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Pope
Pope
Paul V (Latin: Paulus V; Italian: Paolo V) (17 September 1550 – 28 January 1621), born Camillo Borghese, was Pope
Pope
from 16 May 1605 to his death in 1621. He is best remembered today as the Pope
Pope
who persecuted Galileo Galilei.

Contents

1 Early life

1.1 Cardinal

2 Papacy

2.1 Election 2.2 Theology 2.3 Canonisations and Beatifications 2.4 Foreign relations

2.4.1 Ecclesiastical jurisdiction 2.4.2 Relations with England 2.4.3 Relations with Japan

2.5 Constructions 2.6 Death 2.7 Episcopal succession

3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External links

Early life[edit] Camillo Borghese
Borghese
was born on 17 September 1550 into the noble Borghese family of Siena
Siena
which had recently fled to Rome, thus the reason as to why ROMANUS appears in most of his inscriptions. He began his career as a lawyer educated at Perugia
Perugia
and then in Padua.[2] Cardinal[edit] In June 1596 he was made the Cardinal-Priest
Cardinal-Priest
of Sant'Eusebio
Sant'Eusebio
and the Cardinal Vicar
Cardinal Vicar
of Rome[2] by Pope
Pope
Clement VIII, and had as his secretary Niccolò Alamanni. During this time, he opted for other titular churches like San Crisogono
San Crisogono
and Santi Giovanni e Paolo. Clement VIII
Clement VIII
also bestowed upon him episcopal consecration in 1597 after his appointment as Bishop of Jesi; the co-consecrators were Cardinal Silvio Savelli (former Latin Patriarch
Patriarch
of Constantinople) and Cardinal Francesco Cornaro (former Bishop of Treviso).[3] Bishop Borghese
Borghese
retained the diocese of Jesi until 1599. Papacy[edit] Election[edit] When Pope
Pope
Leo XI
Leo XI
died, 1605, Cardinal Borghese
Borghese
became Pope
Pope
over a number of candidates including Caesar Baronius and Roberto Cardinal Bellarmine; his neutrality in the factional times made him an ideal compromise candidate. In character he was very stern and unyielding, a lawyer rather than diplomat, who defended the privileges of the Church to his utmost. His first act was to send home to their sees the bishops who were sojourning in Rome, for the Council of Trent
Council of Trent
had insisted that every bishop reside in his diocese.[2] Soon after his accession as Pope
Pope
Paul V, Borghese
Borghese
determined to humiliate Venice, as his predecessor had done, for attempting to preserve its independence from the papacy in the administration of its government.

Papal styles of Pope
Pope
Paul V

Reference style His Holiness

Spoken style Your Holiness

Religious style Holy Father

Posthumous style None

Theology[edit] Paul met with Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
in 1616 after Cardinal Bellarmine had, on his orders, warned Galileo not to hold or defend the heliocentric ideas of Copernicus. Whether there was also an order not to teach those ideas in any way has been a matter for controversy. A letter from Bellarmine to Galileo, however, states only the injunction that the heliocentric ideas could not be defended or held; this letter was written expressly to enable Galileo to defend himself against rumors concerning what had happened in the meeting with Bellarmine.[citation needed] Canonisations and Beatifications[edit] Paul V canonised Charles Borromeo
Charles Borromeo
on 1 November 1610 and Frances of Rome
Rome
on 29 May 1608. He also canonized Pompejanus in 1615 and canonized Cardinal Albert de Louvain
Albert de Louvain
on 9 August 1621. He also beatified a number of individuals which included Ignatius Loyola (27 July 1609), Philip Neri
Philip Neri
(11 May 1615), Theresa of Avila
Theresa of Avila
(24 April 1614), Aloysius Gonzaga
Aloysius Gonzaga
(10 October 1605), and Francis Xavier (25 October 1619). Foreign relations[edit]

Mosaic depicting the arms of Pope
Pope
Paulus V
Paulus V
(Camillo Borghese)

