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The State of India
India
(Portuguese: Estado da Índia), also referred as the Portuguese State of India
India
(Estado Português da Índia, EPI) or simply Portuguese India
India
(Índia Portuguesa), was a state of the Portuguese Overseas Empire, founded six years after the discovery of a sea route between Portugal
Portugal
and the Indian Subcontinent
Indian Subcontinent
to serve as the governing body of a string of Portuguese fortresses and colonies overseas. The first viceroy, Francisco de Almeida, established his headquarters in Cochin
Cochin
(Cochim, Kochi). Subsequent Portuguese governors were not always of viceroy rank. After 1510, the capital of the Portuguese viceroyalty was transferred to Goa.[1] Until the 18th century, the Portuguese governor in Goa
Goa
had authority over all Portuguese possessions in the Indian Ocean, from southern Africa to southeast Asia. In 1752 Mozambique got its own separate government and in 1844 the Portuguese Government of India
India
stopped administering the territory of Macau, Solor
Solor
and Timor, and its authority was confined to the colonial holdings on the Malabar coast of present-day India. At the time of the British Indian Empire's dissolution in 1947, Portuguese India
India
was subdivided into three districts located on modern-day India's western coast, sometimes referred to collectively as Goa: namely Goa; Daman (Portuguese: Damão), which included the inland enclaves of Dadra and Nagar Haveli; and Diu. Portugal
Portugal
lost effective control of the enclaves of Dadra and Nagar Haveli
Dadra and Nagar Haveli
in 1954, and finally the rest of the overseas territory in December 1961, when it was taken by India
India
after military action. In spite of this, Portugal
Portugal
only recognised Indian control in 1975, after the Carnation Revolution and the fall of the Estado Novo regime.

Contents

1 Early history

1.1 Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
lands in India 1.2 Pedro Álvares Cabral 1.3 Francisco de Almeida 1.4 Afonso de Albuquerque
Afonso de Albuquerque
and later governors

2 Post-British Raj 3 Post-annexation

3.1 Status of the new territories 3.2 Citizenship 3.3 Indo-Portuguese relations 3.4 Portuguese Cemetery in Kollam

4 Postal history 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Early history[edit]

Remnants of St. Thomas Fort in Tangasseri, Kollam
Kollam
city

Main article: Portuguese India
India
Armadas Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
lands in India[edit] The first Portuguese encounter with the subcontinent was on 20 May 1498 when Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
reached Calicut on Malabar Coast. Anchored off the coast of Calicut, the Portuguese invited native fishermen on board and immediately bought some Indian items. One Portuguese accompanied the fishermen to the port and met with a Tunisian Muslim. On the advice of this man, Gama sent a couple of his men to Ponnani
Ponnani
to meet with ruler of Calicut, the Zamorin. Over the objections of Arab merchants, Gama managed to secure a letter of concession for trading rights from the Zamorin, Calicut's Hindu
Hindu
ruler. But, the Portuguese were unable to pay the prescribed customs duties and price of his goods in gold.[2] Later Calicut officials temporarily detained Gama's Portuguese agents as security for payment. This, however, annoyed Gama, who carried a few natives and sixteen fishermen with him by force.[3] Nevertheless, Gama's expedition was successful beyond all reasonable expectation, bringing in cargo that was worth sixty times the cost of the expedition. Pedro Álvares Cabral[edit] Pedro Álvares Cabral
Pedro Álvares Cabral
sailed to India, marking the arrival of Europeans to Brazil
Brazil
on the way, to trade for pepper and other spices, negotiating and establishing a factory at Calicut, where he arrived on 13 September 1500. Matters worsened when the Portuguese factory at Calicut was attacked by surprise by the locals, resulting in the death of more than fifty Portuguese. Cabral was outraged by the attack on the factory and seized ten Arab merchant ships anchored in the harbour, killing about six hundred of their crew and confiscating their cargo before burning the ships. Cabral also ordered his ships to bombard Calicut for an entire day in retaliation for the violation of the agreement. In Cochin
Cochin
and Cannanore Cabral succeeded in making advantageous treaties with the local rulers. Cabral started the return voyage on 16 January 1501 and arrived in Portugal
Portugal
with only 4 of 13 ships on 23 June 1501. The Portuguese built the Pulicat
Pulicat
fort in 1502, with the help of the Vijayanagar ruler.[clarification needed] Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
sailed to India
India
for a second time with 15 ships and 800 men, arriving at Calicut on 30 October 1502, where the ruler was willing to sign a treaty. Gama this time made a call to expel all Muslims (Arabs) from Calicut which was vehemently turned down. He bombarded the city and captured several rice vessels.[4] He returned to Portugal
Portugal
in September 1503. Francisco de Almeida[edit] Main article: 7th Portuguese India
India
Armada (Almeida, 1505) On 25 March 1505, Francisco de Almeida
Francisco de Almeida
was appointed Viceroy of India, on the condition that he would set up four forts on the southwestern Indian coast: at Anjediva Island, Cannanore, Cochin
Cochin
and Quilon.[5] Francisco de Almeida
Francisco de Almeida
left Portugal
Portugal
with a fleet of 22 vessels with 1,500 men.[5]

