Polish (język polski, polszczyzna) is a West Slavic language spoken
Poland and is the native language of the Poles. It
belongs to the Lechitic subgroup of the West Slavic languages.
Polish is the official language of Poland, but it is also used
throughout the world by Polish minorities in other countries. There
are over 55 million
Polish language speakers around the world and it
is one of the official languages of the European Union. Its written
standard is the Polish alphabet, which has 9 additions to the letters
of the basic
Latin script (ą, ć, ę, ł, ń, ó, ś, ź, ż). Polish
is closely related to Kashubian, Silesian, Upper Sorbian, Lower
Sorbian, Czech and Slovak.
Although the Austrian, German and Russian administrations exerted much
pressure on the Polish nation (during the 19th and early 20th
centuries) following the Partitions of Poland, which resulted in
attempts to suppress the Polish language, a rich literature has
regardless developed over the centuries and the language currently has
the largest number of speakers of the West Slavic group. It is also
the second most widely spoken Slavic language, after Russian and just
ahead of Ukrainian.
In history, Polish is known to be an important language, both
diplomatically and academically in Central and Eastern Europe. Today,
Polish is spoken by over 38.5 million people as their first language
in Poland. It is also spoken as a second language in northern Czech
Republic and Slovakia, Hungary, western parts of
Belarus and Ukraine,
and central-western Lithuania. Because of the emigration from Poland
during different time periods, most notably after World War II,
millions of Polish speakers can be found in countries such as Israel,
Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, the United Kingdom, Ireland, The
United States and New Zealand.
2 Geographic distribution
7 Borrowed words
8 Loanwords from Polish
9 See also
11 Further reading
12 External links
Polish began to emerge as a distinct language around the 10th century,
the process largely triggered by the establishment and development of
the Polish state. Mieszko I, ruler of the Polans tribe from the
Poland region, united a few culturally and linguistically
related tribes from the basins of the
eventually accepting baptism in 966. With Christianity,
Latin alphabet, which made it possible to write down
Polish, until then existing only as a spoken language. "It is
worth mentioning," writes Tomasz Kamusella, "that Polish is the
oldest, non-ecclesiastical, written Slavic language with a continuous
tradition of literacy and official use, which has lasted unbroken from
the 16th century to this day."
The precursor to modern Polish is the
Old Polish language. Ultimately,
Polish is thought to descend from the unattested Proto-Slavic
language. Polish was a lingua franca from 1500–1700 in Central and
small portions of Eastern Europe, because of the political, cultural,
scientific and military influence of the former Polish–Lithuanian
"Day, ut ia pobrusa, a ti poziwai", highlited in red
Book of Henryków
Book of Henryków (Polish: Księga henrykowska, Latin: Liber
fundationis claustri Sancte Marie Virginis in Heinrichau), contains
the earliest known sentence written in the Polish language: Day, ut ia
pobrusa, a ti poziwai (pronounced originally as: Daj, uć ja pobrusza,
a ti pocziwaj, modern Polish: Daj, niech ja pomielę, a ty odpoczywaj
or Pozwól, że ja będę mełł, a ty odpocznij, English: Come, let
me grind, and you take a rest), written around 1270.
The medieval recorder of this phrase, the Cistercian monk Peter of the
Henryków monastery, noted that "Hoc est in polonico" ("This is in
Poland is the most linguistically homogeneous European country; nearly
97% of Poland's citizens declare Polish as their first language.
Poles constitute large minorities in Lithuania, Belarus,
and Ukraine. Polish is the most widely used minority language in
Vilnius County (26% of the population, according to the
2001 census results, with
Vilnius having been part of
Poland from 1922
until 1939) and is found elsewhere in southeastern Lithuania. In
Ukraine it is most common in western Lviv and Volyn Oblasts, while in
Belarus it is used by the significant Polish minority, especially
in the Brest and
Grodno regions and in areas along the Lithuanian
border. There are significant numbers of Polish speakers among Polish
emigrants and their descendants in many other countries.
