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The Port
Port
of Kolkata
Kolkata
is a riverine port in the city of Kolkata, India, located around 203 kilometres (126 mi) from the sea.[7] It is the oldest operating port in India,[8] and was constructed by the British East India
India
Company.[9] The Port
Port
has two distinct dock systems - Kolkata
Kolkata
Docks at Kolkata
Kolkata
and a deep water dock at Haldia
Haldia
Dock Complex, Haldia. In the 19th century, the Kolkata
Kolkata
Port
Port
was the premier port in British India. After slavery was abolished in 1833, there was a high demand for laborers on sugar cane plantations in the British Empire. From 1838 to 1917, the British used this port to ship off over half a million Indians from all over India
India
— mostly from the Bhojpuri Belt, Bengal, and Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
— and take them to places across the world, such as Mauritius, Guyana, Suriname, Fiji, Belize, and the Caribbean Islands as indentured laborers. This explains the Indian Diaspora reaching as far as South America
South America
and the West Indies. There are millions of Indo-Mauritian, Indo-Fijian, Indo-Caribbean, Indo-Guyanese, Indo-Surinamese, and Indo-Belizean people in the world today. After independence, the port's importance decreased because of factors including the Partition of Bengal
Bengal
(1905), reduction in size of the port hinterland, and economic stagnation in eastern India. It has a vast hinterland comprising the entire North East of India including West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Assam, North East Hill States and two landlocked neighbouring countries namely, Nepal
Nepal
and Bhutan
Bhutan
and also the Autonomous Region of Tibet (China). With the turn of the century, the volume of throughput has again started increasing steadily. As of March 2018, the port is capable of processing annually 650,000 containers, mostly from Nepal, Bhutan, and India's northeastern states.[9]

Contents

1 History 2 Facilities

2.1 Dock systems

2.1.1 Kolkata
Kolkata
Dock System (KDS) 2.1.2 Haldia
Haldia
Dock Complex (HDC) 2.1.3 Dry Dock 2.1.4 Pilotage 2.1.5 Navigational Aids

2.1.5.1 Lighthouse 2.1.5.2 Light Vessels 2.1.5.3 Automatic Tide Gauges 2.1.5.4 Semaphores 2.1.5.5 River
River
Marks and Buoys 2.1.5.6 Differential Global Positioning System (Differential GPS)

3 Operations 4 Sister ports 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

History[edit]

The Old Fort, the Playhouse, Holwell's Monument from Views of Calcutta

View of the Calcutta port in 1852

Kidderpore Dry Dock, c. 1905

Kolkata
Kolkata
Port
Port
was established by the British East India
India
Company after the company received trading rights from the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb.

An image of the old port of Kolkata.

Following the shift of power from the company to the British crown, a port commission was set up in 1870. Though the port was conceived to be a commercial port and gateway of eastern India, the port played a very important role in the Second World War. It was bombed twice by the Japanese forces. After independence, the Commissioners for the Port
Port
of Kolkata
Kolkata
were responsible for the port till January 1975 when Major Port
Port
Trusts Act, 1963, came into force. The Port
Port
is now run by a Board of Trustees having representatives from the Government, Trade Bodies, various Port
Port
Users, Labour Unions and some nominated members. Facilities[edit] Dock systems[edit] The Kolkata
Kolkata
Port
Port
Trust (KoPT) manages two separate dock agglomerations - the Kolkata
Kolkata
Dock System (KDS) and the Haldia
Haldia
Dock Complex (HDC). Kolkata
Kolkata
Dock System (KDS)[edit]

A cargo ship on Khidirpur dock

It is situated on the left bank of the Hooghly River
Hooghly River
at 22°32′53″N 88°18′05″E / 22.54806°N 88.30139°E / 22.54806; 88.30139 ( Kolkata
Kolkata
Dock System) about 203 km (126 mi) upstream from the sea. The pilotage station is at Gasper/ Saugor roads, 145 Kilometres to the south of the KDS (around 58 km from the sea). The system consists of:[10]

Kidderpore Docks (K.P. Docks) : 18 Berths, 6 Buoys / Moorings and 3 Dry Docks Netaji Subhas Docks (N.S. Docks): 10 Berths, 2 Buoys / Moorings and 2 Dry Docks Budge Budge
Budge Budge
River
River
Moorings : 6 Petroleum Wharves Anchorages : Diamond Harbour, Saugor Road, Sandheads

Apart from this, there are around 80 major riverine jetties, and many minor jetties, and a large number of ship breaking berths. Haldia
Haldia
Dock Complex (HDC)[edit] It is situated at 22°02′N 88°06′E / 22.033°N 88.100°E / 22.033; 88.100 ( Haldia
Haldia
Dock Complex) around 60 kilometres (37 mi) away from the pilotage station. The complex consists of:

Impounded Dock. System with 12 Berths 3 Oil Jetties in the River 3 Barge
Barge
Jetties in the River
River
for handling Oil carried by Barges. Haldia
Haldia
Anchorage for lash vessels.