Fort Anjediva, Anjediva Island

Fort St. Angelo, Cannanore

On 13 September, Francisco de Almeida
Francisco de Almeida
reached Anjadip Island, where he immediately started the construction of Fort Anjediva.[5] On 23 October, with the permission of the friendly ruler of Cannanore, he started building St. Angelo Fort
St. Angelo Fort
at Cannanore, leaving Lourenço de Brito in charge with 150 men and two ships.[5] Francisco de Almeida
Francisco de Almeida
then reached Cochin
Cochin
on 31 October 1505 with only 8 vessels left.[5] There he learned that the Portuguese traders at Quilon
Quilon
had been killed. He decided to send his son Lourenço de Almeida with 6 ships, who destroyed 27 Calicut vessels in the harbour of Quilon.[5] Almeida took up residence in Cochin. He strengthened the Portuguese fortifications of Fort Manuel on Cochin. The Zamorin prepared a large fleet of 200 ships to oppose the Portuguese, but in March 1506 Lourenço de Almeida (son of Francisco de Almeida) was victorious in a sea battle at the entrance to the harbour of Cannanore, the Battle of Cannanore, an important setback for the fleet of the Zamorin. Thereupon Lourenço de Almeida explored the coastal waters southwards to Colombo, in what is now Sri Lanka. In Cannanore, however, a new ruler, hostile to the Portuguese and friendly with the Zamorin, attacked the Portuguese garrison, leading to the Siege of Cannanore. In 1507 Almeida's mission was strengthened by the arrival of Tristão da Cunha's squadron. Afonso de Albuquerque's squadron had, however, split from that of Cunha off East Africa and was independently conquering territories in the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
to the west. In March 1508 a Portuguese squadron under command of Lourenço de Almeida was attacked by a combined Mameluk Egyptian and Gujarat Sultanate fleet at Chaul
Chaul
and Dabul respectively, led by admirals Mirocem and Meliqueaz
Meliqueaz
in the Battle of Chaul. Lourenço de Almeida lost his life after a fierce fight in this battle. Mamluk-Indian resistance was, however, to be decisively defeated at the Battle of Diu. Afonso de Albuquerque
Afonso de Albuquerque
and later governors[edit]

In the 16th and 17th centuries, the Portuguese Eastern empire, the Estado da Índia (State of India), with its capital in Goa, then often called in Europe the "Rome of the East", included possessions (as subjected areas with a certain degree of autonomy) in all the Asian Subcontinents, East Africa, and in the Pacific

A Portuguese nobleman riding on a horse from "Itinerario, voyage, ofte Schipvaert van Jan Huygen van Linschoten naer Oost ofte Portugaels Indien", Amsterdam, 1596

In the year 1509, Afonso de Albuquerque
Afonso de Albuquerque
was appointed the second governor of the Portuguese possessions in the East. A new fleet under Marshal Fernão Coutinho arrived with specific instructions to destroy the power of Zamorin's of Calicut. The Zamorin's palace was captured and destroyed and the city was set on fire. The king's forces rallied to kill Coutinho and wound Albuquerque. Albuquerque relented, and entered into a treaty with the Zamorin in 1513 to protect Portuguese interests in Malabar. Hostilities were renewed when the Portuguese attempted to assassinate the Zamorin sometime between 1515 and 1518. In 1510, Afonso de Albuquerque
Afonso de Albuquerque
defeated the Bijapur sultans with the help of Timayya, on behalf of the Hindu
Hindu
Vijayanagara Empire, leading to the establishment of a permanent settlement in Velha Goa
Goa
(or Old Goa). The Southern Province, also known simply as Goa, was the headquarters of Portuguese India, and seat of the Portuguese viceroy who governed the Portuguese possessions in Asia. There were Portuguese settlements in and around Mylapore. The Luz Church in Mylapore, Madras (Chennai) was the first church that the Portuguese built in Madras in 1516. Later in 1522, the São Tomé church was built by the Portuguese. They had also destroyed the original Kapaleeswarar Temple. The Portuguese acquired several territories from the Sultans of Gujarat: Daman (occupied 1531, formally ceded 1539); Salsette, Bombay, and Baçaim
Baçaim
(occupied 1534); and Diu (ceded 1535).

