Port Elizabeth or The Bay (Xhosa: iBhayi; Afrikaans: Die Baai [di
ˈbɑːi]) is one of the largest cities in South Africa; it is
situated in the
Eastern Cape Province, 770 km (478 mi) east
of Cape Town. The city, often shortened to PE and nicknamed "The
Friendly City" or "The Windy City", stretches for 16 km along
Algoa Bay, and is one of the major seaports in South Africa. Port
Elizabeth is the southernmost large city on the African continent,
just farther south than Cape Town.
Port Elizabeth was founded as a town in 1820 to house British settlers
as a way of strengthening the border region between the Cape Colony
and the Xhosa. It now forms part of the
Nelson Mandela Bay
Metropolitan Municipality, which has a population of over
1.2.1 1952 Defiance Campaign
1.2.2 1985 Consumer Boycotts
1.3 Post Apartheid
1.3.1 2010 FIFA World Cup
4.1 Trade and industry
4.3 The Athenaeum
7 Coat of arms
8.1 University Level
8.2 High School Level
10 Health care
12 Notable People
13 See also
16 External links
See also: Timeline of Port Elizabeth
Hunters and gatherers ancestral to the San first settled the area
around what is now called
Algoa Bay at least 10,000 years ago. Around
2,000 years ago, they were gradually displaced or assimilated by
agriculturalist populations ancestral to the Xhosa people, who
migrated into the region from the north.
The first Europeans to visit the area sailed with the Portuguese
explorers Bartholomeu Dias, who landed on St Croix Island in Algoa Bay
in 1488, and Vasco da Gama, who noted the nearby Bird Island in
1497. For centuries, the area appeared on European navigation charts
marked simply as "a landing place with fresh water".
The Portuguese Crown had as one of its main goals in the Indian Ocean
taking over the lucrative trade of Arab and Afro-Arabian merchants who
plied routes between the East African coast and India. As they took
over that trade, the Portuguese strengthened trading with Goa, their
main trading point in India. The name Algoa means "to Goa", just as
the port further north in present-day Mozambique, Delagoa means "from
Goa" in Portuguese.
The area became part of the Cape Colony. This area had a turbulent
history between the settlement by the
Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company in 1652
and the formation of the Union of
South Africa in 1910.
In 1799, at the time of the first British occupation of the Colony
during the Napoleonic Wars, British troops built a stone fort named
Fort Frederick after the Duke of York. This fort, aiming to deter a
possible landing of French troops, overlooked the site of what later
became Port Elizabeth. The fort is now preserved as a monument.
From 1814 to 1821 the Strandfontein farm, which later became the
Summerstrand beach suburb of Port Elizabeth, was owned by Piet
Retief. He later became a
Voortrekker leader and was killed in 1837
by Zulu king
Dingane during negotiations about land. An estimated 500
men, woman and children of his party were massacred. Frederik Korsten
owned the Strandfontein farm after Retief. The suburb of Korsten was
named after Frederick since the 19th Century.
In 1820 a party of 4,000 British settlers arrived by sea, encouraged
by the government of the
Cape Colony to form a settlement to
strengthen the border region between the
Cape Colony and the Xhosa
people. At this time the seaport town was founded by Sir Rufane Shaw
Donkin, the Acting Governor of the
Cape Colony (in office: 1820-1821),
who named it "Port Elizabeth" after his late wife, Elizabeth,
Diplomat Edmund Roberts visited
Port Elizabeth in the early 1830s.
Roberts noted that
Port Elizabeth in the 1820s had "contained four
houses, and now it has upward of one hundred houses, and its residents
are rated at above twelve hundred persons".
The Roman Catholic Church established the Apostolic Vicariate of Cape
of Good Hope, Eastern District in the city in 1847, and in 1861 Port
Elizabeth was granted the status of autonomous municipality. The
population increased rapidly after 1873 when the railway to Kimberley
Cape Colony Prime Minister
John Molteno had formed the Cape
Government Railways in 1872, and the massive expansion of the Cape
Colony's railway network over the following years saw the harbour of
Port Elizabeth servicing a large area of the Cape's hinterland. The
rapid economic development around the port, which followed the railway
Port Elizabeth to get the nickname "the Liverpool
of South Africa". The town expanded as a diverse community comprising
Xhosa as well as European, Cape Malay and other
Second Boer War
Second Boer War of 1899-1902 the port served as an
important transit-point for British soldiers, horses and materials
headed to the front by railway. While no armed conflict took place
within the city, many refugees from the war moved into the city. These
included Boer women and children, whom the British interned in a
concentration camp. "The unveiling of the monument commemorating the
services of the horses which perished during the Anglo Boer War,
1899-1902, took place on Saturday afternoon, February 11, 1905, with
His Worship the Mayor, Mr A Fettes, performing the ceremony." 