In the United States,
Polish Americans number more than 11 million but
most of them cannot speak Polish fluently. According to the 2000
United States Census, 667,414 Americans of age five years and over
reported Polish as the language spoken at home, which is about 1.4% of
people who speak languages other than English, 0.25% of the US
population, and 6% of the Polish-American population. The largest
concentrations of Polish speakers reported in the census (over 50%)
were found in three states:
Illinois (185,749), New York (111,740),
New Jersey (74,663). Enough people in these areas speak Polish
PNC Financial Services
PNC Financial Services (which has a large number of branches in
all of these areas) offer services available in Polish at all of their
cash machines in addition to English and Spanish.
According to the 2011 census there are now over 500,000 people in
Wales who consider Polish to be their "main" language. In
Canada, there is a significant Polish Canadian population: There are
242,885 speakers of Polish according to the 2006 census, with a
particular concentration in
Toronto (91,810 speakers) and
The geographical distribution of the
Polish language was greatly
affected by the territorial changes of
Poland immediately after World
War II and Polish population transfers (1944–46).
Poles settled in
the "Recovered Territories" in the west and north, which had
previously been mostly German-speaking. Some
Poles remained in the
previously Polish-ruled territories in the east that were annexed by
the USSR, resulting in the present-day Polish-speaking minorities in
Lithuania, Belarus, and Ukraine, although many
Poles were expelled or
emigrated from those areas to areas within Poland's new borders.
Meanwhile, the flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–50), as well as
the expulsion of Ukrainians and Operation Vistula, the 1947 forced
resettlement of Ukrainian minorities to the
Recovered Territories in
the west of the country, contributed to the country's linguistic
Geographic language distribution maps of
Poland from pre-WWII to
The "Recovered Territories" (in pink) are those parts of Germany and
the Free City of
Gdańsk that became part of
Poland after World War
II. Gray color, territories lost to the
Soviet Union followed by mass
Polish population transfers (1944–46)
Geographical distribution of the
Polish language and other Central and
Eastern European languages and dialects.
Main article: Dialects of Polish
The oldest printed text in Polish – Statuta synodalia Episcoporum
Wratislaviensis printed in 1475 in
Wrocław by Kasper Elyan.
Polish alphabet contains 32 letters. Q, V and X are not used in
the Polish language.
Polish language became far more homogeneous in the second half of
the 20th century, in part due to the mass migration of several million
Polish citizens from the eastern to the western part of the country
after the Soviet annexation of the
Kresy in 1939, and the annexation
of former German territory after World War II. This tendency toward a
homogeneity also stems from the vertically integrated nature of the
Polish People's Republic.
The inhabitants of different regions of
Poland still[update] speak
"standard" Polish somewhat differently, although the differences
between regional dialects appear slight. First-language speakers of
Polish have no trouble understanding each other, and non-native
speakers may have difficulty distinguishing regional variations.
Polish is normally described as consisting of four or five main
Greater Polish, spoken in the west
Lesser Polish, spoken in the south and southeast
Masovian, spoken throughout the central and eastern parts of the
Silesian, spoken in the southwest (also considered a separate
language, see comment below)
Kashubian, spoken in
Pomerania west of
Gdańsk on the Baltic Sea, is
often considered a fifth dialect. It contains a number of features not
found elsewhere in Poland, e.g. nine distinct oral vowels (vs. the
five of standard Polish) and (in the northern dialects) phonemic word
stress, an archaic feature preserved from
Common Slavic times and not
found anywhere else among the West Slavic languages. However, it
"lacks most of the linguistic and social determinants of
Many linguistic sources about the
Slavic languages describe Silesian
as a dialect of Polish. However, many
themselves a separate ethnicity and have been advocating for the
recognition of a Silesian language. According to the last official
Poland in 2011, over half a million people declared Silesian
as their native language. Many sociolinguistic sources (e.g. by Tomasz
Kamusella, Agnieszka Pianka, Alfred F. Majewicz, Tomasz
Wicherkiewicz) assume that extralinguistic criteria decide whether
something is a language or a dialect of the language: users of speech
or/and political decisions, and this is dynamic (i.e. change over
time). Also, language organizations like as SIL International and
resources for the academic field of linguistics like as
Ethnologue, Linguist List and other, for example Ministry of
Administration and Digitization recognized Silesian language. In
July 2007, the
Silesian language was recognized by an ISO, and was
attributed an ISO code of szl.