Coat of Arms of Portuguese India
India
from the 20th century

These possessions became the Northern Province of Portuguese India, which extended almost 100 km along the coast from Daman to Chaul, and in places 30–50 km inland. The province was ruled from the fortress-town of Baçaim. In 1526, under the viceroyship of Lopo Vaz de Sampaio, the Portuguese took possession of Mangalore. The territory included parts of Dakshina Kannada and Udupi in Karnataka state, and Kasaragod in Kerala state (South Canara). Mangalore
Mangalore
was named the islands El Padron de Santa Maria; later came to be known as St Mary's Islands. In 1640, the Keladi Nayaka Kingdom
Keladi Nayaka Kingdom
defeated the Portuguese. Shivappa Nayaka destroyed the Portuguese political power in the Kanara
Kanara
region by capturing all the Portuguese forts of the coastal region.[6] Goa, already known often in Europe as the "Rome of the East", was granted the same civic privileges as Lisbon. Its senate or municipal chamber maintained direct communications with the king and paid a special representative to attend to its interests at court. In 1563 the governor proposed to make Goa
Goa
the seat of a parliament representing all parts of the Portuguese east, but this was rejected by the King. From the 16th century, the Portuguese meddled in the church affairs of the Syrian Christians of Malabar. The Udayamperoor Synod (1599) was a major attempt by the Portuguese Archbishop Menezes to Latinize the Syrian rite. This led to the local Christians taking an oath against the Portuguese in 1653, which later became one of the chief reason behind the division of the local church into different factions. Bombay
Bombay
(present-day Mumbai) was given to Britain in 1661 as part of the Portuguese Princess Catherine of Braganza's dowry to Charles II of England. Most of the Northern Province was lost to the Marathas of the Maratha Empire
Maratha Empire
in 1739 when the Maratha
Maratha
General Chimnaji Appa
Chimnaji Appa
defeated the Portuguese. Later Portugal
Portugal
acquired Dadra and Nagar Haveli
Dadra and Nagar Haveli
in 1779.

Portuguese Indian coin from 1799

In 1843 the capital was shifted to Panjim, then renamed "Nova Goa", when it officially became the administrative seat of Portuguese India, replacing the city of Velha Goa
Goa
(now Old Goa), although the Viceroys lived there already since 1 December 1759. Before moving to the city, the viceroy remodelled the fortress of Adil khan, transforming it into a palace. The Portuguese also shipped over many Órfãs d'El-Rei to Portuguese colonies in the Indian peninsula, Goa
Goa
in particular. Órfãs d'El-Rei literally translates to "Orphans of the King", and they were Portuguese girl orphans sent to overseas colonies to marry either Portuguese settlers or natives with high status. Thus there are Portuguese footprints all over the western and eastern coasts of the Indian peninsula, though Goa
Goa
became the capital of Portuguese Goa
Goa
from 1530 onward until the annexation of Goa
Goa
proper and the entire Estado da Índia Portuguesa, and its merger with the Indian Union in 1961. Post-British Raj[edit]

Colonial India

Imperial entities of India

Dutch India 1605–1825

Danish India 1620–1869

French India 1668–1954

Portuguese India (1505–1961)

Casa da Índia 1434–1833

Portuguese East India
India
Company 1628–1633

British India (1612–1947)

East India
India
Company 1612–1757

Company rule in India 1757–1858

British Raj 1858–1947

British rule in Burma 1824–1948

Princely states 1721–1949

Partition of India

1947

v t e

After India's independence from the British in 1947, Portugal
Portugal
refused to accede to India's request to relinquish control of its Indian possessions. On 24 July 1954 an organisation called "The United Front of Goans" took control of the enclave of Dadra. The remaining territory of Nagar Haveli was seized by the Azad Gomantak Dal on 2 August 1954.[7] The decision given by the International Court of Justice at The Hague, regarding access to Dadra and Nagar Haveli, was an impasse.[8]