Under apartheid, the
South African government established legal racial
segregation and started programs to separate communities physically as
well as by classification and custom. The forced relocation under the
auspices of the
Group Areas Act
Group Areas Act of the non-white population from mixed
areas began in 1962, causing various townships to be built for their
use. The non-white residents of South End were forcibly relocated from
1965 through to 1975, as the area was valued as prime real estate.
As black South Africans organized to try to achieve civil rights and
social justice, government repression increased. In 1977 Steve Biko,
the black anti-apartheid activist, was interrogated and tortured by
the security police in
Port Elizabeth before being transported to
Pretoria, where he died. Other notable deaths in the city during
this time included those of The Cradock Four, and of George
Botha, a high-school teacher.
1952 Defiance Campaign
In 1952 the
African National Congress
African National Congress and the
South African Indian
Congress (SAIC) called all South Africans to stand up against the
apartheid government's unjust laws directed at the black African,
Indian and coloured population. On April 6, while most white South
Africans celebrated the tercentenary of Jan van Riebeeck's arrival at
the Cape in 1652, the
ANC and SAIC called on black South Africans to
observe the day as a "A National Day of Pledge and Prayer". 15 000
people attended in Johannesburg, 10 000 in Cape Town, 10 000 in Durban
and 20 000 in Port Elizabeth. The meeting in
Port Elizabeth was led by
Z. K. Matthews and by Raymond Mhlaba.
On 25 July 1952, a day before the official start of the Defiance
Campaign, 30 volunteers led by
Raymond Mhlaba gathered at the New
Brighton Civic Centre and prayed throughout the night. At 5am on 26
July, they left the Civic Centre and walked towards the New Brighton
Railway Station. In Raymond Mhlaba's Personal Memoirs: Reminiscing
from Rwanda and Uganda, Mhlaba recalled:
"I led the very first group and we entered the 'Europeans Only'
section of the New Brighton station. By half past six we were already
in police vans on our way to jail. It turned out that my party (group)
was the very first to defy unjust laws in the whole of South Africa.
Little did we know that we were making history."
Mhlaba became the first man to be arrested during the campaign, while
Francis Matomela was the first woman. 2 007 people were arrested
Port Elizabeth during the Defiance Campaign. Other volunteers who
emerged as key role players during the campaign included Nosipho
Dastile, Nontuthuzelo Mabala, Lillian Diedricks and Veronica
1985 Consumer Boycotts
After the formation of the ANC-affiliated United Democratic Front in
1983, political consciousness in black townships grew.[citation
needed] With numerous protests across the country and the massacre in
Langa township near Uitenhage,
Eastern Cape police presence had
South African townships. In
Port Elizabeth townships,
black South Africans demanded the integration of public institutions,
the removal of troops from black townships, and the end of workplace
discrimination. To launch an effective campaign to cripple the
white-owned institutions of
Port Elizabeth and to undermine the
legitimacy of apartheid, several women suggested the idea of a
consumer boycott to the
Port Elizabeth Black Civic Organisation
(PEBCO) in May 1985. The economic boycott began on July 15, 1985, and
received massive support in townships around Port Elizabeth. By
September 1985, white business-owners became desperate and called on
the government to meet the demands of black South Africans. In
November the boycott was still hurting white businesses in Port
Elizabeth greatly. The white
South African government reached an
agreement with PEBCO which stated that the boycott would halt until
March 1986 if business owners arranged for the release of black
In 1986, as the deal was approaching its end, the boycotters imposed a
deadline of March 31, stating that the boycott would resume if the
initial demands were not met. On March 11, the government unexpectedly
banned two leaders, one of whom was Mkuseli Jack. However, on March
22, the ban was lifted by the decision of a Supreme Court Justice on
the grounds that the government had given insufficient reasons. Jack
ripped up the ban papers, and used the celebration as a way to
represent the solidarity that the campaign required. As the demands of
the boycotters were not met by March 31, the boycott was renewed on
April 1. The boycott continued for nine weeks, but on June 12, 1986,
another state of emergency was imposed by the National Party
government. Security forces searched through the townships, arresting
thousands and raiding the offices of black civics, trade unions, the
South African Council, and churches and also confiscating
With the establishment of the
Coega Industrial Development Zone
(CIDZ), foreign direct and also national-level investment has improved
substantially in the region of
Nelson Mandela Bay/Port Elizabeth. The
IDZ, under the stewardship of the
Coega Development Corporation (CDC),
since inception has managed to attract to its investment account in
excess of R140-billion into the economy of the
Eastern Cape and has
enabled the creation of over 45 000 jobs. This is
significant for the sustainability of the IDZ,
Nelson Mandela Bay, and
the economy of the Eastern Cape. The CDC consistently continues to
demonstrate its capability as the leading catalyst for socio-economic
growth in the Eastern Cape, with a view to becoming
so for South Africa.