Some more characteristic but less widespread regional dialects
The distinctive dialect of the
Gorals (Góralski) occurs in the
mountainous area bordering the
Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Gorals
("Highlanders") take great pride in their culture and the dialect. It
exhibits some cultural influences from the Vlach shepherds who
Wallachia (southern Romania) in the 14th–17th
The Poznanski dialect, spoken in
Poznań and to some extent in the
whole region of the former
Prussian Partition (excluding Upper
Silesia), with noticeable German influences.
In the northern and western (formerly German) regions where
the territories annexed by the
Soviet Union resettled after World War
II, the older generation speaks a dialect of Polish characteristic of
Kresy that includes a longer pronunciation of vowels.
Poles living in
Lithuania (particularly in the
Vilnius region), in
Belarus (particularly the northwest), and in the northeast of Poland
continue to speak the Eastern Borderlands dialect, which sounds
"slushed" (in Polish described as zaciąganie z ruska, "speaking with
a Russian drawl") and is easily distinguishable.
Some city dwellers, especially the less affluent population, had their
own distinctive dialects - for example, the
Warsaw dialect, still
spoken by some of the population of
Praga on the eastern bank of the
Praga remained the only part of
Warsaw where the population
World War II
World War II relatively intact.) However, these city dialects
are now[update] mostly extinct due to assimilation with standard
Poles living in emigrant communities (for example, in the USA),
whose families left
Poland just after World War II, retain a number of
minor features of Polish vocabulary as spoken in the first half of the
20th century that now sound archaic to contemporary visitors from
Main article: Polish phonology
Polish has six oral vowels (all monophthongs) and two nasal vowels.
The oral vowels are /i/ (spelled i), /ɨ/ (spelled y), /ɛ/ (spelled
e), /a/ (spelled a), /ɔ/ (spelled o) and /u/ (spelled u or ó). The
nasal vowels are /ɛ̃/ (spelled ę) and /ɔ̃/ (spelled ą).
The Polish consonant system shows more complexity: its characteristic
features include the series of affricate and palatal consonants that
resulted from four
Proto-Slavic palatalizations and two further
palatalizations that took place in Polish and Belarusian. The full set
of consonants, together with their most common spellings, can be
presented as follows (although other phonological analyses exist):
stops /p/ (p), /b/ (b), /t/ (t), /d/ (d), /k/ (k), /ɡ/ (g), and the
palatalized forms /kʲ/ (ki) and /ɡʲ/ (gi)
fricatives /f/ (f), /v/ (w), /s/ (s), /z/ (z), /ʂ/ (sz), /ʐ/ (ż,
rz), the alveolo-palatals /ɕ/ (ś, si) and /ʑ/ (ź, zi), and /x/
(ch, h) and /xʲ/ (chi, hi)
affricates /ts/ (c), /dz/ (dz), /tʂ/ (cz), /dʐ/ (dż), /tɕ/ (ć,
ci), /dʑ/ (dź, dzi) (these are written here without ties for browser
display compatibility, although Polish does distinguish between
affricates as in czy, and stop–fricative clusters as in trzy)
nasals /m/ (m), /n/ (n), /ɲ/ (ń, ni)
approximants /l/ (l), /j/ (j), /w/ (ł)
trill /r/ (r)
Neutralization occurs between voiced–voiceless consonant pairs in
certain environments: at the end of words (where devoicing occurs),
and in certain consonant clusters (where assimilation occurs). For
details, see Voicing and devoicing in the article on Polish phonology.