Portuguese India
India
in the 19th and 20th centuries

From 1954, peaceful Satyagrahis attempts from outside Goa
Goa
at forcing the Portuguese to leave Goa
Goa
were brutally suppressed.[9] Many revolts were quelled by the use of force and leaders eliminated or jailed. As a result, India
India
broke off diplomatic relations with Portugal, closed its Consulate-General in Panjim[10] and demanded that Portugal
Portugal
close its Legation in New Delhi.[11] India
India
also imposed an economic embargo against the territories of Portuguese Goa.[12] The Indian Government adopted a "wait and watch" attitude from 1955 to 1961 with numerous representations to the Portuguese Salazar government and attempts to highlight the issue before the international community.[13]

Portuguese and other European settlements in India

To facilitate the transport of people and goods to and from the Indian enclaves, the Portuguese established an airline, Transportes Aéreos da Índia Portuguesa,[14] and airports at Goa, Daman and Diu. Finally, in December 1961, India
India
militarily invaded Goa, Daman and Diu, where regardless of the odds the Portuguese put up a fight.[15][16] Portuguese armed forces had been instructed to either defeat the invaders or die. Only meager resistance was offered due to the Portuguese army's poor firepower and size (only 3,300 men), against a fully armed Indian force of over 30,000 with full air and naval support.[17][18] The Governor of Portuguese India
India
signed the Instrument of Surrender[19] on 19 December 1961, ending 450 years of Portuguese rule in India. Post-annexation[edit] Status of the new territories[edit] Dadra and Nagar Haveli
Dadra and Nagar Haveli
existed as a de facto independent entity from its independence in 1954 until its merger with the Republic of India in 1961.[20] Following the annexation of Goa, Daman and Diu, the new territories became Union Territories within the Indian Union
Indian Union
as Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Goa, Daman and Diu. Maj. Gen. K. P. Candeth
K. P. Candeth
was declared as military governor of Goa, Daman and Diu. Goa's first general elections were held in 1963. In 1967 a referendum was conducted where voters decided whether to merge Goa
Goa
into the neighbouring state of Maharashtra, which the anti-merger faction won.[21] However full statehood was not conferred immediately, and it was only on 30 May 1987 that Goa
Goa
became the 25th state of the Indian Union, with Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu being separated, continuing to be administered as Union Territories.[22] The most drastic changes in Portuguese India
India
after 1961 were the introduction of democratic elections, as well as the replacement of Portuguese with English as the general language of government and education.[23] However the Indians allowed certain Portuguese institutions to continue unchanged. Amongst these were the land ownership system of the comunidade, where land was held by the community and was then leased out to individuals. The Indian government left the Portuguese civil code unchanged in Goa, with the result that Goa
Goa
today remains the only state in India
India
with a common civil code that does not depend on religion.[24] Citizenship[edit] The Citizenship Act of 1955 granted the government of India
India
the authority to define citizenship in the Indian union. In exercise of its powers, the government passed the Goa, Daman and Diu
Goa, Daman and Diu
(Citizenship) Order, 1962 on 28 March 1962 conferring Indian citizenship on all persons born on or before 20 December 1961 in Goa, Daman and Diu.[25] Indo-Portuguese relations[edit] The Salazar regime in Portugal
Portugal
refused to recognise the Republic of India's sovereignty over the annexed territories, which continued to be represented in Portugal's National Assembly.[26] In addition, a government in exile for the territories was established in Lisbon.[27] Following the Carnation Revolution
Carnation Revolution
in 1974, the new government in Portugal
Portugal
restored diplomatic relations with India, and recognised Indian sovereignty over Goa, Daman and Diu.[28] Portugal
Portugal
continued to give the citizens of Portuguese India
India
automatic citizenship.[29] This led to the opening of a Portuguese Consulate in 1994.[30] Portuguese Cemetery in Kollam[edit] Main article: Portuguese Cemetery, Kollam Kollam
Kollam
(formerly known as Quilon/Coulão) was an ancient Portuguese settlement; in 1519 they built a cemetery at Tangasseri
Tangasseri
in Quilon city. After a Dutch invasion, they also buried their dead there. The Pirates of Tangasseri
Tangasseri
formerly inhabited the cemetery. Remnants of this cemetery are still in existence today at Tangasseri. The site is very close to Tangasseri
Tangasseri
Lighthouse and St Thomas Fort, which are on the list of centrally protected monuments under the control of Archaeological Survey of India.[31][32][33][34] Postal history[edit] Main article: Postage stamps and postal history of Portuguese India Early postal history of the colony is obscure, but regular mail is known to have been exchanged with Lisbon
Lisbon
from 1825 on. Portugal
Portugal
had a postal convention with Great Britain, so much mail was probably routed through Bombay
Bombay
and carried on British packets. Portuguese postmarks are known from 1854, when a post office was opened in Goa. The last regular issue for Portuguese India
India
was on 25 June 1960, for the 500th anniversary of the death of Prince Henry the Navigator. Stamps of India
India
were first used on 29 December 1961, although the old stamps were accepted until 5 January 1962. Portugal
Portugal
continued to issue stamps for the lost colony but none were offered for sale in the colony's post offices, so they are not considered valid stamps. Dual franking was tolerated from 22 December 1961 until 4 January 1962. Colonial (Portuguese) postmarks were tolerated until May 1962. See also[edit]

