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POTSDAM (German pronunciation: ( listen )) is the capital and largest city of the German federal state of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
. It directly borders the German capital Berlin
Berlin
and is part of the Berlin/ Brandenburg
Brandenburg
Metropolitan Region . It is situated on the River Havel
Havel
, 24 kilometres (15 miles) southwest of Berlin's city centre.

Potsdam
Potsdam
was a residence of the Prussian
Prussian
kings and the German Kaiser , until 1918. Its planning embodied ideas of The Age of Enlightenment : through a careful balance of architecture and landscape Potsdam
Potsdam
was intended as "a picturesque, pastoral dream" which reminded its residents of their relationship with nature and reason.

Around the city there are a series of interconnected lakes and cultural landmarks, in particular the parks and palaces of Sanssouci
Sanssouci
, the largest World Heritage Site in Germany. The Potsdam Conference
Potsdam Conference
in 1945 was held at the palace Cecilienhof
Cecilienhof
.

Babelsberg
Babelsberg
, in the south-eastern part of Potsdam, was a major film production studio before the 1930s and has enjoyed success as a major center of European film production since the fall of the Berlin
Berlin
Wall . The Filmstudio Babelsberg is the oldest large-scale film studio in the world.

Potsdam
Potsdam
developed into a centre of science in Germany
Germany
in the 19th century. Today, there are three public colleges, the University of Potsdam
Potsdam
, and more than 30 research institutes in the city.

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography

* 1.1 Climate

* 2 History

* 2.1 Etymology * 2.2 Governorate of Potsdam
Potsdam
* 2.3 20th century

* 3 Demography

* 3.1 International residents

* 4 Politics

* 4.1 City * 4.2 Federal State * 4.3 Twin towns

* 5 Transport

* 5.1 Rail transport * 5.2 Road transport

* 6 Education and research

* 7 Culture

* 7.1 Parks * 7.2 Sport

* 8 Notable people

* 8.1 Honorary citizens

* 9 References * 10 Sources * 11 External links

GEOGRAPHY

Templiner See south of Potsdam
Potsdam

The area was formed from a series of large moraines left after the last glacial period . Today, the city is three-quarters green space, with just a quarter as urban area.

There are about 20 lakes and rivers in and around Potsdam, such as the Havel
Havel
, the Griebnitzsee , Templiner See , Tiefer See , Jungfernsee , Teltowkanal, Heiliger See and the Sacrower See . The highest point is the 114-metre (374 ft) high Kleiner Ravensberg.

Potsdam
Potsdam
is divided into seven historic city districts and nine new Ortsteile (villages), which joined the city in 2003. The appearances of the city districts are quite different. The districts in the north and in the centre consist mainly of historical buildings, the south of the city is dominated by larger areas of newer buildings.

CLIMATE

Potsdam
Potsdam
has an Oceanic climate , with cool, snowy winters and relatively cool summers. The average winter high temperature is 3.5 °C (38.3 °F), with a low of −1.7 °C (28.9 °F). Snow is common in the winter. Spring and autumn are short. Summers are mild, with a high of 23.6 °C (74.5 °F) and a low of 12.7 °C (54.9 °F).