Most Polish words are paroxytones (that is, the stress falls on the
second-to-last syllable of a polysyllabic word), although there are
Polish orthography and Polish Braille
Polish alphabet derives from the
Latin script, but includes
certain additional letters formed using diacritics. The Polish
alphabet was one of three major forms of Latin-based orthography
developed for Slavic languages, the others being
Czech orthography and
Croatian orthography, the latter being a 19th-century invention trying
to make a compromise between the first two. Kashubian uses a
Polish-based system, Slovak uses a Czech-based system, and Slovene
follows the Croatian one; the
Sorbian languages blend the Polish and
the Czech ones.
The diacritics used in the
Polish alphabet are the kreska (graphically
similar to the acute accent) in the letters ć, ń, ó, ś, ź and
through the letter in ł; the kropka (superior dot) in the letter ż,
and the ogonek ("little tail") in the letters ą, ę. The letters q,
v, x are often not considered part of the Polish alphabet; they are
used only in foreign words and names.
Polish orthography is largely phonemic—there is a consistent
correspondence between letters (or digraphs and trigraphs) and
phonemes (for exceptions see below). The letters of the alphabet and
their normal phonemic values are listed in the following table.
Book of Henryków.
Jakub Wujek Bible
Jakub Wujek Bible in Polish, 1599 print
/ɔ̃/, /ɔn/, /ɔm/
/ɛ̃/, /ɛn/, /ɛm/, /ɛ/
The following digraphs and trigraphs are used:
(before a vowel)
Voiced consonant letters frequently come to represent voiceless sounds
(as shown in the tables); this occurs at the end of words and in
certain clusters, due to the neutralization mentioned in the Phonology
section above. Occasionally also voiceless consonant letters can
represent voiced sounds in clusters.
The spelling rule for the palatal sounds /ɕ/, /ʑ/, /tɕ/, /dʑ/ and
/ɲ/ is as follows: before the vowel i the plain letters s, z, c, dz,
n are used; before other vowels the combinations si, zi, ci, dzi, ni
are used; when not followed by a vowel the diacritic forms ś, ź, ć,
dź, ń are used. For example, the s in siwy ("grey-haired"), the si
in siarka ("sulphur") and the ś in święty ("holy") all represent
the sound /ɕ/. The exceptions to the above rule are certain loanwords
from Latin, Italian, French, Russian or English—where s before i is
pronounced as s, e.g. sinus, sinologia, do re mi fa sol la si do,
Saint-Simon i saint-simoniści, Sierioża, Siergiej, Singapur,
singiel. In other loanwords the vowel i is changed to y, e.g. Syria,
Sybir, synchronizacja, Syrakuzy.
The following table shows the correspondence between the sounds and
digraphs and trigraphs are used:
(in pausa or
before a consonant)
(before a vowel)
(before the vowel i)
Similar principles apply to /kʲ/, /ɡʲ/, /xʲ/ and /lʲ/, except
that these can only occur before vowels, so the spellings are k, g,
(c)h, l before i, and ki, gi, (c)hi, li otherwise. Most Polish
speakers, however, do not consider palatalisation of k, g, (c)h or l
as creating new sounds.
Except in the cases mentioned above, the letter i if followed by
another vowel in the same word usually represents /j/, yet a
palatalisation of the previous consonant is always assumed.
The letters ą and ę, when followed by plosives and affricates,
represent an oral vowel followed by a nasal consonant, rather than a
nasal vowel. For example, ą in dąb ("oak") is pronounced /ɔm/, and
ę in tęcza ("rainbow") is pronounced /ɛn/ (the nasal assimilates to
the following consonant). When followed by l or ł (for example
przyjęli, przyjęły), ę is pronounced as just e. When ę is at the
end of the word it is often pronounced as just /ɛ/.