Portugal
Portugal
portal India
India
portal Goa
Goa
portal

Proposed flag for Portuguese India.

Portuguese Empire Estado Novo (Portugal) List of governors of Portuguese India Arquivo Histórico Ultramarino
Arquivo Histórico Ultramarino
(archives in Lisbon
Lisbon
documenting Portuguese Empire, including India) Portuguese Indian Rupia Portuguese Indian Escudo Goa
Goa
liberation movement Cuncolim Revolt French India Dutch India British Raj

References[edit]

^ "Capital". myeduphilic. Retrieved 5 November 2017.  ^ Calicut: The City of Truth, M.G.S. Narayanan, Calicut University Publications, 2006, page 198 ^ . The incident is mentioned by Camões in The Lusiads, wherein it is stated that the Zamorin "showed no signs of treachery" and that "on the other hand, Gama's conduct in carrying off the five men he had entrapped on board his ships is indefensible". ^ Sreedhara Menon.A, A Survey of Kerala History(1967), p.152. D.C.Books Kottayam ^ a b c d e f Malabar manual by William Logan, p. 312 ^ Portuguese Studies Review (ISSN 1057-1515) (Baywolf Press) p.35 ^ Goa's Freedom Movement Archived 14 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ International Court of Justice Case Summaries, Case Concerning Right of Passage Over Indian Territory (Merits), Judgment of 12 April 1960[permanent dead link] ^ Rear Admiral Satyindra Singh AVSM (Ret.), Blueprint to Bluewater, The Indian Navy, 1951–65 Archived 6 July 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Goa
Goa
Wins Freedom: Reflections and Reminiscences, B. Sheikh Ali, Goa University, 1986, page 154 ^ Goa
Goa
and Its Future, Sarto Esteves, Manaktalas, 1966, page 88 ^ Wars, Proxy-wars and Terrorism: Post Independent India, Peter Wilson Prabhakar, Mittal Publications, 2003, page 39 ^ Lambert Mascarenhas, "Goa's Freedom Movement," excerpted from Henry Scholberg, Archana Ashok Kakodkar and Carmo Azevedo, Bibliography of Goa
Goa
and the Portuguese in India
India
New Delhi, Promilla (1982) Archived 14 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Goa
Goa
Through the Ages: An economic history, Volume 2, page 276 ^ Government Polytechnic of Goa, "Liberation of Goa" Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ ' "The Liberation of Goa: 1961" Bharat Rakshak, a Consortium of Indian Military Websites,' Archived 28 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Jagan Pillarisetti, "The Liberation of Goa: 1961" Bharat Rakshak, a Consortium of Indian Military Websites Archived 7 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Liberation of Goa, Maps of India ^ Dossier Goa
Goa
– A Recusa do Sacrifício Inútil. Shvoong.com. ^ Concise Encyclopaedia of India, K.R. Gupta & Amita Gupta Atlantic Publishers & Dist, 2006, page 1214 ^ But Not Gone, TIME, 27 January 1967 ^ The Territories and States of India, Tara Boland-Crewe, David Lea, Routledge, 2003, page 25 ^ Konkani, Rocky V Miranda, The Indo-Aryan Languages, Danesh Jain, George Cardona, Routledge, 26 July 2007, page 735 ^ 'Portuguese Civil Code is no model for India', Times of India, 28 November 2009 ^ "Gangadhar Yashwant Bhandare vs Erasmo Jesus De Sequiria". manupatra. Retrieved 3 June 2009.  ^ Asian Recorder, Volume 8, 1962, page 4490 ^ Goa
Goa
To Have An Exile Government, The Age, 5 January 1962 ^ Treaty on Recognition of India's Sovereignty over Goa, Daman and Diu, Dadar and Nagar Haveli Amendment, 14 Mar 1975 ^ 'Portuguese nationality is fundamental right by law', Times of India, 15 January 2014 ^ Portuguese citizens cannot contest polls: Faleiro, The Hindu, 18 December 2013 ^ "Colonial Voyage – Tangasseri". Mathrubhumi. Retrieved 9 January 2014.  ^ " Tangasseri
Tangasseri
– OOCITIES". OOCITIES. Retrieved 9 January 2014.  ^ "Archaeological site and remains". Archaeological Survey of India – Thrissur Circle. Retrieved 9 January 2014.  ^ "A brief history of Tangasseri". Rotary Club of Tangasseri. Archived from the original on 22 November 2013. Retrieved 9 January 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