All the docks are impounded dock systems with locks from river. Dry Dock[edit] KoPT has the largest dry dock facility in India
India
. These dry docks cater to the diverse repair and maintenance needs of the vessels calling on the Eastern Ports of India. In addition, shipbuilding facilities are also available in these dry docks. All the dry docks are inside the impounded dock system. There are five dry docks of which three are in Kidderpore Dock and two are in Netaji Subhas Dock.[7]

Dry Docks of Kolkata
Kolkata
Port
Port
Trust (KoPT)

Dock Dry Dock Number Size

Netaji Subhas Dock 1 172.21 metres (565.0 ft) x 22.86 metres (75.0 ft)

Netaji Subhas Dock 2 172.21 metres (565.0 ft) x 22.86 metres (75.0 ft)

Kidderpore Dock 1 160.02 metres (525.0 ft) x 19.5 metres (64 ft)

Kidderpore Dock 2 142.95 metres (469.0 ft) x 19.5 metres (64 ft)

Kidderpore Dock 3 102.1 metres (335 ft) x 14.63 metres (48.0 ft)

There is a fully-fledged repair workshop including Diesel Engine Overhauling Unit, Structural Shop, Heavy and Light Machine Shop, Forging Shop, Electrical Shop and a Chain Testing/Repair Shop with 2500 KN capacity Tensile Compression Testing Machine to support various activities in the dry dock. Kolkata
Kolkata
Dry Dock & Workshop facilities have been awarded ISO 9001:2000 certificate in recognition of their excellence in quality. Pilotage[edit]

A Ship in Hoogly River
River
at the Port
Port
of Kolkata

Due to the constraints of the river (like silting, sandbars etc.) no seagoing vessel above 200 GRT is allowed to navigate without a qualified pilot of the Kolkata
Kolkata
Port
Port
Trust. The total pilotage distance to KDS is 221 kilometres (137 mi), comprising 148 kilometres (92 mi) in river and 75 kilometres (47 mi) in sea, and for HDC is 121 kilometres (75 mi), comprising 46 kilometres (29 mi) in river and 75 kilometres (47 mi) in sea. Navigational Aids[edit] Lighthouse[edit]

Sagar Lighthouse (21°39′N 88°03′E / 21.650°N 88.050°E / 21.650; 88.050 (Sagar Lighthouse)) is situated at Middleton Point on the Sagar Island
Sagar Island
1.5 kilometres (0.93 mi) inshore. It is visible from a distance of 28 kilometres (17 mi) in clear weather.[7] Dariapur Lighthouse (21°47′N 87°52′E / 21.783°N 87.867°E / 21.783; 87.867 (Sagar Lighthouse)) is situated on the right bank of Hooghly River
Hooghly River
south of Rasulpur river and about 2.7 kilometres (1.7 mi) inshore. It is visible from a distance of 35 kilometres (22 mi) in clear weather.[7]

Light Vessels[edit]

There are four unmanned light vessels to aid in navigation. U.G.L.F. located at 21°29′57″N 88°06′37.5″E / 21.49917°N 88.110417°E / 21.49917; 88.110417 (U.G.L.F.) L.G.L.F. located at 21°21′57″N 88°10′05″E / 21.36583°N 88.16806°E / 21.36583; 88.16806 (L.G.L.F.) Talent WK L.V. located at 21°17′21″N 88°11′17″E / 21.28917°N 88.18806°E / 21.28917; 88.18806 (Talent WK L.V.) Eastern Channel L.V. located at 21°04′19″N 88°11′07″E / 21.07194°N 88.18528°E / 21.07194; 88.18528 (Eastern Channel L.V.)