CLIMATE DATA FOR POTSDAM

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 13.6 (56.5) 18.6 (65.5) 25.7 (78.3) 31.8 (89.2) 32.5 (90.5) 34.2 (93.6) 36.3 (97.3) 36.5 (97.7) 32.9 (91.2) 27.8 (82) 21.2 (70.2) 15.5 (59.9) 36.5 (97.7)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 1.7 (35.1) 3.5 (38.3) 8.1 (46.6) 13.5 (56.3) 19.1 (66.4) 22.4 (72.3) 23.6 (74.5) 23.4 (74.1) 19.2 (66.6) 13.7 (56.7) 7.1 (44.8) 3.0 (37.4) 13.2 (55.8)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) −0.9 (30.4) 0.2 (32.4) 3.7 (38.7) 8.0 (46.4) 13.2 (55.8) 16.6 (61.9) 17.9 (64.2) 17.5 (63.5) 13.9 (57) 9.4 (48.9) 4.2 (39.6) 0.7 (33.3) 8.7 (47.7)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −3.4 (25.9) −2.7 (27.1) 0.0 (32) 3.4 (38.1) 8.0 (46.4) 11.5 (52.7) 13.0 (55.4) 12.7 (54.9) 9.8 (49.6) 6.0 (42.8) 1.7 (35.1) −1.7 (28.9) 4.9 (40.8)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −20.9 (−5.6) −19.9 (−3.8) −14.0 (6.8) −5.8 (21.6) −2.6 (27.3) 2.2 (36) 6.2 (43.2) 5.4 (41.7) 0.1 (32.2) −3.5 (25.7) −16.6 (2.1) −24.5 (−12.1) −24.5 (−12.1)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 44 (1.73) 38 (1.5) 38 (1.5) 44 (1.73) 56 (2.2) 69 (2.72) 52 (2.05) 60 (2.36) 46 (1.81) 36 (1.42) 47 (1.85) 55 (2.17) 585 (23.03)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 1.0 MM) 11 8 9 9 10 10 9 9 8 7 10 12 112

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 47.1 73.7 124.2 168.3 226.9 231.1 231.9 220.1 161.3 114.4 54.0 39.3 1,692.2

Source: NOAA

HISTORY

ETYMOLOGY

The name "Potsdam" originally seems to have been Poztupimi . A common theory is that it derives from an old West Slavonic term meaning "beneath the oaks", i.e., the corrupted pod dubmi/dubimi (pod "beneath, dub "oak"). However some question this explanation. Document from the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
in 993 mentioning Poztupimi New Palace today Stadtschloss Potsdam
Potsdam
in 1773

The area around Potsdam
Potsdam
shows occupancy since the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
and was part of Magna Germania as described by Tacitus . After the great migrations of the Germanic peoples, Slavs moved in and Potsdam
Potsdam
was probably founded after the 7th century as a settlement of the Hevelli tribe centred on a castle. It was first mentioned in a document in 993 AD as Poztupimi, when Emperor Otto III gifted the territory to the Quedlinburg Abbey
Quedlinburg Abbey
, then led by his aunt Matilda . By 1317, it was mentioned as a small town. It gained its town charter in 1345. In 1573, it was still a small market town of 2,000 inhabitants. Potsdam lost nearly half of its population due to the Thirty Years\' War (1618–1648).

A continuous Hohenzollern
Hohenzollern
possession since 1415, Potsdam
Potsdam
became prominent, when it was chosen in 1660 as the hunting residence of Frederick William I , Elector of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
, the core of the powerful state that later became the Kingdom of Prussia
Prussia
. It also housed Prussian
Prussian
barracks . Voltaire
Voltaire
at the residence of Frederick II in Potsdam. Partial view of an engraving by Pierre Charles Baquoy , after N. A. Monsiau.

After the Edict of Potsdam in 1685, Potsdam
Potsdam
became a centre of European immigration. Its religious freedom attracted people from France
France
(Huguenots ), Russia
Russia
, the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Bohemia
Bohemia
. The edict accelerated population growth and economic recovery.

Later, the city became a full residence of the Prussian
Prussian
royal family. The buildings of the royal residences were built mainly during the reign of Frederick the Great . One of these is the Sanssouci
Sanssouci
Palace (French: "without cares", by Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff , 1744), famed for its formal gardens and Rococo interiors. Other royal residences include the New Palace and the Orangery .

In 1815, at the formation of the Province of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
, Potsdam became the provincial capital until 1918, however, interrupted and succeeded by Berlin
Berlin
as provincial capital between 1827 and 1843, and after 1918. The province comprised two governorates named after their capitals Potsdam
Potsdam
and Frankfurt (Oder) .