Library resources about Portuguese India

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Andrada (undated). The Life of Dom John de Castro: The Fourth Vice Roy of India. Jacinto Freire de Andrada. Translated into English by Peter Wyche. (1664). Henry Herrington, New Exchange, London. Facsimile edition (1994) AES Reprint, New Delhi. ISBN 81-206-0900-X. Panikkar, K. M. (1953). Asia and Western dominance, 1498-1945, by K.M. Panikkar. London: G. Allen and Unwin. Panikkar, K. M. 1929: Malabar and the Portuguese: being a history of the relations of the Portuguese with Malabar from 1500 to 1663 Priolkar, A. K. The Goa
Goa
Inquisition (Bombay, 1961).

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Portuguese rule in India.

ColonialVoyage.com – History of the Portuguese and the Dutch in Ceylon, India, Malacca, Bengal, Formosa, Africa, Brazil.

v t e

Portuguese overseas empire

North Africa

15th century

1415–1640 Ceuta

1458–1550 Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir)

1471–1550 Arzila (Asilah)

1471–1662 Tangier

1485–1550 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1487–16th century Ouadane

1488–1541 Safim (Safi)

1489 Graciosa

16th century

1505–1541 Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir)

1506–1525 Mogador (Essaouira)

1506–1525 Aguz (Souira Guedima)

1506–1769 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1513–1541 Azamor (Azemmour)

1515–1541 São João da Mamora (Mehdya)

1577–1589 Arzila (Asilah)

Sub-Saharan Africa

15th century

1455–1633 Anguim

1462–1975 Cape Verde

1470–1975 São Tomé1

1471–1975 Príncipe1

1474–1778 Annobón

1478–1778 Fernando Poo (Bioko)

1482–1637 Elmina
Elmina
(São Jorge da Mina)

1482–1642 Portuguese Gold Coast

1508–15472 Madagascar3

1498–1540 Mascarene Islands

16th century

1500–1630 Malindi

1501–1975 Portuguese Mozambique

1502–1659 Saint Helena

1503–1698 Zanzibar

1505–1512 Quíloa (Kilwa)

1506–1511 Socotra

1557–1578 Accra

1575–1975 Portuguese Angola

1588–1974 Cacheu4

1593–1698 Mombassa (Mombasa)

17th century

1645–1888 Ziguinchor

1680–1961 São João Baptista de Ajudá

1687–1974 Bissau4

18th century

1728–1729 Mombassa (Mombasa)

1753–1975 Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe

19th century

1879–1974 Portuguese Guinea

1885–1974 Portuguese Congo5

1 Part of São Tomé and Príncipe
Príncipe
from 1753. 2 Or 1600. 3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases. 4 Part of Portuguese Guinea
Portuguese Guinea
from 1879. 5 Part of Portuguese Angola
Portuguese Angola
from the 1920s.

Middle East [Persian Gulf]

16th century

1506–1615 Gamru (Bandar Abbas)

1507–1643 Sohar

1515–1622 Hormuz (Ormus)

1515–1648 Quriyat

1515–? Qalhat

1515–1650 Muscat

1515?–? Barka

1515–1633? Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah)

1521–1602 Bahrain
Bahrain
(Muharraq • Manama)

1521–1529? Qatif

1521?–1551? Tarut Island

1550–1551 Qatif

1588–1648 Matrah

17th century

1620–? Khor Fakkan

1621?–? As Sib

1621–1622 Qeshm

1623–? Khasab

1623–? Libedia

1624–? Kalba

1624–? Madha

1624–1648 Dibba Al-Hisn

1624?–? Bandar-e Kong

Indian subcontinent

15th century

1498–1545

Laccadive Islands (Lakshadweep)

16th century Portuguese India

 • 1500–1663 Cochim (Kochi)