Automatic Tide Gauges[edit] These are maintained at Tribeni, Garden Reach, Diamond Harbour
Diamond Harbour
and Haldia
Haldia
for round-the-clock recording of tidal data, which is used for the prediction of tides and preparation of tide tables by Survey of India. Semaphores[edit] These are maintained at Akra, Moyapur, Hooghly Point, Balari, Gangra and Sagar for displaying rises of tide for the convenience of various vessels navigating, dredging and surveying in the River
River
Hooghly. The semaphores used to display the tide level at these localities on a mast by the position of the meter and decimeter arms which were manually rotated with the rise and fall of every decimeter of tidal level. However these semaphores are no longer functional and instead, tidal levels are broadcast over VHF radio every half an hour from all the above stations except at Balari. River
River
Marks and Buoys[edit] A total of 500 (of which 140 are lighted) River
River
Marks and Buoys are maintained by the KoPT. These are extremely useful in facilitating night navigation, pilotage and dredging. These lights are operated either by grid electricity, by battery or by dissolved Marine Acetylene
Acetylene
Gas. There is also 1 boat buoy, 30 lighted buoys and 72 unlit buoys marking the navigational channel from Sandheads to Kolkata. Differential Global Positioning System (Differential GPS)[edit] In the wide estuary, position fixing with reference to shore objects to be viewed from the deck of a vessel, is very difficult. In 1983 KoPT introduced the Electronic Position Fixing System "Syledis" for position fixing of the vessels plying in the wide estuary of the Hooghly river. The Shore-based Syledis Position Fixing System was functioning round the clock with the help of the Syledis Stations located at Haldia, Raichak, Dadanpatra Bar and Frazergunj. The system was effectively utilized for the purpose of hydrographic survey and dredging. KoPT has now replaced the Syledis Position Fixing System by Differential GPS (Differential Global Position Fixing System). This latest state-of the art technology provides improved location accuracy of up to 10 cm. Operations[edit] In the fiscal year 2013-14, Kolkata
Kolkata
port handled 41.386 million metric tons (45.620 million short tons) of cargo. This is significantly less than 53.143 million metric tons (58.580 million short tons) of cargo it handled in 2005-06. However, the number of vessels handled at Kolkata
Kolkata
Port
Port
during 2013-2014 was the highest among all Indian Major Ports. KoPT handled 17.1% of the total number of vessels, which worked at Indian Major Ports in 2011-2012; significant improvement over 2011-12 which was 16%. During the fiscal year 2011-2012, 3183 vessels called at KoPT.[11] The average turn around time per vessel was 4.18 days for Kolkata
Kolkata
Dock System and 3.37 for Haldia
Haldia
Dock Complex.[12][13]

Operational Indicators Kolkata
Kolkata
Port
Port
Trust (KoPT)[6][12][14][15]

Category 2014-15 2013-14 2012-13 2011-12 Unit

Number of Containers 630,094 562,020 600,426 552,241 TEUs

Import Cargo 36.25 27.42 27.02 27.97 million metric tonnes

Export Cargo 10.05 13.96 12.91 15.28 million metric tonnes

Passenger Traffic 39,552 42,514 40,349 52,239

Number of Ships Handled 3,230 3,225 N/A N/A

Financial Indicators Kolkata
Kolkata
Port
Port
Trust (KoPT)[12]

Category 2014-15 2013-14 2012-13 2011-12 2010-11

Operating Income ₹1,867.69 crore (US$290 million) ₹1,896.14 crore (US$290 million) ₹1,402.20 crore (US$210 million) ₹1,693.19 crore (US$260 million) ₹1,607.20 crore (US$250 million)

Operating Expenditure ₹1,936.13 crore (US$300 million) ₹1,966.37 crore (US$300 million) ₹1,700.42 crore (US$260 million) ₹1,554.95 crore (US$240 million) ₹1,463.15 crore (US$220 million)

Net Surplus ₹-68.46 crore (US$−10 million) ₹-70.23 crore (US$−11 million) ₹-298.22 crore (US$−46 million) ₹138.24 crore (US$21 million) ₹144.05 crore (US$22 million)

Sister ports[edit]

Port
Port
Metro Vancouver Newcastle, New South Wales Kobe port, Japan

See also[edit]

Haldia
Haldia
Port Kulpi Port Farakka Port Tajpur Port Sagar Port Kolkata
Kolkata
Eye Ports in West Bengal Ports in India

References[edit]

