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Pope
Pope
Innocent X (Latin: Innocentius X; 6 May 1574 – 7 January 1655), born Giovanni Battista Pamphilj (or Pamphili), was Pope
Pope
from 15 September 1644 to his death in 1655.[1] Born in Rome
Rome
of a family from Gubbio
Gubbio
in Umbria
Umbria
who had come to Rome during the pontificate of Pope
Pope
Innocent IX, Pamphili
Pamphili
was trained as a lawyer and graduated from the Collegio Romano. He followed a conventional cursus honorum, following his uncle Girolamo Pamphili
Pamphili
as auditor of the Rota, and like him, attaining the position of Cardinal-Priest of Sant'Eusebio, in 1629. Before becoming Pope, Pamphili
Pamphili
served as a papal diplomat to Naples, France, and Spain. Pamphili
Pamphili
succeeded Pope
Pope
Urban VIII
Urban VIII
(1623–44) on 15 September 1644 as Pope
Pope
Innocent X, after a contentious papal conclave that featured a rivalry between French and Spanish factions. Innocent X was one of the most politically shrewd pontiffs of the era, greatly increasing the temporal power of the Holy See. Major political events in which he was involved included the English Civil War, conflicts with French church officials over financial fraud issues, and hostilities with the Duchy of Parma
Duchy of Parma
related to the First War
War
of Castro. In terms of theological events, Innocent X issued a papal bull condemning the beliefs of Jansenism.

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Early life

2 Papacy

2.1 Election 2.2 Relations with France 2.3 Relations with Parma 2.4 English Civil War

3 Olimpia Maidalchini 4 Death and legacy 5 See also 6 References 7 Literature 8 External links

Biography[edit] Early life[edit] Giovanni Battista Pamphili
Pamphili
was born in Rome
Rome
on 5 May 1574, the son of Camillo Pamphili, of the Roman Pamphili
Pamphili
family. The family, originally from Gubbio, was directly descended from Pope
Pope
Alexander VI.[2] In 1594 he graduated from the Collegio Romano
Collegio Romano
and followed a conventional path through the ranks of the Catholic Church. He served as a Consistorial lawyer in 1601, and in 1604 succeeded his uncle, Cardinal Girolamo Pamphili, as auditor of the Roman Rota, the ecclesiastical appellate tribunal. He was also a canonist of the Sacred Apostolic Penitentiary, a second tribunal.[3] In 1623 Pope
Pope
Gregory XV sent him as apostolic nuncio (ecclesiastical diplomat) to the court of the Kingdom of Naples.[4] In 1625 Popo Urban VIII sent him to accompany his nephew, Francesco Barberini, whom he had accredited as nuncio, first to France and then Spain.[5] In January 1626, Pamphili
Pamphili
was appointed titular Latin Patriarch
Patriarch
of Antioch.[6] In reward for his labors, in May 1626 Giovanni Battista was made nuncio to the court of Philip IV of Spain.[6] The position led to a lifelong association with the Spaniards which was of great use during the papal conclave of 1644. He was created Cardinal in pectore in 1627 and published in 1629. Papacy[edit] Election[edit] Main article: Papal conclave, 1644 The 1644 conclave for the election of a successor to Pope
Pope
Urban VIII was long and contentious, lasting from 9 August to 15 September. A large French faction led by Urban VIII's nephews objected to the Spanish candidate, as an enemy of Cardinal Mazarin, who guided French policy. They put up their own candidate (Giulio Cesare Sacchetti) but could not establish enough support for him and agreed to Cardinal Pamphili
Pamphili
as an acceptable compromise, though he had served as legate to Spain.[7] Mazarin, bearing the French veto of Pamphili, arrived too late, and the election was accomplished.[8] Relations with France[edit]