 • 1501–1663 Cannanore (Kannur)

 • 1502–1658  1659–1661

Quilon (Coulão / Kollam)

 • 1502–1661 Pallipuram ( Cochin
Cochin
de Cima)

 • 1507–1657 Negapatam (Nagapatnam)

 • 1510–1961 Goa

 • 1512–1525  1750

Calicut (Kozhikode)

 • 1518–1619 Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)

 • 1521–1740 Chaul

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1523–1662 Mylapore

 • 1528–1666

Chittagong (Porto Grande De Bengala)

 • 1531–1571 Chaul

 • 1531–1571 Chalé

 • 1534–1601 Salsette
Salsette
Island

 • 1534–1661 Bombay
Bombay
(Mumbai)

 • 1535 Ponnani

 • 1535–1739 Baçaím (Vasai-Virar)

 • 1536–1662 Cranganore (Kodungallur)

 • 1540–1612 Surat

 • 1548–1658 Tuticorin (Thoothukudi)

 • 1559–1961 Daman and Diu

 • 1568–1659 Mangalore

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1579–1632 Hugli

 • 1598–1610 Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam)

1518–1521 Maldives

1518–1658 Portuguese Ceylon
Portuguese Ceylon
(Sri Lanka)

1558–1573 Maldives

17th century Portuguese India

 • 1687–1749 Mylapore

18th century Portuguese India

 • 1779–1954 Dadra and Nagar Haveli

East Asia and Oceania

16th century

1511–1641 Portuguese Malacca
Portuguese Malacca
[Malaysia]

1512–1621 Maluku [Indonesia]

 • 1522–1575  Ternate

 • 1576–1605  Ambon

 • 1578–1650  Tidore

1512–1665 Makassar

1557–1999 Macau [China]

1580–1586 Nagasaki [Japan]

17th century

1642–1975 Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
(East Timor)1

19th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1864–1999 Coloane

 • 1851–1999 Taipa

 • 1890–1999 Ilha Verde

20th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1938–1941 Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)

1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence was fully recognized.

North America & North Atlantic

15th century [Atlantic islands]

1420 Madeira

1432 Azores

16th century [Canada]

1500–1579? Terra Nova (Newfoundland)

1500–1579? Labrador

1516–1579? Nova Scotia

South America & Antilles

16th century

1500–1822 Brazil

 • 1534–1549  Captaincy Colonies of Brazil

 • 1549–1572  Brazil

 • 1572–1578  Bahia

 • 1572–1578  Rio de Janeiro

 • 1578–1607  Brazil

 • 1621–1815  Brazil

1536–1620 Barbados

17th century

1621–1751 Maranhão

1680–1777 Nova Colónia do Sacramento

18th century

1751–1772 Grão-Pará and Maranhão

1772–1775 Grão-Pará and Rio Negro

1772–1775 Maranhão and Piauí

19th century

1808–1822 Cisplatina
Cisplatina
(Uruguay)

1809–1817 Portuguese Guiana (Amapá)

1822 Upper Peru
Upper Peru
(Bolivia)

Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies Evolution of the Portuguese Empire Portuguese colonial architecture Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia Portuguese colonization of the Americas Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia

v t e

Indian Independence Movement

History

Colonisation Porto Grande de Bengala Dutch Bengal East India
India
Company British Raj French India Portuguese India Battle of Plassey Battle of Buxar Anglo-Mysore Wars

First Second Third Fourth

Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
Wars

First Second Third

Polygar Wars Vellore Mutiny First Anglo-Sikh War Second Anglo-Sikh War Sannyasi Rebellion Rebellion of 1857 Radcliffe Line more

Philosophies and ideologies

Ambedkarism Gandhism Hindu
Hindu
nationalism Indian nationalism Khilafat Movement Muslim nationalism in South Asia Satyagraha Socialism Swadeshi movement Swaraj

Events and movements

Partition of Bengal (1905) Partition of Bengal (1947) Revolutionaries Direct Action Day Delhi-Lahore Conspiracy The Indian Sociologist Singapore Mutiny Hindu–German Conspiracy Champaran Satyagraha Kheda Satyagraha Rowlatt Committee Rowlatt Bills Jallianwala Bagh massacre Noakhali riots Non-Cooperation Movement Christmas Day Plot Coolie-Begar Movement Chauri Chaura incident, 1922 Kakori conspiracy Qissa Khwani Bazaar massacre Flag Satyagraha Bardoli 1928 Protests Nehru Report Fourteen Points of Jinnah Purna Swaraj Salt March Dharasana Satyagraha Vedaranyam March Chittagong armoury raid Gandhi–Irwin Pact Round table conferences Act of 1935 Aundh Experiment Indische Legion Cripps' mission Quit India Bombay
Bombay
Mutiny Coup d'état of Yanaon Provisional Government of India Independence Day