In 2001 the
Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality
Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality formed as an
administrative area covering Port Elizabeth, the neighbouring towns of
Uitenhage and Despatch and the surrounding agricultural areas. The
name honours former President Nelson Mandela. The combined
metropolitan area had a population estimated at around
1.3 million in 2006.
2010 FIFA World Cup
Nelson Mandela Bay Stadium hosted eight World Cup games, featuring
South Korea, Greece;
Ivory Coast, Portugal; Germany, Serbia; Chile,
England in the First Stage, then Uruguay, South
Korea in the Group of 16. A quarter-final between Netherlands, Brazil
was hosted, then for the Third Place playoff, Uruguay,
hosted at the stadium. The World Cup was played between 11 June 2010
and 10 July 2010.
Spain were the eventual champions.
Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
"The Windy City" has a subtropical climate with light rain throughout
the year. Under the Köppen climate classification,
Port Elizabeth has
an oceanic climate (Cfb ). The area lies between the winter
rainfall, Mediterranean climate zones of the
Western Cape and the
summer rainfall regions of eastern South Africa. Winters are cool but
mild and summers are warm but considerably less humid and hot than
more northerly parts of South Africa's east coast. The climate is
very even throughout the year with extreme heat or moderate cold rare.
Climate data for
Port Elizabeth (1961−1990, extremes 1936–1990)
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: NOAA,
Deutscher Wetterdienst (extremes)
South African Weather Service
Port Elizabeth has numerous water features in its encompassing area.
There is a vast length of marine coastline on the city's outer
encroachments particularly southwards. Beaches like Kings Beach, Hobie
Beach, Bluewater Bay, Sardinia Bay, and the beaches along Marine Drive
are abundant. Kings Beach is adjacent to Port Elizabeth's harbour, and
the longshore drift from Cape Recife provides a plentiful supply of
sea sand. On the north westerly coastline of Port Elizabeth,the
contours tends to be rockier than the area between Cape Recife, and
the Port of Ngqura.
Port Elizabeth has a few rivers, of which the Baakens River is the
most prominent. This river usually floods when a reasonable amount
precipitation is observed, especially at low level crossings. North
End Lake is the largest natural freshwater body in Port Elizabeth,
but has experienced a form of contamination from industry. (It is
not recommended to ingest anything from this lake) Also, numerous
smaller "lakes" are in the surrounding area, namely Lake Farm.
Port Elizabeth (as a whole, the entire Eastern Cape) is experiencing a
devastating drought, of which a disaster has been declared by the
current office bearers of the greater municipality. Water restrictions
are in place, and measures are in place to provide enough water in the
near future, namely freshwater treatment works being constructed to
acquire additional water from the Gariep Dam.
Population density in the
Nelson Mandela Metro
Geographical distribution of home languages in the Nelson Mandela
Area: 335.3 square kilometres (129.5 sq mi)
Population: 237,503: 708.32 inhabitants per square kilometre
Households: 70,606: 210.58 per square kilometre (545.4/sq mi)
Trade and industry
Historically, the majority of trade in the region came through Port
Elizabeth. In the 1830s, at least five ships regularly transported
goods to Europe. It became a free port in 1832. In 1833, about
50 vessels had moved through the port. In 1828, 55,201 pounds,
(25038 kg), of goods were imported through the port, increasing
by 1832 to 112,845 pounds, (51185 kg), imported in that year.
