HOME
The Info List - Post-impressionist


--- Advertisement ---



Post- Impressionism
Impressionism
(also spelled Postimpressionism) is a predominantly French art movement that developed roughly between 1886 and 1905, from the last Impressionist
Impressionist
exhibition to the birth of Fauvism. Post- Impressionism
Impressionism
emerged as a reaction against Impressionists' concern for the naturalistic depiction of light and colour. Due to its broad emphasis on abstract qualities or symbolic content, Post- Impressionism
Impressionism
encompasses Neo-Impressionism, Symbolism, Cloisonnism, Pont-Aven School, and Synthetism, along with some later Impressionists' work. The movement was led by Paul Cézanne
Paul Cézanne
(known as father of Post-impressionism), Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh, and Georges Seurat. The term Post- Impressionism
Impressionism
was first used by art critic Roger Fry
Roger Fry
in 1906.[1][2] Critic Frank Rutter in a review of the Salon d'Automne published in Art News, 15 October 1910, described Othon Friesz
Othon Friesz
as a "post-impressionist leader"; there was also an advert for the show The Post- Impressionists
Impressionists
of France.[3] Three weeks later, Roger Fry
Roger Fry
used the term again when he organized the 1910 exhibition, Manet and the Post-Impressionists, defining it as the development of French art since Manet. Post- Impressionists
Impressionists
extended Impressionism
Impressionism
while rejecting its limitations: they continued using vivid colours, often thick application of paint, and real-life subject matter, but were more inclined to emphasize geometric forms, distort form for expressive effect, and use unnatural or arbitrary colour.

Contents

1 Overview 2 Defining Post-Impressionism

2.1 Reviews and adjustments

3 Gallery of major Post- Impressionist
Impressionist
artists 4 See also 5 References and sources 6 Further reading 7 External links

Overview[edit] The Post- Impressionists
Impressionists
were dissatisfied with what they felt was the triviality of subject matter and the loss of structure in Impressionist
Impressionist
paintings, though they did not agree on the way forward. Georges Seurat
Georges Seurat
and his followers concerned themselves with Pointillism, the systematic use of tiny dots of colour. Paul Cézanne set out to restore a sense of order and structure to painting, to "make of Impressionism
Impressionism
something solid and durable, like the art of the museums".[4] He achieved this by reducing objects to their basic shapes while retaining the saturated colours of Impressionism. The Impressionist
Impressionist
Camille Pissarro
Camille Pissarro
experimented with Neo-Impressionist ideas between the mid-1880s and the early 1890s. Discontented with what he referred to as romantic Impressionism, he investigated Pointillism, which he called scientific Impressionism, before returning to a purer Impressionism
Impressionism
in the last decade of his life.[5] Vincent van Gogh
Vincent van Gogh
used colour and vibrant swirling brush strokes to convey his feelings and his state of mind. Although they often exhibited together, Post- Impressionist
Impressionist
artists were not in agreement concerning a cohesive movement. Yet, the abstract concerns of harmony and structural arrangement, in the work of all these artists, took precedence over naturalism. Artists such as Seurat
Seurat
adopted a meticulously scientific approach to colour and composition.[6] Younger painters during the early 20th century worked in geographically disparate regions and in various stylistic categories, such as Fauvism
Fauvism
and Cubism, breaking from Post-Impressionism. Defining Post-Impressionism[edit]

Poster of the 1889 Exhibition of Paintings by the Impressionist
Impressionist
and Synthetist Group, at Café des Arts, known as The Volpini Exhibition, 1889

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Portrait of Émile Bernard, 1886, Tate Gallery London