Ecclesiastical jurisdiction[edit] Paul's insistence of ecclesiastical jurisdiction led to a number of quarrels between the Church and the secular governments of various states, notably Venice, where patricians, such as Ermolao Barbaro (1548–1622) of the noble Barbaro family, argued in favor of the exemption of the clergy from the jurisdiction of the civil courts. Venice
Venice
passed two laws obnoxious to Paul, one forbidding the alienation of real estate in favour of the clergy, the second demanding approval of the civil power for the building of new churches (in essence, a Venetian stance that the powers of the church must remain separate from those of the state). Two priests charged by the Venetian state with cruelty, wholesale poisoning, murder and licentiousness, were arrested by the Senate and put in dungeons for trial. Having been found guilty, they were committed to prison. Paul V insisted that they be released to the Church. He demanded the release of the priests as not being amenable to the secular law. When this was refused, the Pope
Pope
threatened an interdict on account of the property laws and the imprisonment of ecclesiastics, which threat was presented to the Senate on Christmas 1605. The Venetian position was ably defended by a canon lawyer, Paolo Sarpi, who extended the matter to general principles defining separate secular and ecclesiastical spheres. In April 1606 the Pope
Pope
excommunicated the entire government of Venice
Venice
and placed an interdict on the city. Father Sarpi strongly advised the Venetian government to refuse to receive the Pope's interdict, and to reason with him while opposing force by force. The Venetian Senate willingly accepted this advice and Fra Paolo presented the case to Paul V, urging from history that the Pope's claim to intermeddle in civil matters was a usurpation; and that in these matters the Republic of Venice
Venice
recognized no authority but that of God. The rest of the Catholic clergy sided with the city, with the exception of the Jesuits, the Theatines, and the Capuchins. The dissenting clergy were forthwith expelled from Venetian territories. Masses continued to be said in Venice, and the feast of Corpus Christi was celebrated with displays of public pomp and "magnificence", in defiance of the Pope. Within a year (March 1607) the disagreement was mediated by France
France
and Spain. The Most Serene Republic refused to retract the laws, but asserted that Venice
Venice
would conduct herself "with her accustomed piety." The Jesuits, which Venice
Venice
considered subversive Papal agents, remained banned. No more could be expected. Paul withdrew his censure. The Venetian Republic rewarded Fra Paulo Sarpi, its successful canon lawyer, with the distinction of state counsellor in jurisprudence and the liberty of access to the state archives, which infuriated Pope Paul. In September 1607, after unsuccessfully attempting to lure Father Sarpi to Rome, the Pope
Pope
responded by putting out a contract on his life.[4][5] Father Sarpi was the target of at least two assassination plots in September and October.[4] Stabbed fifteen times with a stiletto, Fra Sarpi somehow managed to recover, while the assassins found refuge in the Papal territories.[4] Relations with England[edit] Paul V's hard-edged Catholic diplomacy cut the ground from under moderate Catholics
Catholics
in England. His letter of 9 July 1606 to congratulate James I on his accession to the throne was three years late and seemed to English eyes merely a preamble to what followed, and his reference to the Gunpowder Plot, made against the life of the monarch and all the members of Parliament the previous November, was unfortunate for the papal cause, for papal agents were considered by the English to have been involved (the effigy of Pope
Pope
Paul V is still burnt every year during the Lewes Bonfire
Lewes Bonfire
celebrations). However, the Pope
Pope
in that letter pleaded with James not to make the innocent Catholics
Catholics
suffer for the crime of a few, and Paul V also promised to exhort all the Catholics
Catholics
of the realm to be submissive and loyal to their sovereign—in all things not opposed to the honour of God. The oath of allegiance James demanded of his subjects, however contained clauses to which no 17th-century Catholic could in conscience subscribe: the oath of allegiance was solemnly condemned in a brief published a matter of weeks later (22 September 1606, extended 23 August 1607). This condemnation served only to divide English Catholics. The other irritant (to the papacy) in English relations was Cardinal Bellarmine's letter to the English archpriest George Blackwell, reproaching him for having taken the oath of allegiance in apparent disregard of his duty to the Pope. The letter received enough circulation to be referred to in one of James's theological essays (1608), and Bellarmine was soon fencing in a pamphlet exchange with the King of England.

Facade of St Peter's Basilica

Relations with Japan[edit]

Pope
Pope
Paul V welcoming the embassy of the Japanese samurai Hasekura Tsunenaga in Rome
Rome
in 1615. Japanese painting, 17th century.

In November 1615, Paul V welcomed the embassy of the Japanese samurai Hasekura Tsunenaga
Hasekura Tsunenaga
in Rome.[6] Hasekura gave the Pope
Pope
a letter (from Date Masamune) which requested a trade treaty between Japan and New Spain. The letter also asked for Christian missionaries to be sent to Japan. The Pope
Pope
agreed to the dispatch of missionaries, but left the decision for trade to the King of Spain.

Painting of Emanuele Ne Vunda, ambassador from Alvaro II to Pope
Pope
Paul V in 1604–1608, Sala dei Corazzieri, Palazzo del Quirinale, Rome, 1615–1616.

Constructions[edit] In Rome, the pope financed the completion of St. Peter's Basilica, and improved the Vatican Library. He restored the Aqua Traiana, an ancient Roman Aqueduct (named after him Acqua Paola), bringing water to the rioni located on right bank of the Tiber
Tiber
( Trastevere
Trastevere
and Borgo) using materials from his demolition of the Forum of Nerva. He had always encouraged Guido Reni. Like many Popes of the time he was also allegedly guilty of nepotism, and his nephew Scipione Borghese
Borghese
wielded enormous power on his behalf, consolidating the rise of the Borghese family. Paul V also established the Bank of the Holy Spirit
Bank of the Holy Spirit
in 1605. Death[edit] Paul V died on 28 January 1621 of a stroke in the Quirinal Palace
Quirinal Palace
and was succeeded as pope by Pope
Pope
Gregory XV. Episcopal succession[edit] While bishop, he was the principal consecrator of:[7]