GOVERNORATE OF POTSDAM

Bond of Potsdam, issued 22. May 1852

Between 1815 and 1945 the city of Potsdam
Potsdam
served as capital of the governorate of Potsdam
Potsdam
(German : Regierungsbezirk Potsdam). The Regierungsbezirk encompassed the former districts of Uckermark , the Mark of Priegnitz, and the greater part of the Middle March . It was situated between Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
and the Province of Pomerania on the north, and the Province of Saxony on the south and west ( Berlin
Berlin
, with a small surrounding district, was an urban governorate and enclave within the governorate of Potsdam
Potsdam
between 1815 and 1822, then it merged as urban district into the governorate only to be disentangled again from Potsdam
Potsdam
governorate in 1875, becoming an own distinct province-like entity on 1 April 1881). Towards the north west the governorate was bounded by the rivers Elbe
Elbe
and the Havel, and on the north east by the Oder
Oder
. The south eastern boundary was to the neighbouring governorate of Frankfurt
Frankfurt
(Oder). About 500,000 inhabitants lived in the Potsdam
Potsdam
governorate, which covered an area of about 20,700 square kilometres (7,992 sq mi), divided into thirteen rural districts , partially named after their capitals:

Angermünde Beeskow-Storkow (as of 1836) East Havelland East Prignitz

Jüterbog-Luckenwalde Lower Barnim Prenzlau Ruppin

Teltow (as of 1836) Teltow-Storkow (until 1835) Templin Upper Barnim

West Havelland West Prignitz Zauch-Belzig

The traditional towns in the governorate were small, however, in the course of the industrial labour migration some reached the rank as urban districts. The principal towns were Brandenburg
Brandenburg
upon Havel
Havel
, Köpenick , Potsdam, Prenzlau
Prenzlau
, Spandau and Ruppin . Until 1875 also Berlin
Berlin
was a town within the governorate. After its disentanglement a number of its suburbs outside Berlin's municipal borders grew to cities, many forming urban within the governorate of Potsdam
Potsdam
such as Charlottenburg
Charlottenburg
, Lichtenberg , Rixdorf (after 1912 Neukölln), and Schöneberg (all of which, as well as Köpenick and Spandau, incorporated into Greater Berlin
Berlin
in 1920). The urban districts were (years indicating the elevation to rank of urban district or affiliation with Potsdam
Potsdam
governorate, respectively):

Berlin
Berlin
(1822–1875) Brandenburg/ Havel
Havel
(as of 1881) Charlottenburg
Charlottenburg
(1877–1920) Eberswalde
Eberswalde
(as of 1911)

Lichtenberg (1908–1920) Schöneberg (1899–1920) Deutsch- Wilmersdorf (1907–1920) Rixdorf (Neukölln) (1899–1920)

Potsdam Rathenow
Rathenow
(as of 1925) Spandau (1886–1920) Wittenberge (as of 1922)

20TH CENTURY

Berlin
Berlin
was the official capital of Prussia
Prussia
and later of the German Empire , but the court remained in Potsdam, where many government officials settled. In 1914, the Emperor Wilhelm II signed the Declaration of War in the Neues Palais. The city lost its status as a second capital in 1918, when Wilhelm II abdicated at the end of World War I .

At the start of the Third Reich
Third Reich
in 1933 there was a ceremonial handshake between President Paul von Hindenburg and the new Chancellor Adolf Hitler on 21 March 1933 in Potsdam's Garrison Church in what became known as the "Day of Potsdam". This symbolised a coalition of the military ( Reichswehr
Reichswehr
) and Nazism . Potsdam
Potsdam
was severely damaged in bombing raids during World War II
World War II
. Potsdam Conference
Potsdam Conference
in 1945 with Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
, Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin

The Cecilienhof
Cecilienhof
Palace was the scene of the Potsdam Conference
Potsdam Conference
from 17 July, to 2 August 1945, at which the victorious Allied leaders ( Harry S. Truman ; Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
and his successor, Clement Attlee ; and Joseph Stalin ) met to decide the future of Germany
Germany
and postwar Europe in general. The conference ended with the Potsdam Agreement and the Potsdam Declaration . The Glienicke Bridge , used for exchanging spies during the Cold War
Cold War

The government of East Germany
Germany
(formally known as the German Democratic Republic (German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR)) tried to remove symbols of Prussian
Prussian
militarism . Many historic buildings, some of them badly damaged in the war, were demolished.

When in 1946 the remainder of the Province of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
west of the Oder-Neiße line was constituted as the state of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
, Potsdam became its capital. In 1952 the GDR disestablished its federative states and replaced them by smaller new East German administrative districts . Potsdam
Potsdam
became the capital of the new Bezirk Potsdam
Potsdam
until 1990.