Port Elizabeth exported 41,290 pounds, (18738 kg), in 1828, with
a large increase to 86,931 pounds, (39431 kg), goods exported in
1829. Exports included wine, brandy, vinegar, ivory, hides and skins,
leather, tallow, butter, soap, wool, ostrich feathers, salted beef,
wheat, candles, aloe, barley, and more.
Home of South Africa's motor vehicle industry,
Port Elizabeth boasts
most vehicle assembly plants, General Motors, Ford, Volkswagen,
Continental Tyres and many other automotive-related companies. Most
other industries in
Port Elizabeth are geared towards the motor
vehicle industry, providing parts such as wiring harnesses, catalytic
converters, batteries and tyres to the vehicle manufacturers.
Port Elizabeth is also a major seaport, with the most significant ore
loading facilities in the southern hemisphere. As part of the ongoing
development, a new Industrial Development Zone with expanded port
facilities has been built at Coega.
The Donkin Reserve in Port Elizabeth, taken in September 2014. It
portrays both the older and parts of the newer sections of the
Located at the end of the picturesque
Garden Route along the Cape
coast, the city has beaches in and near it. The most popular swimming
beaches include King's Beach and Hobie Beach.
Many local historic attractions are linked by the Donkin Heritage
Trail. These include the Campanile (bell tower), built in 1923 to
commemorate the arrival of the
1820 Settlers and offering a viewpoint
over the city; the city hall (1862); the Donkin Reserve park and
monument; and the old stone Fort Frederick itself (1799). The CBD also
boasts the towering
Eastern Cape post office headquarters.
Route 67 is a walking trail consisting of 67 public artworks,
symbolising 67 years which
Nelson Mandela dedicated to the freedom of
South Africa. The artwork is a celebration of
South African culture
and history and is scattered along the route as it starts from the
Campanile, up the stairs to the Vuysile Mini Market Square and to the
South African flag at the Donkin Reserve. The artworks were
created by local
Eastern Cape artists.
Other attractions include the gardens at St George's Park, the Nelson
Mandela Metropolitan Art Museum (formerly known as the King George VI
Art Gallery), the museum and oceanography room at Humewood, and the
new Boardwalk waterfront complex.
The wider area surrounding PE also features game viewing
opportunities, including the Addo Elephant Park, 72 kilometres
(45 mi) to the north near the Zuurberg mountain range and
Port Elizabeth is also a destination for whale watching with humpback
whales sighted between June and August, and again between November and
January, southern right whales sighted between July and November, and
Bryde's whales sighted all year round.
Main article: The Athenaeum, Port Elizabeth, South Africa
Nelson Mandela Bay Stadium in 2009
The city has facilities catering for cricket, rugby union, association
football, field hockey and many other sports. Its coastal location
also makes it a base for many watersports.
Port Elizabeth is the location of the St George's Park cricket ground,
which holds test cricket matches. St George's Park is the oldest
cricket ground in South Africa, and was the venue for the first Test
match played outside of Australia or England, between
South Africa and
England on 12 and 13 March 1889. The Warriors, a franchise cricket
team in South Africa, is based in Port Elizabeth.
The headquarters of the
Southern Spears rugby franchise was in Port
Elizabeth. The long-standing Eastern Province Rugby Union, now
commonly known as the Eastern Province Elephants, formed the basis of
the Spears franchise together with East London's Border Bulldogs. The
remnants of the Spears were later reconstituted into the Southern
Kings, also based in Port Elizabeth, which joined
Super Rugby in 2013.
Southern Kings did not participate in
Super Rugby in 2014 or 2015,
and returned to
Super Rugby in 2016, 2017, but were dropped for
economical reasons by SARU. The Eastern Province Rugby Union play
their home matches at
Nelson Mandela Bay Stadium, built for the 2010
FIFA World Cup.
In December 2011,
Nelson Mandela Bay Stadium became the new home of
South Africa Sevens, the country's leg of the annual IRB Sevens
World Series in rugby sevens. The event had previously been held in
three other cities, most recently in George in the
Western Cape from
2002 to 2010. As of 2015, is hosted annually in Cape Town, in the
The city's main football club is Chippa United, they currently use the
Nelson Mandela Bay Stadium as their home ground. Previous clubs to
play in the country's top tier were Bay United, Michau Warriors, Port
Elizabeth Blackpool, Hotspur F.C.,
Port Elizabeth City and Westview
Algoa Bay Yacht Club operates out of the Port of Port Elizabeth.