Valeriano Muti, Bishop of Bitetto (1599); Marco Agrippa Dandini, Bishop of Jesi
Bishop of Jesi
(1599); Sebastiano Ghislieri, Bishop of Strongoli (1601); Peter Lombard, Archbishop of Armagh
Archbishop of Armagh
(1601); Alessandro Petrucci, Bishop of Massa Marittima
Bishop of Massa Marittima
(1602); Fausto Malari (Molari, Mellari), Bishop of Chiusi (1602); Simone Lunadori, Bishop of Nocera de' Pagani
Bishop of Nocera de' Pagani
(1602); Giovanni Giovenale Ancina, Bishop of Saluzzo
Bishop of Saluzzo
(1602); Fabrizio Campani (Capanus), Bishop of Ferentino
Bishop of Ferentino
(1603); Pirro Imperoli, Bishop of Jesi
Bishop of Jesi
(1604); Taddeo Sarti, Bishop of Nepi e Sutri (1604); Giuseppe Saladino, Bishop of Siracusa
Bishop of Siracusa
(1604); Alessandro di Sangro, Titular Patriarch
Patriarch
of Alexandria (1604); Ascanio Colonna, Cardinal-Bishop of Palestrina
Cardinal-Bishop of Palestrina
(1606); Marcello Lante della Rovere, Bishop of Todi
Bishop of Todi
(1607); Pompeio Arrigoni, Archbishop of Benevento
Archbishop of Benevento
(1607); Anselmo Marzato, Archbishop of Chieti
Archbishop of Chieti
(1607); Giovanni Doria (Giannettino), Titular Archbishop
Titular Archbishop
of Thessalonica (1608); Francesco Vendramin, Patriarch
Patriarch
of Venice
Venice
(1608); Lanfranco Margotti, Bishop of Viterbo e Tuscania
Bishop of Viterbo e Tuscania
(1609); Scipione Caffarelli-Borghese, Archbishop of Bologna
Archbishop of Bologna
(1610); Felice Centini, Bishop of Mileto
Bishop of Mileto
(1611); Gregorio Petrocchini, Cardinal-Bishop of Palestrina
Cardinal-Bishop of Palestrina
(1611); Benedetto Giustiniani, Cardinal-Bishop of Palestrina
Cardinal-Bishop of Palestrina
(1612); Agostino Galamini, Bishop of Recanati e Loreto (1613); Francesco Maria Bourbon Del Monte Santa Maria, Cardinal-Bishop of Palestrina (1615); Ferdinando Taverna, Bishop of Novara
Bishop of Novara
(1615); Francesco Sforza, Cardinal-Bishop of Albano (1618); Alessandro Damasceni Peretti, Cardinal-Bishop of Albano (1620);

and the principal co-consecrator of:[7]

Franz Seraph von Dietrichstein, Archbishop of Olomouc
Archbishop of Olomouc
(1599); Fernando Niño de Guevara, Titular Archbishop
Titular Archbishop
of Philippi (1599); Pedro de Deza Manuel, Cardinal-Bishop of Albano (1600); Paolo Emilio Zacchia, Bishop of Corneto e Montefiascone
Bishop of Corneto e Montefiascone
(1601); Roberto Francesco Romolo Bellarmino, Archbishop of Capua (1602); Bonviso Bonvisi, Archbishop of Bari-Canosa
Archbishop of Bari-Canosa
(1602); and Simeone Tagliavia d’Aragonia, Cardinal-Bishop of Albano (1602).

See also[edit]

Borghese Cardinals created by Paul V Flight of the Earls

Notes[edit]

^ " Pope
Pope
Alexander VII (1655–1667)". GCatholic. Retrieved 10 May 2014.  ^ a b c "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Pope
Pope
Paul V". www.newadvent.org.  ^ Charles Bransom, Jr., "The Episcopal Lineage of Pope
Pope
Clement X & Pope
Pope
Paul V," Apostolic Succession & Episcopal Lineages in the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(blog), retrieved: 2018-09-14. ^ a b c Robertson, Alexander, Fra Paolo Sarpi: the Greatest of the Venetians, London: Sampson, Low, Marston & Co. (1893), pp. 114–117 ^ Watson, J. Henry, The History of Fra Paolo Sarpi, New York: La Croce (1911) ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Hasekura Tsunenaga" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 412. ^ a b "Bishop Pope
Pope
Paul V - Camillo Borghese" Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. Retrieved June 294, 2017

References[edit]

James I, De Triplici Nodo, Triplex Cuneus, (his anonymous pamphlet encouraging loyalty to the Crown, accompanied by letters from Paul V about the Catholic Church's opinion of the Oath of Allegiance, and James' responses to them). Stephen A. Coston, King James VI & I and Papal Opposition, 1998.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Paulus V.

 "Paul. The name of five popes. Paul V". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. 

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 5065712 LCCN: n85144319 ISNI: 0000 0001 2118 7706 GND: 118739530 SELIBR: 209383 SUDOC: 035118792 BNF: cb13016268d (data) ULAN: 500257409 NLA: 35139953 NKC: jn20011024200 BNE: XX1057

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