Note that, depending on the word, the phoneme /x/ can be spelt h or
ch, the phoneme /ʐ/ can be spelt ż or rz, and /u/ can be spelt u or
ó. In several cases it determines the meaning, for example: może
("maybe") and morze ("sea").
In occasional words, letters that normally form a digraph are
pronounced separately. For example, rz represents /rz/, not /ʐ/, in
words like zamarzać ("freeze") and in the name Tarzan.
Notice that doubled letters represent separate occurrences of the
sound in question; for example Anna is pronounced /anːa/ in Polish
(the double n is often pronounced as a lengthened single n).
There are certain clusters where a written consonant would not be
pronounced. For example, the ł in the words mógł ("could") and
jabłko ("apple") might be omitted in ordinary speech, leading to the
pronunciations muk and japko or jabko.
Main article: Polish grammar
Polish is a highly inflected language, with relatively free word
order, although the dominant arrangement is subject–verb–object
(SVO). There are no articles, and subject pronouns are often dropped.
Nouns belong to one of three genders: masculine, feminine and neuter.
A distinction is also made between animate and inanimate masculine
nouns in the singular, and between masculine personal and
non-masculine-personal nouns in the plural. There are seven cases:
nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, instrumental, locative and
Adjectives agree with nouns in terms of gender, case and number.
Attributive adjectives most commonly precede the noun, although in
certain cases, especially in fixed phrases (like język polski,
"Polish (language)"), the noun may come first. Most short adjectives
and their derived adverbs form comparatives and superlatives by
inflection (the superlative is formed by prefixing naj- to the
Verbs are of imperfective or perfective aspect, often occurring in
pairs. Imperfective verbs have a present tense, past tense, compound
future tense (except for być "to be", which has a simple future
będę etc., this in turn being used to form the compound future of
other verbs), subjunctive/conditional (formed with the detachable
particle by), imperatives, an infinitive, present participle, present
gerund and past participle. Perfective verbs have a simple future
tense (formed like the present tense of imperfective verbs), past
tense, subjunctive/conditional, imperatives, infinitive, present
gerund and past participle. Conjugated verb forms agree with their
subject in terms of person, number, and (in the case of past tense and
subjunctive/conditional forms) gender.
Passive-type constructions can be made using the auxiliary być or
zostać ("become") with the passive participle. There is also an
impersonal construction where the active verb is used (in third person
singular) with no subject, but with the reflexive pronoun się present
to indicate a general, unspecified subject (as in pije się wódkę
"vodka is drunk"—note that wódka appears in the accusative). A
similar sentence type in the past tense uses the passive participle
with the ending -o, as in widziano ludzi ("people were seen"). As in
other Slavic languages, there are also subjectless sentences formed
using such words as można ("it is possible") together with an
Yes-no questions (both direct and indirect) are formed by placing the
word czy at the start. Negation uses the word nie, before the verb or
other item being negated; nie is still added before the verb even if
the sentence also contains other negatives such as nigdy ("never") or
nic ("nothing"), effectively creating a double negative.
Cardinal numbers have a complex system of inflection and agreement.
Numbers higher than five (except for those ending with the digit 2, 3
or 4) govern the genitive case rather than the nominative or
Special forms of numbers (collective numerals) are used
with certain classes of noun, which include dziecko ("child") and
exclusively plural nouns such as drzwi ("door").
Knowledge of the
Polish language within Europe.
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Polish has, over the centuries, borrowed a number of words from other
languages. When borrowing, pronunciation was adapted to Polish
phonemes and spelling was altered to match Polish orthography. In
addition, word endings are liberally applied to almost any word to
produce verbs, nouns, adjectives, as well as adding the appropriate
endings for cases of nouns, adjectives, diminutives,
double-diminutives, augmentatives, etc.
Depending on the historical period, borrowing has proceeded from
various languages. Notable influences have been
centuries), Czech (10th and 14th–15th centuries), Italian
(15th–16th centuries), French (18th–19th centuries), German
(13–15th and 18th–20th centuries), Hungarian (14th–16th
centuries) and Turkish (17th century). Currently, English words are
the most common imports to Polish.