The term was used in 1906,[1][2] and again in 1910 by Roger Fry
Roger Fry
in the title of an exhibition of modern French painters: Manet and the Post-Impressionists, organized by Fry for the Grafton Galleries
Grafton Galleries
in London.[6][7] Three weeks before Fry's show, art critic Frank Rutter had put the term Post- Impressionist
Impressionist
in print in Art News of 15 October 1910, during a review of the Salon d'Automne, where he described Othon Friesz as a "post-impressionist leader"; there was also an advert in the journal for the show The Post- Impressionists
Impressionists
of France.[3] Most of the artists in Fry's exhibition were younger than the Impressionists. Fry later explained: "For purposes of convenience, it was necessary to give these artists a name, and I chose, as being the vaguest and most non-committal, the name of Post-Impressionism. This merely stated their position in time relatively to the Impressionist movement."[8] John Rewald
John Rewald
limited the scope to the years between 1886 and 1892 in his pioneering publication on Post-Impressionism: From Van Gogh to Gauguin
Gauguin
(1956). Rewald considered this a continuation of his 1946 study, History of Impressionism, and pointed out that a "subsequent volume dedicated to the second half of the post-impressionist period":[9] Post-Impressionism: From Gauguin
Gauguin
to Matisse, was to follow. This volume would extend the period covered to other artistic movements derived from Impressionism, though confined to the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Rewald focused on such outstanding early Post- Impressionists
Impressionists
active in France as van Gogh, Gauguin, Seurat, and Redon. He explored their relationships as well as the artistic circles they frequented (or were in opposition to), including:

Neo-Impressionism: ridiculed by contemporary art critics as well as artists as Pointillism; Seurat
Seurat
and Signac would have preferred other terms: Divisionism
Divisionism
for example Cloisonnism: a short-lived term introduced in 1888 by the art critic Édouard Dujardin, was to promote the work of Louis Anquetin, and was later also applied to contemporary works of his friend Émile Bernard Synthetism: another short-lived term coined in 1889 to distinguish recent works of Gauguin
Gauguin
and Bernard from that of more traditional Impressionists
Impressionists
exhibiting with them at the Café Volpini. Pont-Aven School: implying little more than that the artists involved had been working for a while in Pont-Aven or elsewhere in Brittany. Symbolism: a term highly welcomed by vanguard critics in 1891, when Gauguin
Gauguin
dropped Synthetism
Synthetism
as soon as he was acclaimed to be the leader of Symbolism in painting.

Furthermore, in his introduction to Post-Impressionism, Rewald opted for a second volume featuring Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri Rousseau
Henri Rousseau
"le Douanier", Les Nabis
Les Nabis
and Cézanne
Cézanne
as well as the Fauves, the young Picasso
Picasso
and Gauguin's last trip to the South Seas; it was to expand the period covered at least into the first decade of the 20th century—yet this second volume remained unfinished.

Camille Pissarro, Haying at Eragny, 1889, Private Collection

Reviews and adjustments[edit] Rewald wrote that "the term 'Post-Impressionism' is not a very precise one, though a very convenient one." Convenient, when the term is by definition limited to French visual arts derived from Impressionism since 1886. Rewald's approach to historical data was narrative rather than analytic, and beyond this point he believed it would be sufficient to "let the sources speak for themselves."[9] Rival terms like Modernism
Modernism
or Symbolism were never as easy to handle, for they covered literature, architecture and other arts as well, and they expanded to other countries.

Modernism, thus, is now considered to be the central movement within international western civilization with its original roots in France, going back beyond the French Revolution
French Revolution
to the Age of Enlightenment. Symbolism, however, is considered to be a concept which emerged a century later in France, and implied an individual approach. Local national traditions as well as individual settings therefore could stand side by side, and from the very beginning a broad variety of artists practicing some kind of symbolic imagery, ranged between extreme positions: The Nabis
The Nabis
for example united to find synthesis of tradition and brand new form, while others kept to traditional, more or less academic forms, when they were looking for fresh contents: Symbolism is therefore often linked to fantastic, esoteric, erotic and other non-realist subject matter.

To meet the recent discussion, the connotations of the term 'Post-Impressionism' were challenged again: Alan Bowness and his collaborators expanded the period covered forward to 1914 and the beginning of World War I, but limited their approach widely on the 1890s to France. Other European countries are pushed back to standard connotations, and Eastern Europe is completely excluded. So, while a split may be seen between classical 'Impressionism' and 'Post-Impressionism' in 1886, the end and the extent of 'Post-Impressionism' remains under discussion. For Bowness and his contributors as well as for Rewald, 'Cubism' was an absolutely fresh start, and so Cubism
Cubism
has been seen in France since the beginning, and later in Anglosaxonia. Meanwhile, Eastern European artists, however, did not care so much for western traditions, and proceeded to manners of painting called abstract and suprematic—terms expanding far into the 20th century. According to the present state of discussion, Post- Impressionism
Impressionism
is a term best used within Rewald's definition in a strictly historical manner, concentrating on French art between 1886 and 1914, and re-considering the altered positions of impressionist painters like Claude Monet, Camille Pissarro, Auguste Renoir, and others—as well as all new schools and movements at the turn of the century: from Cloisonnism
Cloisonnism
to Cubism. The declarations of war, in July/August 1914, indicate probably far more than the beginning of a World War—they signal a major break in European cultural history, too. Along with general art history information given about "Post-Impressionism" works, there are many museums that offer additional history, information and gallery works, both online and in house, that can help viewers understand a deeper meaning of "Post-Impressionism" in terms of fine art and traditional art applications. Gallery of major Post- Impressionist
Impressionist
artists[edit]