Organisations

All India
India
Kisan Sabha All- India
India
Muslim League Anushilan Samiti Arya Samaj Azad Hind Berlin Committee Ghadar Party Hindustan Socialist Republican Association Indian National Congress India
India
House Indian Home Rule movement Indian Independence League Indian National Army Jugantar Khaksar Tehrik Khudai Khidmatgar Swaraj
Swaraj
Party more

Social reformers

A. Vaidyanatha Iyer Ayya Vaikundar Ayyankali B. R. Ambedkar Baba Amte Bal Gangadhar Tilak Dayananda Saraswati Dhondo Keshav Karve G. Subramania Iyer Gazulu Lakshminarasu Chetty Gopal Ganesh Agarkar Gopal Hari Deshmukh Gopaldas Ambaidas Desai Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar J. B. Kripalani Jyotirao Phule Kandukuri Veeresalingam Mahadev Govind Ranade Mahatma Gandhi Muthulakshmi Reddi Narayana Guru Niralamba Swami Pandita Ramabai Periyar E. V. Ramasamy Ram Mohan Roy Rettamalai Srinivasan Sahajanand Saraswati Savitribai Phule Shahu Sister Nivedita Sri Aurobindo Syed Ahmad Khan Vakkom Moulavi Vinayak Damodar Savarkar Vinoba Bhave Vitthal Ramji Shinde Vivekananda

Independence activists

Abul Kalam Azad Accamma Cherian Achyut Patwardhan A. K. Fazlul Huq Alluri Sitarama Raju Annapurna Maharana Annie Besant Ashfaqulla Khan Babu Kunwar Singh Bagha Jatin Bahadur Shah II Bakht Khan Bal Gangadhar Tilak Basawon Singh Begum Hazrat Mahal Bhagat Singh Bharathidasan Bhavabhushan Mitra Bhikaiji Cama Bhupendra Kumar Datta Bidhan Chandra Roy Bipin Chandra Pal C. Rajagopalachari Chandra Shekhar Azad Chetram Jatav Chittaranjan Das Dadabhai Naoroji Dayananda Saraswati Dhan Singh Dukkipati Nageswara Rao Gopal Krishna Gokhale Govind Ballabh Pant Har Dayal Hemu Kalani Inayatullah Khan Mashriqi Jatindra Mohan Sengupta Jatindra Nath Das Jawaharlal Nehru K. Kamaraj Kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan Khudiram Bose Shri Krishna Singh Lala Lajpat Rai M. Bhaktavatsalam M. N. Roy Mahadaji Shinde Mahatma Gandhi Mangal Pandey Mir Qasim Mithuben Petit‎ Muhammad Ali Jauhar Muhammad Ali Jinnah Muhammad Mian Mansoor Ansari Nagnath Naikwadi Nana Fadnavis Nana Sahib P. Kakkan Prafulla Chaki Pritilata Waddedar Pritilata Waddedar Purushottam Das Tandon R. Venkataraman Rahul Sankrityayan Rajendra Prasad Ram Prasad Bismil Rani Lakshmibai Rash Behari Bose Sahajanand Saraswati Sangolli Rayanna Sarojini Naidu Satyapal Dang Shuja-ud-Daula Shyamji Krishna Varma Sibghatullah Shah Rashidi Siraj ud-Daulah Subhas Chandra Bose Subramania Bharati Subramaniya Siva Surya Sen Syama Prasad Mukherjee Tara Rani Srivastava Tarak Nath Das Tatya Tope Tiruppur Kumaran Ubaidullah Sindhi V O Chidamabaram V. K. Krishna Menon Vallabhbhai Patel Vanchinathan Veeran Sundaralingam Vinayak Damodar Savarkar Virendranath Chattopadhyaya Yashwantrao Holkar Yogendra Shukla more

British leaders

Wavell Canning Cornwallis Irwin Chelmsford Curzon Ripon Minto Dalhousie Bentinck Mountbatten Wellesley Lytton Clive Outram Cripps Linlithgow Hastings

Independence

Cabinet Mission Annexation of French colonies in India Constitution Republic of India Indian annexation of Goa Indian Independence Act Partition of India Political integratio

.