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Pope
Pope
Clement IX (Latin: Clemens IX; 28 January 1600 – 9 December 1669), born Giulio Rospigliosi, was Pope
Pope
from 20 June 1667 to his death in 1669.

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Early life and education 1.2 Episcopate and cardinalate

2 Pontificate

2.1 Papal election 2.2 Actions 2.3 Other actions 2.4 Art reforms 2.5 Defence against the Turks

3 Death and burial 4 Artistic works

4.1 Libretti

5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links

Biography[edit] Early life and education[edit] Giulio Rospigliosi was born in 1600 to the Rospigliosi family, a noble family of Pistoia
Pistoia
in the Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Grand Duchy of Tuscany
to Giacomo and Caterina Rospigliosi. He studied at the Seminario Romano and later at the University of Pisa as a pupil of the Jesuits. He would receive doctorates in theology, philosophy and both canon and civil law in 1623. After receiving his doctorates, he taught theology there as a professor from 1623 to 1625. Episcopate and cardinalate[edit] Later Rospigliosi worked closely with Pope
Pope
Urban VIII (1623–1644) where he worked in the diplomatic corps as the Referendary of the Apostolic Signatura. He was appointed as the Titular Archbishop
Archbishop
of Tarsus in 1644 and later received episcopal consecration in the Vatican. Rospigliosi also served as the Apostolic Nuncio to Spain from 1644 until 1653 when he decided to retire from that post. He lived in retirement throughout the pontificate of Pope
Pope
Innocent X who disliked and distanced himself from those associated with his predecessor.[1] He was also made vicar of Santa Maria Maggiore
Santa Maria Maggiore
in Rome. Rospigliosi was an accomplished man of letters who wrote poetry, dramas and libretti, as well as what may be the first comic opera, namely his 1637 libretto Chi soffre, speri.[2][3] He was also a patron of Nicolas Poussin, commissioning A Dance to the Music of Time from him and dictating its iconography. Pope
Pope
Alexander VII
Alexander VII
appointed him to the cardinalate in 1657 as the Cardinal-Priest of San Sisto Vecchio
San Sisto Vecchio
and was also appointed as the Cardinal Secretary of State
Cardinal Secretary of State
in 1655 which he held until 1667.[1] Pontificate[edit] Papal election[edit] Main article: Papal conclave, 1667

Papal styles of Pope
Pope
Clement IX

Reference style His Holiness

Spoken style Your Holiness

Religious style Holy Father

Posthumous style None

Pope
Pope
Alexander VII
Alexander VII
died in 1667 and a conclave to choose his successor was called. King Louis XIV
Louis XIV
of France
France
instructed the French faction to turn their support to Rospigliosi and believed also that he would appease the Spanish faction of Charles II due to the fact that he had once been the Apostolic Nuncio to Spain. On 20 June 1667 he was elected as pontiff and took the pontifical name of "Clement IX". The new pope was crowned on 26 June 1667 by the protodeacon, Cardinal Rinaldo d'Este. He later took possession of the Basilica of Saint John Lateran on 3 July 1667. Actions[edit] Nothing remarkable occurred under Clement IX's short administration beyond the temporary adjustment of the disputes between the Holy See and those prelates of the Gallican Church who had refused to join in condemning the writings of Jansen. He was mediator during the 1668 peace of Aachen, in the wars of succession between France, Spain, England
England
and the Netherlands. He was popular with the people of Rome, not so much for his erudition and application to business, as for his extreme charity and his affability towards great and small. He increased the goodwill of his subjects by buying off the monopolist who had secured the "macinato", or privilege of selling grain, and as his predecessor had collected the money for the purpose, Clement IX had the decree published in the name of Alexander VII. Two days each week he occupied a confessional in St. Peter's church and heard any one who wished to confess to him. He frequently visited the hospitals, and was lavish in his alms to the poor. In an age of nepotism, he did little or nothing to advance or enrich his family. In his aversion to notoriety, he refused to permit his name to be placed on the buildings erected during his reign.[1]