Port Elizabeth had its own municipality from 1843 to 2000. Since then,
it has formed part of the
Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan
Municipality, and serves as the seat for the surrounding Cacadu
District Municipality. It has a Magistrate's Court, a local seat of
Eastern Cape Division of the High Court, and a branch of the
Labour Court. As a result of the presence of a High Court, several
other related organs of state such as a Masters Office and a Director
of Public Prosecutions are present in the city. All Government (mostly
provincial) departments maintain branches or other offices in Port
Coat of arms
Port Elizabeth municipality assumed a coat of arms on 9 January
1878.  The design, prepared by Bradbury Wilkinson and Company
(of London), was a simplified version of the arms of Sir Rufane
Donkin : Gules, on a chevron Argent between two cinquefoils in
chief and a bugle horn stringed in base Or, three buckles Sable; a
chief embattled Argent thereon an elephant statant proper. The crest
was a sailing ship, and the motto In meliora spera.
(In layman's terms : a red shield displaying, from top to bottom,
an elephant on a silver horizontal strip whose lower edge is
embattled, two gold cinquefoils, a silver chevron bearing three black
buckles, and a gold bugle horn.)
Eighty years later, in 1958, the council made slight changes to the
arms, and had them granted by the College of Arms. The changes
consisted of adding two anchors to the chief of the shield, placing a
red mural crown bearing three golden rings below the ship in the
crest, and changing the motto to Tu meliora spera. The arms were
registered with the Cape Provincial Administration in 1959, and at
the Bureau of Heraldry in 1986.
Nelson Mandela University was formed by the amalgamation of the
University of Port Elizabeth,
Port Elizabeth Technikon, and the Port
Elizabeth campus of Vista University. It is the largest university in
the Eastern and Southern Cape, with around 24,000 students in seven
faculties spread over six campuses.
High School Level
The city has a number of top government-funded and private schools,
although the abuse of substances seems to prevail in some schools due
to a lack of drug prevention training on the part of the educational
system, including Alexander Road High School,
Collegiate Girls' High School, Victoria Park High School, Grey High
School, Pearson High School, Woodridge College, Andrew
Rabie High School and Lawson Brown High School.
Port Elizabeth lies on the N2 road. To the west the road travels the
Garden Route to George and Cape Town; to the east, the road runs
through the so-called Border Country through Grahamstown, to East
London then on to Durban, terminating in Ermelo in Mpumalanga. The R75
Port Elizabeth to the Karoo. The major routes within the city
are numbered as metropolitan or M routes.
The city's main bus station is in Market Square. The public bus
service is run by the Algoa Bus Company. Between 1881 and 1948, there
Port Elizabeth tramway network, powered initially by horses, and
later by electricity.
The city is in the process of building a bus rapid transit system
which was intended for the 2010 FIFA World Cup. This has been a
massive failure as local taxi associations have prevented the
Port Elizabeth lacks a proper public
transport system which has had a negative impact on the poorer
residents of the city who are dependent on public transport.
Construction of the bus rapid transit network has been suspended due
to mismanagement which led to the project missing its May 2010
deadline. Calls for the project, which has left many parts of the city
in a permanent state of construction, have been made recently, and it
is expected that the government will make a decision on the matter
Port Elizabeth railway station is served by South Africa's rail
network. Local commuter services are operated by Metrorail, while the
Shosholoza Meyl long-distance passenger service links PE with
Bloemfontein where it is possible to connect with
other long-distance routes.
Apple Express narrow-gauge tourist train to
Avontuur operated from
the separate station in Humewood Road near King's Beach. It departed
regularly for Thornhill Village via Van Stadens River bridge, the
highest narrow-gauge rail bridge in the world. The
Apple Express was
launched to provide a service to transport fresh produce and wood from
the farms along the line to Avontuur. The line was completed in 1914
and the train delivered produce directly from the farms to ships in
Port Elizabeth Harbour. Due to modern transport methods such as
containerisation, and refrigerated containers and trucks, the Apple
Express and its services became redundant. Service has now ceased.
In preparation for the 2010 World Cup Soccer event the Humerail
Station was extensively upgraded. Several disused narrow gauge goods
wagons were scrapped and removed from the site, several buildings in
the area have also been renovated and revamped.