Potsdam, south-west of Berlin, lay just outside West Berlin
Berlin
after the construction of the Berlin
Berlin
Wall . The walling off of West Berlin
Berlin
not only isolated Potsdam
Potsdam
from West Berlin, but also doubled commuting times to East Berlin
Berlin
. The Glienicke Bridge across the Havel
Havel
connected the city to West Berlin
Berlin
and was the scene of some Cold War
Cold War
exchanges of spies .

After German reunification , Potsdam
Potsdam
became the capital of the newly re-established state of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
. There are many ideas and efforts to reconstruct the original appearance of the city, most remarkably the Potsdam
Potsdam
City Palace and the Garrison Church.

DEMOGRAPHY

Since 2000 Potsdam
Potsdam
is one of the fastest growing cities in Germany. Population development from 1875-2020 within the current municipal boundaries (Blue Line: Population)

Potsdam: Population development within the current boundaries (2013)

YEAR POPULATION

1875 61 719

1890 77 301

1910 101 950

1925 107 734

1933 116 947

1939 125 664

1946 113 035

1950 114 663

1964 117 711

1971 118 923

YEAR POPULATION

1981 139 746

1985 146 746

1989 149 043

1990 147 252

1991 146 441

1992 146 138

1993 145 667

1994 145 227

1995 144 118

1996 143 151

YEAR POPULATION

1997 140 880

1998 139 823

1999 139 695

2000 140 668

2001 141 907

2002 143 246

2003 144 979

2004 145 707

2005 147 583

2006 148 813

YEAR POPULATION

2007 150 833

2008 152 966

2009 154 606

2010 156 906

2011 157 603

2012 159 456

2013 161 468

2014 164 042

2015 167 745

INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTS

People at the Fanfarenzug

Largest groups of foreign residents:

RANK NATIONALITY POPULATION (2013)

1 Russia
Russia
863

2 Ukraine
Ukraine
715

3 Poland
Poland
648

4 Vietnam
Vietnam
355

5 Turkey
Turkey
279

POLITICS

Potsdamer Stadthaus, Townhall.

CITY

Potsdam
Potsdam
has had a mayor (Bürgermeister) and city council since the 15th century. From 1809 the city council was elected, with a mayor (Oberbürgermeister) at its head. During the Third Reich
Third Reich
the mayor was selected by the NSDAP
NSDAP
and the city council was dissolved; it was reconstituted in token form after 1945, but free elections did not take place until after reunification .

Today, the city council is the city's central administrative authority. Local elections took place on 26 October 2003 and again in 2008. Between 1990 and 1999, the Chairman of the City Council was known as the "Town President" but today the post is the "Chairman of the City Council". The mayor is elected directly by the population.

FEDERAL STATE

The Landtag Brandenburg
Brandenburg
, the parliament of the federal state of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
is in Potsdam. It is housed in the Potsdam
Potsdam
City Palace since 2014.

TWIN TOWNS

Potsdam
Potsdam
is twinned with the following cities:

Opole
Opole
Poland 1973

Perugia
Perugia
Italy 1990

Bobigny France 1974

Sioux Falls
Sioux Falls
South Dakota
South Dakota
, USA 1990

Jyväskylä Finland 1985

Bonn
Bonn
North Rhine-Westphalia 1988

Lucerne Switzerland 2002

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany
Germany

TRANSPORT

The Kaiserbahnof building

RAIL TRANSPORT

Potsdam, included in the fare zone "C" (Tarifbereich C) of Berlin
Berlin
's public transport area and fare zones A and B of its own public transport area, is served by the S7 S-Bahn line. The stations served are Griebnitzsee , Babelsberg
Babelsberg
and the Central Station (Hauptbahnhof), the main and long-distance station of the city. Other DB stations in Potsdam
Potsdam
are Charlottenhof, Park Sanssouci
Sanssouci
(including the monumental Kaiserbahnhof ), Medienstadt Babelsberg, Rehbrücke and Pirschheide . The city also possesses a 27 km-long tramway network .