Statue of Clement IX

Other actions[edit] Clement IX confirmed the cultus of Margaret of Savoy on 9 October 1669. He also beatified Rose of Lima
Rose of Lima
on 15 April 1668. On 28 April 1668, he canonized Magdalena de Pazzi
Magdalena de Pazzi
and Peter of Alcantara. He elevated 12 new cardinals in three consistories. Art reforms[edit] As pope, Clement IX continued his interest in the arts. He embellished the city of Rome
Rome
with famous works commissioned to Gian Lorenzo Bernini, including the angels of Ponte Sant'Angelo
Ponte Sant'Angelo
and the colonnade of Saint Peter's Basilica. Somewhat unusually for Popes of the era, Clement IX did not have his name displayed on monuments he built. He also opened the first public opera house in Rome[citation needed], and for the Carnival
Carnival
celebrations of 1668, commissioned Antonio Maria Abbatini of the Sistine Chapel Choir
Sistine Chapel Choir
to set to music his free Italian translation of a Spanish religious drama La Baltasara. The production had sets designed by Bernini.

The tomb of Clement IX

Defence against the Turks[edit] Clement IX worked to strengthen Venetian defences against the Turks on the island of Crete. However, he was unable to get wider support for this cause. At the end of October 1669 Clement IX fell ill after receiving news that the Venetian fortress of Candia in Crete
Crete
had surrendered to the Turks.

Death and burial[edit] Clement IX died in Rome, allegedly of broken heart, on 9 December 1669. His successor, Pope
Pope
Clement X
Clement X
(r. 1670–1676), built him an ornate tomb in the basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore. Artistic works[edit] Libretti[edit]

for Giovanni Girolamo Kapsperger: I Pastori di Betlemme (1630) for Stefano Landi: Il Sant'Alessio (1631/2, 1634) for Michele Angelo Rossi: Erminia sul Giordano (1633) for (composer unknown): I Santi Didimo e Teodora (1635, 1636) for Marco Marazzoli
Marco Marazzoli
and Virgilio Mazzocchi: Chi Soffre, Speri (1637, 1639) for Aurelio Aureli: La Sincerità Trionfante (1638, 1639) for Virgilio Mazzocchi: Il San Bonifazio (1638, 1639) for Virgilio Mazzocchi: La Genoinda (1641) for Luigi Rossi: Il Palazzo Incantato (1642) for Virgilio Mazzocchi: Il Sant'Eustachio (1643) for Antonio Maria Abbatini and Marco Marazzoli: Dal Male Il Bene (1654, 1656) for Marco Marazzoli: Le Armi e Gli Amori (1656) for Antonio Maria Abbatini: La Comica del Cielo (1668)

See also[edit]

Cardinals created by Clement IX

Notes[edit]

^ a b c Loughlin, James. " Pope
Pope
Clement IX." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. 9 Sept. 2014 ^ Roger Parker (ed.): The Oxford illustrated history of opera. Oxford University Press, Oxford 1994, p. 18 f. ^ Wolfgang Witzenmann: Article “Mazzocchi, Virgilio.” In: Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press, accessed July 6, 2016.

References[edit]

Rendina, Claudio (1993). I papi. Storia e segreti. Rome: Newton & Compton.  Murata, Margaret (1981). Operas for the Papal Court, 1631–1668. UMI Research Press. 

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Clemens IX.

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Clement IX

Notes on 20th century productions of Rospigliosi's operatic works Banca dati Giulio Rospigliosi, maintained by Danilo Romei

Political offices

Preceded by Fabio Chigi Cardinal Secretary of State 1655–1667 Succeeded by Decio Azzolini

Catholic Church
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titles

Preceded by Alexander VII Pope 20 June 1667 – 9 December 1669 Succeeded by Clement X

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