Port Elizabeth Airport
Port Elizabeth Airport (
IATA airport code PLZ,
ICAO airport code
ICAO airport code FAPE)
serves the city for both passenger and cargo traffic. It is the fourth
busiest airport in
South Africa after
King Shaka International Airport
King Shaka International Airport in Durban, and Cape Town
International visitors to the city must currently fly to either
Cape Town or Durban, and then take a domestic flight to
Port Elizabeth. An upgrade to the terminal building, completed in
2004, created the necessary facilities to handle international
flights although none are scheduled as yet.
Main article: Algoa Bay
Port Elizabeth has a harbour in Algoa Bay, and the construction of an
additional international harbour at
Coega has supported an increase in
the size of the city's industries and the addition of new industries.
The city has government-funded and private hospitals, including:
Aurora Rehabilitation Hospital
Dora Nginza Hospital
Elizabeth Donkin Hospital, (State Mental Asylum)
Hunterscraig Private Hospital (Private Mental Asylum)
Jose Pearson TB Hospital
Mercantile Private Hospital
Netcare Greenacres Hospital
Nightingale Subacute Hospital
Oasim Private Hospital
Port Elizabeth Provincial Hospital
St George's Hospital
Westways Private Hospital
Port Elizabeth is served by a few radio outlets, namely Algoa
FM, ([[radio broadcasting to the residents of Port Elizabeth, as
well as the entire Eastern Cape, and Garden Route, and globally,
The Herald serves the English populace in terms of newspaper, on a
Die Burger serves the
Afrikaans communities as well with
a well established readership base.
There are various social media news groups in Port Elizabeth, which is
used at most as neighbourhood watch groups.
SABC has a regional office in Port Elizabeth.
Main article: List Of Notable People From Port Elizabeth, South Africa
Red Location Museum
List of heritage sites in Port Elizabeth
Fort Frederick, Eastern Cape
Donkin Heritage Trail
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Retrieved 2018-02-21. I led the very first group and we entered the
'Europeans Only' section of the New Brighton station. By half past six
we were already in police vans on our way to jail. It turned out that
my party was the very first to defy unjust laws in the whole of South
Africa. Little did we know that we were making history.
Raymond Mhlaba Biography - Began as a Trade Unionist, Sentenced to
Life Imprisonment, Continued the Struggle from Prison". Jrank.
^ "Oom Ray and The Power of Mass Action".
South African History
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^ "Matches". FIFA. Retrieved 2018-03-20.
^ a b "Climate data for Port Elizabeth".
South African Weather
Service. June 2011. Archived from the original on 4 March 2012.
Retrieved 6 March 2010.
^ "Rainfall". Falling Rain.
Port Elizabeth Climate Normals 1961−1990". National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 16, 2015.
^ "Klimatafel von
Port Elizabeth (Flugh.), Prov.
Eastern Cape /
Südafrika" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations
all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved
February 7, 2016.
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^ "Types of Drinking Water Contaminants". United States Environmental
Protection Agency. Retrieved 2018-03-20.
^ , Census 2001 – Main Place "Port Elizabeth"
Nelson Mandela Bay: Metropolitan Municipality & Main Places
– Statistics & Maps on City Population
^ Roberts, Edmund (1837). Embassy to the Eastern Courts of
Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat. New York: Harper & Brothers.
^ "67 Steps to take in Port Elizabeth". Umoya Cottages in Port
Western Cape Archives :
Port Elizabeth Municipal Minutes (9
^ Eastern Province Herald (11 January 1878)
^ Cape of Good Hope Official Gazette 2969 (1 May 1959)
^ National Archives of South Africa : Data of the Bureau of
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^ a b c SA's Top Schools 17 Oct 2009
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2007 at the Wayback Machine. Africa Almanac. Retrieved 21 November
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^ List of hospitals in South Africa
Radio Stations in Port Elizabeth". World
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^ "Herald Live". Herald Live. Retrieved 2018-03-20.
South African Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved
See also: Bibliography of the history of Port Elizabeth
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Port Elizabeth.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Port Elizabeth.
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article
Port Elizabeth of Yore: The
Defiance Campaign of 1952
Municipalities and communities of
Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan
Municipality, Eastern Cape
District seat: Port Elizabeth
Cities and towns
Province of the Eastern Cape
Largest city: Port Elizabeth
Population: 6,829,958 (2011)
Land area: 168,966 km2
King William's Town