ROAD TRANSPORT

Potsdam
Potsdam
is served by several motorways : the A 10 , a beltway better known as Berliner Ring, the A 115 (using part of the AVUS ) and is closely linked to the A 2 and A 9 . The B 1 and B 2 federal roads cross the city. Potsdam
Potsdam
counts a network of urban and suburban buses.

EDUCATION AND RESEARCH

The University of Potsdam

Potsdam
Potsdam
is a university town . The University of Potsdam was founded in 1991 as a university of the State of Brandenburg. Its predecessor was the Akademie für Staats- und Rechtswissenschaften der DDR "Walter Ulbricht ", a college of education founded in 1948 which was one of the GDR's most important colleges. There are about 20,000 students enrolled at the university. The Einstein Tower was built in 1921 to house research on the theory of relativity

In 1991 the Fachhochschule was founded as the second college; it now has 2,400 students.

In addition there is a College of Film and Television (Hochschule für Film und Fernsehen " Konrad Wolf " HFF), founded in 1954 in Babelsberg
Babelsberg
, the foremost centre of the German film industry since its birth, with currently 600 students.

There are also several research foundations, including Fraunhofer Institutes for Applied Polymer Research and Biomedical Engineering, Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, and Max Planck Institute for Molecular Plant Physiology, the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, the Potsdam
Potsdam
Astrophysical Institute, the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies and the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, which employs 340 people in researching climate change .

As well as universities, Potsdam
Potsdam
is home to reputable secondary schools . Montessori Gesamtschule Potsdam , in western Potsdam, attracts 400 students from the Brandenburg
Brandenburg
and Berlin
Berlin
region.

CULTURE

Main article: List of sights of Potsdam Sanssouci
Sanssouci
Palace . Cecilienhof
Cecilienhof
palace

Potsdam
Potsdam
was historically a centre of European immigration. Its religious tolerance attracted people from France, Russia, the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Bohemia. This is still visible in the culture and architecture of the city.

The most popular attraction in Potsdam
Potsdam
is Sanssouci
Sanssouci
Park , 2 km (1 mi) west of the city centre. In 1744 King Frederick the Great ordered the construction of a residence here, where he could live sans souci ("without worries", in the French spoken at the court). The park hosts a botanical garden ( Botanical Garden, Potsdam ) and many buildings:

* The Sanssouci
Sanssouci
Palace (Schloss Sanssouci), a relatively modest palace of the Prussian
Prussian
royal and German imperial family * The Orangery Palace (Orangerieschloss), former palace for foreign royal guests * The New Palace (Neues Palais), built between 1763 and 1769 to celebrate the end of the Seven Years\' War , in which Prussia celebrated its victory in holding off the combined attacks of Austria and Russia. A century later in 1866 in the Seven Weeks War Prussia defeated Austria
Austria
and ended three centuries of Habsburg dominance in Germany. It is a much larger and grander palace than Sanssouci, having over 200 rooms and 400 statues as decoration. It served as a guest house for numerous royal visitors. It is now housing parts of University of Potsdam . * The Charlottenhof Palace (Schloss Charlottenhof), a Neoclassical palace by Karl Friedrich Schinkel built in 1826 * The Roman Baths (Römische Bäder), built by Karl Friedrich Schinkel and Ludwig Persius
Ludwig Persius
in 1829–1840. It is a complex of buildings including a tea pavilion, a Renaissance-style villa, and a Roman bathhouse (from which the whole complex takes its name). * The Chinese Tea House (Chinesisches Teehaus), an 18th-century pavilion built in a Chinese style, the fashion of the time.

Three gates from the original city wall remain today. The oldest is the Hunters' Gate (Jägertor), built in 1733. The Nauener Tor was built in 1755 and close to the historic Dutch Quarter. The ornate Brandenburg
Brandenburg
Gate (built in 1770, not to be confused with the Brandenburg
Brandenburg
Gate in Berlin) is situated on the Luisenplatz at the western entrance to the old town. St. Nicholas' Church on the Alter Markt