Papal styles of Pope
Pope
Innocent X

Reference style His Holiness

Spoken style Your Holiness

Religious style Holy Father

Posthumous style None

Pamphili
Pamphili
chose to be called Innocent X, and soon after his accession he initiated legal action against the Barberini
Barberini
for misappropriation of public funds. The brothers Francesco Barberini, Antonio Barberini and Taddeo Barberini
Barberini
fled to Paris, where they found a powerful protector in Cardinal Mazarin.[9] Innocent X confiscated their property, and on 19 February 1646, issued a papal bull decreeing that all cardinals who might leave the Papal States
Papal States
for six months without express papal permission would be deprived of their benefices and eventually of their cardinalate itself. The French parliament declared the papal ordinance void in France, but Innocent X did not yield until Mazarin prepared to send troops to Italy. Henceforth the papal policy towards France became more friendly, and somewhat later the Barberini were rehabilitated when the son of Taddeo Barberini, Maffeo Barberini, married Olimpia Giustiniani, a niece of Innocent X. In 1653, Innocent X, with the Cum occasione
Cum occasione
papal bull, condemned five propositions of Jansenius's Augustinus, inspired by St. Augustine,[10] as heretical and close to Lutheranism. This led to the formulary controversy, Blaise Pascal's writing of the Lettres Provinciales, and finally to the razing of the Jansenist
Jansenist
convent of Port-Royal and the subsequent dissolving of its community. Relations with Parma[edit] The death of Pope
Pope
Urban VIII
Urban VIII
is said to have been hastened by his chagrin at the result of the First War
War
of Castro, a war he had undertaken against Odoardo Farnese, the duke of Parma. Hostilities between the papacy and the Duchy of Parma
Duchy of Parma
resumed in 1649, and forces loyal to Pope
Pope
Innocent X destroyed the city of Castro on 2 September 1649.[2] Innocent X objected to the conclusion of the Peace of Westphalia, which his nuncio, Fabio Chigi, protested in vain. In 1650 Innocent X issued the brief Zelo Domus Dei[11] against the Peace of Westfalia, and backdated it to 1648 in order to preserve potential claims for confiscated land and property.[12] The protests were ignored by the European powers. English Civil War[edit] During the Civil War
War
(1642–49) in England and Ireland, Innocent X strongly supported the independent Confederate Ireland, over the objections of Mazarin and the former English Queen and at that time Queen Mother, Henrietta Maria, exiled in Paris. The pope sent Giovanni Battista Rinuccini, archbishop of Fermo, as a special nuncio to Ireland. He arrived at Kilkenny
Kilkenny
with a large quantity of arms including 20,000 pounds of gunpowder, and a very large sum of money.[13] Rinuccini hoped he could discourage the Confederates from allying with Charles I and the Royalists in the English Civil War
English Civil War
and instead encourage them towards the foundation of an independent Catholic-ruled Ireland. At Kilkenny, Rinuccini was received with great honours, asserting in his Latin declaration that the object of his mission was to sustain the king but, above all, to rescue from pains and penalties the Catholic people of Ireland in securing the free and public exercise of the Catholic religion, and the restoration of the churches and church property. In the end, Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
restored Ireland to the Parliamentarian side and Rinuccini returned to Rome
Rome
in 1649, after four fruitless years. Olimpia Maidalchini[edit] Olimpia Maidalchini
Olimpia Maidalchini
was married to Innocent X's late brother, and was believed to be his mistress because of her influence over him in matters of promotion and politics. This state of affairs was alluded to in the Encyclopædia Britannica 9th edition (1880):

"Throughout his reign the influence exercised over him by Maidalchini, his deceased brother's wife, was very great, and such as to give rise to gross scandal, for which, however, there appears to have been no adequate ground.... The avarice of his female counsellor gave to his reign a tone of oppression and sordid greed which probably it would not otherwise have shown, for personally he was not without noble and reforming impulses."

The relationship between Maidalchini and Innocent X, both before and during his papacy, is the main concern of the book Mistress of the Vatican by Eleanor Herman, published in 2008. Death and legacy[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Guido Reni's archangel Michael (Capuchin church of Santa Maria della Concezione, Rome) tramples a Satan
Satan
with the vividly recognizable features of Pope
Pope
Innocent X.