Paul Cézanne
Paul Cézanne
(1839–1906)

Odilon Redon
Odilon Redon
(1840–1916)

Henri Rousseau
Henri Rousseau
(1844–1910)

Paul Gauguin
Paul Gauguin
(1848–1903)

Vincent van Gogh
Vincent van Gogh
(1853–1890)

Charles Angrand
Charles Angrand
(1854–1926)

Henri-Edmond Cross
Henri-Edmond Cross
(1856–1910)

Maximilien Luce
Maximilien Luce
(1858–1941)

Georges Seurat
Georges Seurat
(1859–1891)

René Schützenberger
René Schützenberger
(1860–1916)

Marius Borgeaud
Marius Borgeaud
(1861–1924)

Charles Laval
Charles Laval
(1862–1894)

Théo van Rysselberghe
Théo van Rysselberghe
(1862–1926)

Paul Signac
Paul Signac
(1863–1935)

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
(1864–1901)

Paul Sérusier
Paul Sérusier
(1864–1927)

Paul Ranson
Paul Ranson
(1864–1909)

Georges Lemmen
Georges Lemmen
(1865–1916)

Félix Vallotton
Félix Vallotton
(1865–1925)

Pierre Bonnard
Pierre Bonnard
(1867–1947)

Édouard Vuillard
Édouard Vuillard
(1868–1940)

Émile Bernard (1868–1941)

Cuno Amiet
Cuno Amiet
(1868–1961)

Maurice Denis
Maurice Denis
(1870–1943)

Robert Antoine Pinchon
Robert Antoine Pinchon
(1886–1943)

See also[edit]

Art periods Cubism Kapists Neo-impressionism Expressionism

References and sources[edit]

References

^ a b Richard R. Brettell, Modern Art, 1851-1929: Capitalism and Representation, Oxford University Press, 1999, p. 21 ^ a b Peter Morrin, Judith Zilczer, William C. Agee, The Advent of Modernism. Post- Impressionism
Impressionism
and North American Art, 1900-1918, High Museum of Art, 1986 ^ a b Bullen, J. B. Post-impressionists in England, p.37. Routledge, 1988. ISBN 0-415-00216-8, ISBN 978-0-415-00216-5 ^ Huyghe, Rene: Impressionism. (1973). Secaucus, N.J.: Chartwell Books Inc., p. 222. OCLC 153804642 ^ Cogniat, Raymond (1975). Pissarro. New York: Crown, pp. 69–72. ISBN 0-517-52477-5. ^ a b Caroline Boyle-Turner, Post-Impressionism, History and application of the term, MoMA, From Grove Art Online, Oxford University Press, 2009 ^ Manet and the post-impressionists; Nov. 8 to Jan. 15, 1910-11, Grafton Galleries, London ^ Gowing, Lawrence (2005). Facts on File
File
Encyclopedia of Art: 5. New York: Facts on File, p. 804. ISBN 0-8160-5802-4 ^ a b Rewald, John: Post-Impressionism: From Van Gogh
Van Gogh
to Gauguin, revised edition: Secker & Warburg, London, 1978, p. 9.