The Old Market Square (Alter Markt) is Potsdam's historical city centre. For three centuries this was the site of the City Palace (Stadtschloß), a royal palace built in 1662. Under Frederick the Great , the palace became the winter residence of the Prussian
Prussian
kings. The palace was severely damaged by bombing in 1945 and demolished in 1961 by the Communist
Communist
authorities. In 2002 the Fortuna Gate (Fortunaportal) was rebuilt in its original historic position which was followed by a complete reconstruction of the palace as the Brandenburg
Brandenburg
Landtag building inaugurated in 2014. Nearby the square in the Humboldtstraße block, which also was demolished after getting damaged in 1945, reconstruction of several representative residential palaces including Palazzo Pompei and Palazzo Barberini housing an arts museum were completed in 2016-2017 alongside with buildings with modernized facades to restore the historical proportions of the block. The old town (main shopping street, Brandenburger Straße)

The Old Market Square is dominated today by the dome of St. Nicholas\' Church (Nikolaikirche), built in 1837 in the classical style. It was the last work of Karl Friedrich Schinkel , who designed the building but did not live to see its completion. It was finished by his disciples Friedrich August Stüler and Ludwig Persius
Ludwig Persius
. The eastern side of the Market Square is dominated by the Old City Hall (Altes Rathaus), built in 1755 by the Dutch architect Jan Bouman (1706–1776). It has a characteristic circular tower, crowned with a gilded Atlas
Atlas
bearing the world on his shoulders. Potsdam's Brandenburg
Brandenburg
Gate Dutch Quarter

North of the Old Market Square is the oval French Church (Französische Kirche), erected in the 1750s by Boumann for the Huguenot
Huguenot
community. Also to the south lies the Museum Barberini , a copy of the previous building, the Barberini Palace. The museum was funded by the German billionaire Hasso Plattner . The former Baroque building was built by Carl von Gontard in 1771–1772, inspired by the Roman-style Renaissance palace Palazzo Barberini . The newly built museum will open in spring 2017.

Another landmark of Potsdam
Potsdam
is the two-street Dutch Quarter (Holländisches Viertel), an ensemble of buildings that is unique in Europe, with about 150 houses built of red bricks in the Dutch style. It was built between 1734 and 1742 under the direction of Jan Bouman to be used by Dutch artisans and craftsmen who had been invited to settle here by King Frederick Wilhelm I . Today, this area is one of Potsdam's most visited districts.

North of the city centre is the Russian colony of Alexandrowka, a small enclave of Russian architecture (including an Orthodox chapel) built in 1825 for a group of Russian immigrants. Since 1999, the colony has been a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site .

East of the Alexandrowka colony is a large park, the New Garden (Neuer Garten), which was laid out from 1786 in the English style. The site contains two palaces; one of them, the Cecilienhof
Cecilienhof
, was where the Potsdam Conference
Potsdam Conference
was held in July and August 1945. The Marmorpalais
Marmorpalais
(Marble Palace) was built in 1789 in the style of classicism . Nearby is the Biosphäre Potsdam , a tropical botanical garden .

Another district of Potsdam
Potsdam
is Babelsberg
Babelsberg
, a quarter south-east of the centre, housing the UFA film studios ( Babelsberg
Babelsberg
Studios ), and an extensive park with some historical buildings, including the Babelsberg
Babelsberg
Palace (Schloß Babelsberg, a neo-Gothic palace designed by Schinkel).

The Einstein Tower is located within the Albert Einstein Science Park , which is on the top of the Telegraphenberg within an astronomy compound.

Potsdam
Potsdam
also includes a memorial centre in the former KGB
KGB
prison in Leistikowstraße. In the Volkspark in the north, there is one of the last monuments dedicated to Lenin in Germany.

PARKS

There are many parks in Potsdam, most of them included in UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Some of them are:

*

Schloss Babelsberg
Babelsberg
*

The Belvedere near Sanssouci
Sanssouci
Park *

View from Babelsberg
Babelsberg
Park to Berlin. *

Marmorpalais
Marmorpalais
in New Garden, Potsdam *

The Chinese House *

Orangerie Schloss

SPORT

* 1. FFC Turbine Potsdam , one of the most successful German female football clubs (Bundesliga (women) ) * Potsdam
Potsdam
Royals, American football team competing in the GFL2 North. * SV Babelsberg
Babelsberg
03 , football club Regionalliga Nordost
Regionalliga Nordost
* Olympic training centre Potsdam * USV Potsdam , Rugby union
Rugby union
( 2nd Rugby-Bundesliga ) and Football ( Kreisklasse ) * List of football clubs in Potsdam * The Potsdamer Schlössermarathon ( Potsdam
Potsdam
Palace Marathon) is a marathon in that is held annually in June. Thousands of runners run the course past the palaces for the half marathon and several hundred repeat the course to complete the full marathon.