Latin language, for a very long time the only official language of
the Polish state, has had a great influence on Polish. Many Polish
words (rzeczpospolita from res publica) were direct borrowings from
Latin was known to a larger or smaller degree by most of the
numerous szlachta in the 16th to 18th centuries (and it continued to
be extensively taught at secondary schools until World War II). Apart
from dozens of loanwords, its influence can also be seen in a number
Latin phrases in
Polish literature (especially from the
19th century and earlier).
During the 12th and 13th centuries, Mongolian words were brought to
Polish language during wars with the armies of
Genghis Khan and
his descendants, e.g. dzida (spear) and szereg (a line or row).
Words from Czech, an important influence during the 10th and
14th–15th centuries include sejm, hańba and brama.
In 1518, the Polish king Sigismund I the Old married Bona Sforza, the
niece of the Holy Roman emperor Maximilian, who introduced Italian
cuisine to Poland, especially vegetables. Hence, words from Italian
include pomidor from "pomodoro" (tomato), kalafior from "cavolfiore"
(cauliflower), and pomarańcza, a portmanteau from Italian "pomo"
(pome) plus "arancio" (orange). A later word of Italian origin is
autostrada (from Italian "autostrada", highway).
In the 18th century, with the rising prominence of France in Europe,
Latin as an important source of words. Some French
borrowings also date from the Napoleonic era, when the
enthusiastic supporters of Napoleon. Examples include ekran (from
French "écran", screen), abażur ("abat-jour", lamp shade), rekin
("requin", shark), meble ("meuble", furniture), bagaż ("bagage",
luggage), walizka ("valise", suitcase), fotel ("fauteuil", armchair),
plaża ("plage", beach) and koszmar ("cauchemar", nightmare). Some
place names have also been adapted from French, such as the Warsaw
Żoliborz ("joli bord" = beautiful riverside), as well as
the town of
Żyrardów (from the name Girard, with the Polish suffix
-ów attached to refer to the founder of the town).
Many words were borrowed from the
German language from the sizable
German population in Polish cities during medieval times. German words
found in the
Polish language are often connected with trade, the
building industry, civic rights and city life. Some words were
assimilated verbatim, for example handel (trade) and dach (roof);
others are pronounced the same, but differ in writing schnur—sznur
(cord). As a result of being neighbours with Germany, Polish has many
German expressions which have become literally translated (calques).
Interestingly, the regional dialects of
Upper Silesia and Masuria
(Modern Polish East Prussia) have noticeably more German loanwords
than other dialects.
The contacts with Ottoman Turkey in the 17th century brought many new
words, some of them still in use, such as: jar ("yar" deep valley),
szaszłyk ("şişlik" shish kebab), filiżanka ("fincan" cup), arbuz
("karpuz" watermelon), dywan ("divan" carpet), etc.
From the founding of the Kingdom of
Poland in 1025 through the early
years of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth created in 1569, Poland
was the most tolerant country of Jews in Europe. Known as paradisus
Latin for "paradise for the Jews"), it became a shelter for
persecuted and expelled European Jewish communities and the home to
the world's largest Jewish community of the time. As a result, many
Polish words come from Yiddish, spoken by the large Polish Jewish
population that existed until the Holocaust. Borrowed
include bachor (an unruly boy or child), bajzel (slang for mess),
belfer (slang for teacher), ciuchy (slang for clothing), cymes (slang
for very tasty food), geszeft (slang for business), kitel (slang for
apron), machlojka (slang for scam), mamona (money), manele (slang for
oddments), myszygine (slang for lunatic), pinda (slang for girl,
pejoratively), plajta (slang for bankruptcy), rejwach (noise), szmal
(slang for money), and trefny (dodgy).
The mountain dialects of the Górale in southern Poland, have quite a
number of words borrowed from Hungarian (e.g. baca, gazda, juhas,
hejnał) and Romanian as a result of historical contacts with
Slovakia and Wallachian herders who travelled
north along the Carpathians.