Sources

Bowness, Alan, et alt.: Post-Impressionism. Cross-Currents in European Painting, Royal Academy of Arts & Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London 1979 ISBN 0-297-77713-0 Metropolitan Museum of Art Timeline

Further reading[edit]

Manet and the Post- Impressionists
Impressionists
(exh. cat. by R. Fry and D. MacCarthy, London, Grafton Gals, 1910–11) The Second Post- Impressionist
Impressionist
Exhibition (exh. cat. by R. Fry, London, Grafton Gals, 1912) J. Rewald. Post-Impressionism: From Van Gogh
Van Gogh
to Gauguin
Gauguin
(New York, 1956, rev. 3/1978) F. Elgar. The Post- Impressionists
Impressionists
(Oxford, 1977) Post-Impressionism: Cross-currents in European Painting (exh. cat., ed. J. House and M. A. Stevens; London, RA, 1979–80) B. Thomson. The Post- Impressionists
Impressionists
(Oxford and New York, 1983, rev. 2/1990) J. Rewald. Studies in Post- Impressionism
Impressionism
(London, 1986) Beyond Impressionism, exhibit at Columbus Museum of Art, October 21, 2017 – January 21, 2018 http://www.columbusmuseum.org/beyond-impressionism

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Post- Impressionist
Impressionist
paintings.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Post-Impressionism.

"Post-Impressionists", Walter Sickert's review in The Fortnightly Review of the "Manet and the Post-Impressionists" exhibition at the Grafton Galleries "Post-Impressionism", Roger Fry's lecture on the closing of the "Manet and the Post-Impressionists" exhibition at the Grafton Galleries, as published in The Fortnightly Review Georges Seurat, 1859-1891, a full text exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Toulouse-Lautrec
Toulouse-Lautrec
in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, a full text exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art "Roger Fry, Walter Sickert and Post- Impressionism
Impressionism
at the Grafton Galleries", a reflection by Prof. Marnin Young on the 1910-1911 exhibition

v t e

Post-Impressionism

19th-century movements

Neo-impressionism Divisionism Pointillism Cloisonnism Les Nabis Synthetism Symbolism Art Nouveau

Artists

Cuno Amiet Charles Angrand Émile Bernard Edvard Munch Pierre Bonnard Marius Borgeaud Paul Cézanne Henri-Edmond Cross Maurice Denis Georges Dufrénoy Paul Gauguin Hippolyte Petitjean Paul Ranson Odilon Redon Henri Rousseau René Schützenberger Paul Sérusier Georges Seurat Paul Signac Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Charles Laval Georges Lemmen Maximilien Luce Paul Ranson Vincent van Gogh Théo van Rysselberghe Félix Vallotton Édouard Vuillard

20th-century movements

Fauvism Die Brücke Der Blaue Reiter Expressionism Cubism

Artists

Georges Braque Charles Camoin André Derain Raoul Dufy Henri Matisse Albert Gleizes Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Karl Schmidt-Rottluff Wassily Kandinsky Sonia Lewitska Franz Marc Jean Metzinger Henry Ottmann Francis Picabia Pablo Picasso Robert Antoine Pinchon Henriette Tirman Jean Marchand Othon Friesz

Exhibitions

Artistes Indépendants Les XX Volpini Exhibition Le Barc de Boutteville La Libre Esthétique Ambroise Vollard Salon d'Automne Salon des Indépendants Salon des Cent Salon des Tuileries

Critics

Félix Fénéon Albert Aurier

See also

Impressionism Modernism Modern art Secessionism

v t e

Impressionism

Originators

Frédéric Bazille Eugène Boudin Gustave Caillebotte Mary Cassatt Paul Cézanne Edgar Degas Armand Guillaumin Édouard Manet Claude Monet Berthe Morisot Camille Pissarro Pierre-Auguste Renoir Alfred Sisley

Patrons

Gustave Caillebotte Henry O. Havemeyer Ernest Hoschedé

Dealers

Paul Durand-Ruel Georges Petit Ambroise Vollard

American artists

William Merritt Chase Frederick Carl Frieseke Childe Hassam Willard Metcalf Lilla Cabot Perry Theodore Robinson John Henry Twachtman J. Alden Weir

Canadian artists

Henri Beau William Blair Bruce William Brymner Marc-Aurèle de Foy Suzor-Coté Maurice Galbraith Cullen Helen Galloway McNicoll James Wilson Morrice Robert Wakeham Pilot

Other artists

Marie Bracquemond Giovanni Battista Ciolina Lovis Corinth Antoine Guillemet Nazmi Ziya Güran Max Liebermann Laura Muntz Lyall Konstantin Korovin Henry Moret Francisco Oller Władysław Podkowiński John Peter Russell Valentin Serov Max Slevogt Joaquín Sorolla Philip Wilson Steer Eliseu Visconti