NOTABLE PEOPLE

People from Potsdam
Potsdam
who are the subjects of articles can be found here . 18th century Graf Henckel von Donnersmarck Wilhelm von Humboldt
Wilhelm von Humboldt

* Abraham Abramson , (1754–1811), medalist * Wilhelm von Humboldt
Wilhelm von Humboldt
, (1767–1835), scholar and statesman, founder of the Berlin
Berlin
Humboldt University
Humboldt University
* Frederick William III of Prussia
Prussia
, (1770–1840), King of Prussia 1797–1840 * Wilhelm Ludwig Viktor Henckel von Donnersmarck , (1775–1849), Prussian
Prussian
general lieutenant * Eleonore Prochaska , (1785–1813), woman soldier during the liberation war , unrecognized as a man disguised as a drummer, later as an infantryman in the Prussian
Prussian
army against Napoleon

19th century Ludwig Persius, 1840 Frederick III

* Moritz Hermann von Jacobi , (1801–1874), physicist and engineer * Ludwig Persius
Ludwig Persius
, (1803–1845), architect * Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi , (1804–1851), mathematician * Philipp Galen , (1813–1899), writer and physician * Hermann von Helmholtz
Hermann von Helmholtz
, (1821–1894), physiologist and physicist, one of the most important natural scientists of his time * Frederick III, German Emperor
German Emperor
, (1831–1888), Emperor of the German Empire
German Empire
and King of Prussia
Prussia
1888 * Alfred von Waldersee , (1832–1904), field marshall * Ernst Haeckel , (1834–1919), zoologist, philosopher * Hermann Schubert , (1848–1911), mathematician * Heinrich Köhler, (1852–1920), writer * Wilhelm II, German Emperor
German Emperor
, (1859–1941), Emperor of the German Empire and King of Prussia
Prussia
1888–1918 * Friedrich Ludwig , (1872–1930), music historian and rector of the University of Göttingen * Friedrich Wilhelm von Bissing , (1873–1956), Egyptologist * Prince Eitel Friedrich of Prussia
Prussia
, (1883–1942), second son of King William II of Prussia * Ludowika Jakobsson born Eilers, (1884–1968), Olympic player 1920 and triple world champion in figure skating * Leo Geyr von Schweppenburg , (1886–1974), general of tank troops and military attachée

20th century Louis Ferdinand, 1927

* Margarete Buber-Neumann née Thüring, (1901–1989), writer (As a prisoner with Hitler and Stalin, From Potsdam
Potsdam
to Moscow) * Egon Eiermann , (1904–1970), architect * Louis Ferdinand of Prussia
Prussia
, (1907–1994), since 1933 German and Prussian
Prussian
heir to the throne and since 1951 until his death head of the house of Hohenzollern * Princess Marie Eleonore of Albania (1909-1957) * Adam von Trott zu Solz , (1909–1944), lawyer, diplomat and resistance fighter * Carol Victor, Hereditary Prince of Albania , (1913–1973), was the only son of William, Prince of Albania * Peter Weiss
Peter Weiss
, (1916–1982), writer, graphic artist and painter * Hans Richter (actor) , (1919–2008), actor * Bernhard Hassenstein , (1922–2016), biologist and co-founder of biological cybernetics * Burkhard Heim , (1925–2001), explosives technician, physicist and scholar * Günther Schramm , (born 1929), stage and television actor, television supporter and singer * Hilla Becher , (1934–2015), photographer * Nicole Heesters , (born 1937), actress, daughter of Johannes Heesters * Manfred Wolke , Olympian boxer and boxing coach * Klaus Katzur , (1943–2016), swimming athlete and silver medalist (Olympic Games 1972) * Wolfgang Joop , (born 1944), fashion designer * Oliver Bendt (born 1946), alias Jürgen Koch, actor, gymnast, singer * Christiane Lanzke , (born 1947), water jumper and actress * Lothar Doering , (born 1950), handball player and coach * Brigitte Ahrenholz , (born 1952), rower * Matthias Platzeck , (born 1953), politician Minister President of the State of Brandenburg, SPD Chairman * Klaus Thiele , (born 1958), athlete * Gabriele Berg , (born 1963), Professor for Mikrobiology at the Graz University (Austria) * Ralf Brudel , (born 1963), rower * Jens-Peter Berndt , (born 1963), swimmer * Birgit Peter , (born 1964), rower, multiple Olympian girlfriend * Carsten Wolf , (born 1964), cyclist, world champion * Daniela Neunast , (born 1966), steward in rowing * René Monse , (born 1968), heavyweight boxer