^ a b " Kolkata
Kolkata
Port
Port
Trust - Cargo Statistics". Kolkata
Kolkata
Port
Port
Trust. Retrieved 13 Jun 2017.  ^ file:///C:/Data/Users/DefApps/APPDATA/LOCAL/Packages/UCMobileLimited.UC_6n7f2ndsr2206/LocalState/Download/80345301.pdf ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20130812155911/http://c/. Archived from [file:///C:/Data/Users/DefApps/APPDATA/LOCAL/Packages/UCMobileLimited.UC_6n7f2ndsr2206/LocalState/Download/22520712.pdf the original] Check url= value (help) (PDF) on 12 August 2013.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ "containervolume of Kolkata
Kolkata
Port
Port
in 2015-2016". Archived from the original Check url= value (help) (PDF) on 15 July 2013.  ^ "India's major ports see 6.7 percent growth in container volumes". JOC.co. 7 April 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2015.  ^ a b "Passenger Traffic at Kolkata
Kolkata
Port". Kolkata
Kolkata
Port
Port
Trust. Retrieved 11 February 2013.  ^ a b c d "Calcutta Port
Port
Trust - Brief History". Calcutta Port
Port
Trust. Archived from the original on 13 March 2007. Retrieved 11 February 2013.  ^ Bhattacharya, Snigdhendu (2017-05-05). "Close to 150 years, country's oldest port staring at threats from proposed ports in Odisha and Bengal". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 2018-04-04.  ^ a b Acharya, Shangkar (Mar 10, 2018). " Kolkata
Kolkata
Port
Port
plans upgrade to stave off competition". Kathmandu Post. Retrieved 2018-04-04.  ^ " Kolkata
Kolkata
Dock System (KDS)".  ^ " Kolkata
Kolkata
Port
Port
Trust - Cargo Statistics". Kolkata
Kolkata
Port
Port
Trust. Archived from the original on 5 September 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2014.  ^ a b c "Administrative Report 2014-15". Kolkata
Kolkata
Port
Port
Trust. 2015. Retrieved 8 July 2016.  ^ " Kolkata
Kolkata
Port
Port
Trust - Performance Indicators". Kolkata
Kolkata
Port
Port
Trust. Retrieved 17 December 2014.  ^ " Kolkata
Kolkata
Port
Port
Trust - Container Statistics". Kolkata
Kolkata
Port
Port
Trust. Retrieved 11 February 2013.  ^ "TRAFFIC HANDLED AT KOLKATA PORT". Kolkata
Kolkata
Port
Port
Trust. Retrieved 17 December 2014. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Port
Port
of Kolkata.

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History

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Kalighat
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list

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Buildings

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Secondary

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Higher

Aliah University Asiatic Society Asutosh College Vivekananda College Marine Engineering and Research Institute Bethune College Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology Medical College and Hospital Calcutta National Medical College Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur Indian Institute of Management Calcutta Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata Indian Institute of Social Welfare and Business Management Indian Statistical Institute Jadavpur University Maulana Azad College Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Institute of Asian Studies Maulana Abul Kalam Azad University of Technology National Library of India Netaji Subhas Open University Presidency University Rabindra Bharati University Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics School of Tropical Medicine Scottish Church College St. Xavier's College University of Calcutta West Bengal
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Industry and economy

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Road

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Rail

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Kolkata
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railway station Sealdah railway station Shalimar railway station Kolkata
Kolkata
Monorail

Sea

Port
Port
of Kolkata

Air

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Subhas Chandra Bose
International Airport List of airports

Culture

Kolkata
Kolkata
Book Fair Calcutta Youth Choir Coffee House Dwarkin Festivals Kolkata
Kolkata
International Film Festival Dover Lane Music Conference Kolkata
Kolkata
in the media Music of Bengal Nandan Priya Rabindra Nritya Natya Rabindra Sangeet Ritwik Ghatak Satyajit Ray Feluda Byomkesh Bakshi Tollywood Ghosts in Bengali culture Adda P. C. Sorcar Football

Kolkata
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Derby

Group theatre of Kolkata

Places of worship

Hindu

Belur Math Dakshineswar Kali Temple Kalighat

Christian

St. Paul's Cathedral Portuguese Church St. John's Church Parasnath Temple Tipu Sultan Mosque Birla Mandir, Kolkata Chinese temples in Kolkata Magen David Synagogue

Sports

ATK Barasat Stadium B.C. Roy Trophy Beighton Cup Bengal
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cricket team Calcutta Cricket and Football Club Calcutta Polo Club Calcutta South Club Bengal
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Kalighat
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Knight Riders

No Dada No KKR

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Kolkata
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Kolkata
Vipers Mohammedan Sporting Club Mohammedan Sporting Ground Mohun Bagan Athletic Club Mohun Bagan Ground Netaji Indoor Stadium Pailan Arrows United S.C. Rabindra Sarobar
Rabindra Sarobar
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West Bengal
football team

Other topics

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