Giovanni Battista Pamphili

During the papacy of Pope
Pope
Urban VIII, the future Innocent X was the pope's most significant rival among the College of Cardinals. Antonio Barberini, the Urban VIII's brother, was a cardinal who had begun his career with the Capuchin brothers. About 1635, at the height of the Thirty Years' War
War
in Germany, in which the Papacy was intricately involved, Cardinal Antonio commissioned Guido Reni's painting of the Archangel
Archangel
Michael, trampling Satan, who bears the recognizable features of Innocent X. This bold political artwork still hangs in a side chapel of the Capuchin friars' Church of the Conception (Santa Maria della Concezione) in Rome. A legend related to the painting is that the dashing and high-living artist, Guido Reni, had been insulted by rumours he thought were circulated by Cardinal Pamphili. When, a few years later, Pamphili
Pamphili
was raised to the papacy, other Barberini
Barberini
relatives fled to France on embezzlement accusations. Despite this, the Capuchins held fast to their chapel altarpiece. Innocent was responsible for raising the Colegio de Santo Tomás de Nuestra Señora del Santísimo Rosario into the rank of a university. It is now the University of Santo Tomás
University of Santo Tomás
in Manila, the oldest existing in Asia. In 1650, Innocent X celebrated a Jubilee after 25 years of rule. He embellished Rome
Rome
with inlaid floors and bas-relief in Saint Peter's, erected Bernini's Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi
Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi
in Piazza Navona, the Pamphili
Pamphili
stronghold in Rome, and ordered the construction of Palazzo Nuovo at the Campidoglio. Innocent X is also the subject of Portrait of Innocent X, a famous painting by Diego Velázquez
Diego Velázquez
housed in the family gallery of Palazzo Doria (Galleria Doria Pamphili). This portrait inspired the "Screaming Pope" paintings by 20th century painter Francis Bacon, the most famous of which is Bacon's Study after Velázquez's Portrait of Pope
Pope
Innocent X. Innocent X died 7 January 1655, and at the conclave of 1655 was succeeded by Pope
Pope
Alexander VII. See also[edit]

Cardinals created by Innocent X Pamphili, with Innocent X's family tree Portrait of Innocent X Study after Velázquez's Portrait of Pope
Pope
Innocent X

References[edit]

^ Dictionnaire Général pour la maîtrise de la langue française la culture classique et contemporaine. Larousse. 1993. p. 812. ISBN 2-03-320300-X.  ^ a b Williams, George L. (2004). Papal Genealogy: The Families and Descendants of the Popes. McFarland. p. 109. ISBN 0786420715. Retrieved 22 January 2015.  ^ Miranda, Salvador. "Pamphilj, Giambattista (1574-1655)", The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church ^ Vergil and the Pamphili
Pamphili
Family in Piazza Navona, Rome, Igrid Rowland, A Companion to Vergil's Aeneid and its Tradition, Ed. Joseph Farrell and Michael C.J. Putnam, (Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2010), 253. ^ Boutry, Philippe. "Innocent X", The Papacy:An Encyclopedia, Vol.2, Ed. Philippe Levillain, (Routledge, 2002), 801. ^ a b Ott, Michael. " Pope
Pope
Innocent X." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 8. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 11 June 2016 ^ History of the popes; their church and state (Volume III) by Leopold von Ranke (2009, Wellesley College
Wellesley College
Library) ^ Miranda, Salvador. "Conclave of August 9 to September 15, 1644", The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church ^ George L. Williams, Papal Genealogy: The Families And Descendants Of The Popes, (McFarland & Company, 1998), 109. ^ "Jansenism", Raymond A. Blacketer, The New Westminster Dictionary of Church History: The Early, Medieval, and Reformation
Reformation
Era, Ed. Robert Benedetto, (Westminster John Knox Press, 2008), 348. ^ Psalms
Psalms
69:9, "For the zeal of thine house hath eaten me up, and the reproaches of them that reproached thee are fallen upon me." ^ Ryan, E.A., "Catholics and the Peace of Westphalia" ^ "con somme cospicue di pecunia ed altre munizioni", G. Alazzi, Nunciatura in Irlanda di Monsignor Gio. Batista Rinuccini (Florence) 1844, preface (p. vi) to the publication of Rinucci's official letters: see Giovanni Battista Rinuccini.

Literature[edit]

Guido Braun: Innozenz X. Der Papst als ‚padre comune‘. In: Michael Matheus / Lutz Klinkhammer (eds.): Eigenbild im Konflikt. Krisensituationen des Papsttums zwischen Gregor VII. und Benedikt XV. WBG, Darmstadt, 2009, pp. 119ff., ISBN 978-3-534-20936-1. Michael Tilly (1990). "Innozenz X". In Bautz, Friedrich Wilhelm. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL) (in German). 2. Hamm: Bautz. cols. 1295–1298. ISBN 3-88309-032-8.  Pope
Pope
Innocent X. CE

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Innocentius X.

Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911: Innocent X Chev. Artaud De Montor, 1911. The Lives and Times of the Popes Publications by or about Pope
Pope
Innocent X at VD 17 Works by and about Pope
Pope
Innocent X in the Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek (German Digital Library)

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Preceded by Urban VIII Pope 15 September 1644 – 7 January 1655 Succeeded by Alexander VII

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 89748824 LCCN: n85084632 ISNI: 0000 0001 2096 6169 GND: 118710788 SUDOC: 069003289 BNF: cb122439700 (data) ULAN: 500281685 NKC: jo2006325068 BNE: XX1142

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