Other media

Music Literature French Impressionist
Impressionist
Cinema

See also

American Impressionism

The Ten

California Impressionism Pennsylvania Impressionism Canadian Impressionism Heidelberg School Amsterdam Impressionism Decorative Impressionism Post-Impressionism

Related

The Impressionists
Impressionists
(2006 drama)

v t e

Art movements

Medieval

Early Christian Migration Period Anglo-Saxon Visigothic Pre-Romanesque Insular Viking Byzantine Merovingian Carolingian Ottonian Romanesque Norman-Sicilian Gothic (International Gothic)

Renaissance

Italian Renaissance Early Netherlandish German Renaissance Antwerp Mannerists Danube school High Renaissance Romanism Mannerism Fontainebleau Northern Mannerism Flemish Baroque

17th century

Baroque Caravaggisti Classicism Dutch Golden Age

18th century

Rococo Neoclassicism Romanticism

19th century

Naïve Nazarene Realism / Realism Historicism Biedermeier Gründerzeit Barbizon school Pre-Raphaelites Academic Aestheticism Decadent Macchiaioli Art Nouveau Peredvizhniki Impressionism Post-Impressionism Neo-impressionism Divisionism Pointillism Cloisonnism Les Nabis Synthetism Kalighat painting Symbolism Hudson River School

20th century

Arts and Crafts Fauvism Die Brücke Cubism Expressionism Neue Künstlervereinigung München Futurism Metaphysical art Rayonism Der Blaue Reiter Orphism Synchromism Vorticism Suprematism Ashcan Dada De Stijl Purism Bauhaus Kinetic art New Objectivity Neues Sehen Surrealism Neo-Fauvism Precisionism Scuola Romana Art Deco International Typographic Style Social realism Abstract expressionism Vienna School of Fantastic Realism Color Field Lyrical abstraction Tachisme COBRA Action painting New media art Letterist International Pop art Situationist International Lettrism Neo-Dada Op art Nouveau réalisme Art & Language Conceptual art Land art Systems art Video art Minimalism Fluxus Photorealism Performance art Installation art Endurance art Outsider art Neo-expressionism Lowbrow Young British Artists Amazonian pop art

21st century

Art intervention Hyperrealism Neo-futurism Stuckism Sound art Superstroke Superflat Relational art

Related articles

List of art movements Feminist art movement (in the US) Modern art Modernism Late modernism Postmodern art Avant-garde

v t e

Avant-garde
Avant-garde
movements

Visual art

Abstract expressionism Art Nouveau Art & Language Conceptual art Constructivism Cubism Proto-Cubism Cubo-Futurism De Stijl Devětsil Divisionism Fauvism Impressionism Neo-Impressionism Post-Impressionism Color Field Incoherents Lyrical Abstraction Mail art Minimalism Mir iskusstva Neue Slowenische Kunst Nonconformism Pop art Rayonism Suprematism Vorticism Nouveau réalisme

Literature and poetry

Acmeism Angry Penguins Asemic writing Cyberpunk Ego-Futurism Experimental literature Flarf poetry Hungry generation Imaginism Language poets Neoteric Nouveau roman Oberiu Oulipo Ultraísmo Visual poetry Zaum

Music

By style

Jazz Metal Pop Rock

Prog Punk

Others

Aleatoric music Ars subtilior Atonal music Drone music Electroacoustic music Electronic music Experimental pop Free jazz Futurism
Futurism
(music) Industrial music Microtonal music Minimal music Musique concrète New Complexity No wave Noise music Post-rock Rock in Opposition Second Viennese School Serialism Spectral music Stochastic music Textural music Totalism Twelve-tone technique

Cinema and theatre

Cinéma pur Dogme 95 Drop Art Epic theatre Remodernist film Structural film Theatre of the Absurd Theatre of Cruelty

General

Bauhaus Constructivism Dada Expressionism Fluxus Futurism Lettrism Modernism Minimalism Postminimalism Neo-minimalism Neo-Dada Neoism Postmodernism Late modernism Primitivism Russian Futurism Russian symbolism Situationist International Social realism Socialist realism Surrealism Sym

.