HONORARY CITIZENS

* 1845: Wilhelm Ludwig Viktor Henckel von Donnersmarck , Lieutenant General * 1856: Friedrich von Wrangel , Field Marshal * 1863: Peter Joseph , garden general director * 1891: Hermann von Helmholtz
Hermann von Helmholtz
, Naturalist * 1905: Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg , president of the province of Brandenburg * 1933: Paul von Hindenburg , Fieldmarshal and Reichspräsident * 1933: Adolf Hitler , chancellor (withdrawn on 15 August 1990 from a decision of the Potsdam
Potsdam
City Council) * 1955: Max Volmer , a physical chemist * 1960: Hans Marchwitza * 1965: Otto Nagel

REFERENCES

* ^ "Bevölkerung im Land Brandenburg
Brandenburg
nach amtsfreien Gemeinden, Ämtern und Gemeinden 31. Dezember 2015 (Fortgeschriebene amtliche Einwohnerzahlen auf Grundlage des Zensus 2011)". Amt für Statistik Berlin- Brandenburg
Brandenburg
(in German). 2016. * ^ The Potsdam
Potsdam
project, 1996, HRH The Prince of Wales, Charles; Hanson, Brian; Steil, Lucien; Prince of Wales's Urban Design Task Force; Prince of Wales's Institute of Architecture, Prince of Wales's Institute of Architecture, 1998, Introduction. * ^ " Potsdam
Potsdam
Climate Normals 1961–1990" . National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved December 8, 2015. * ^ "993 – From Poztupimi to the Royal Seat". potsdam.de. 1 December 2004. * ^ A B August Kopish, "Die Königlichen Schlösser u. Gärten zu Potsdam", Berlin, 1854, p. 18 (Google Books) * ^ A B Thomas Curtis (1839). The London encyclopaedia, or, Universal dictionary of science, art, literature, and practical mechanics, by the orig. ed. of the Encyclopaedia metropolitana Volume XVIII, p. 11 * ^ Zuwachs in Potsdam
Potsdam
und kein Ende in Sicht * ^ Detailed data sources are to be found in the Wikimedia Commons.Population Projection Brandenburg
Brandenburg
at Wikimedia Commons * ^ Jennerjahn, Yvonne (13 November 2013). "Landtag: Umzug ins neue Domizil" – via Potsdamer Neueste Nachrichten. * ^ "Die Partnerstädte der Landeshauptstadt Potsdam". www.potsdam.de (in German). Retrieved 24 June 2010. * ^ "Miasta Partnerskie Opola". Urzad Miasta Opola (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2013-08-01. Retrieved 2013-08-01. * ^ "City Twinnings". Stadt Bonn. Archived from the original on 2013-04-10. Retrieved 2013-08-01. * ^ "Partnerstädte der Stadt Luzern". Stadt Luzern (in German). Archived from the original on 2013-06-21. Retrieved 2013-08-01. * ^ (in German) BVG: Berliner public transport pdf maps showing fare zones * ^ "X-files: Lenin in Potsdam". leninisstillaround.com. 20 August 2015.

SOURCES

* Paul Sigel, Silke Dähmlow, Frank Seehausen und Lucas Elmenhorst, Architekturführer Potsdam
Potsdam
Architectural Guide, Dietrich Reimer Verlag, Berlin
Berlin
2006, ISBN 3-496-01325-7 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to POTSDAM .

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for POTSDAM .

* Germany
Germany
portal

* Official municipal website in German and English *