Mesopotamian

Baghdad Koiné Khuzestani

Central Asian

Afghani Khorasani Central Asian Arabic

Levantine

North Levantine

North Syrian Central Levantine

Central Syrian Lebanese

South Levantine

Jordanian Palestinian

Urban Central village

Outer southern

Western

Iberian

Andalusian

Maghrebi

Pre-Hilalian

Urban

North-Eastern Tunisian

Eastern Village

Sahel Sfaxian Lesser Kabylia

Western Village

Traras-Msirda Mountain

Judeo-Maghrebi Arabic

Judeo-Moroccan Judeo-Tripolitanian Judeo-Tunisian

Hilalian

Sulaym

Libyan koiné

Eastern Hilal

Tunisian koiné

Central Hilal

Algerian koiné Algerian Saharan Eastern Algerian Western Algerian

Maqil

Western Moroccan Eastern Moroccan Moroccan koiné Hassānīya

Siculo-Arabic

Sicilian Arabic (extinct ancestor of Maltese which is not part of the Arabic macrolanguage[1])

Undescribed

Shirvani

Judeo-Arabic

Judeo-Iraqi

Judeo-Baghdadi

Judeo-Moroccan Judeo-Tripolitanian Judeo-Tunisian Judeo-Yemeni

Creoles and pidgins

Babalia Bimbashi Juba Nubi Maridi Turku

Italics indicate extinct languages.

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