Thieves' slang includes such words as kimać (to sleep) or majcher
(knife) of Greek origin, considered then unknown to the outside world.
Recent loanwords come primarily from the English language, mainly
those that have
Latin or Greek roots, for example komputer (computer),
korupcja (from 'corruption', but sense restricted to 'bribery'), etc.
Concatenation of parts of words (e.g. auto-moto), which is not native
to Polish but common in English, for example, is also sometimes used.
When borrowing English words, Polish often changes their spelling. For
Latin suffix '-tio' corresponds to -cja. To make the word
plural, -cja becomes -cje. Examples of this include inauguracja
(inauguration), dewastacja (devastation), recepcja (reception),
konurbacja (conurbation) and konotacje (connotations). Also, the
digraph qu becomes kw (kwadrant = quadrant; kworum = quorum).
Loanwords from Polish
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Polish language has influenced others. Particular influences
appear in other
Slavic languages and in German — due to their
proximity and shared borders. Examples of loanwords include German
Grenze (border), Dutch and
Afrikaans grens from Polish granica; German
Peitzker from Polish piskorz (weatherfish); German Zobel, French
zibeline, Swedish sabel, and English sable from Polish soból; and
ogonek ("little tail") — the word describing a diacritic
hook-sign added below some letters in various alphabets. "Szmata," a
Polish, Slovak and Ruthenian word for "mop" or "rag" became part of
Quite a few culinary loanwords exist in German and in other languages,
some of which describe distinctive features of Polish cuisine. These
include German and English Quark from twaróg (a kind of fresh cheese;
see: quark (dairy product)) and German Gurke, English gherkin from
ogórek (cucumber). The word pierogi (Polish dumplings) has spread
internationally, as well as pączki (Polish donuts) and kiełbasa
(sausage) (see e.g. kolbaso in Esperanto). As far as pierogi
concerned, the original Polish word is already in plural (sing.
pieróg, plural pierogi; stem pierog-, plural ending -i; NB. o becomes
ó in a closed syllable, like here in singular), yet it is commonly
used with the English plural ending -s in
United States of
America, pierogis, thus making it a "double plural". (A similar
situation happened in the opposite direction to the Polish loanword
from English czipsy ("potato chips")—from English chips being
already plural in the original (chip + -s), yet it has obtained the
Polish plural ending -y.)
The word spruce entered the
English language from the Polish name of
Prusy (a historical region, today part of Poland). It became spruce
because in Polish, z Prus, sounded like "spruce" in English (transl.
"from Prussia") and was a generic term for commodities brought to
England by Hanseatic merchants and because the tree was believed to
have come from Polish Ducal Prussia.
Adam Mickiewicz Institute
Holy Cross Sermons
University of Łódź School of Polish for Foreigners
West Slavic languages
A Translation Guide to 19th-Century Polish-Language Civil-Registration
BABEL Speech Corpus
^ "Världens 100 största språk 2010" (The World's 100 Largest
Languages in 2010), in Nationalencyklopedin
^ a b c European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages
^ Nyelvi sokszínűség az EU-ban
^ Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities
^ Minority related national legislation of Lithuania
^ "Law of
Ukraine "On Principles of State Language Policy" (Current
version — Revision from 01.02.2014)". Document 5029-17, Article 7:
Regional or minority languages Ukraine, Paragraph 2.
Zakon2.rada.gov.ua. 1 February 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds.
Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute
for the Science of Human History.
^ "Lekhitic languages Encyclopædia Britannica". Britannica.com.
2015-01-08. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
United States (2007-07-10). "The importance of Polish as a language
today — Learn English your way". Cactus Language Training.
Archived from the original on September 7, 2011. Retrieved
^ "Statistical Summaries". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
^ "Polish Language History and Facts Today Translations London, UK".
Todaytranslations.com. 2014-06-20. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
^ Kamusella, Tomasz (2008). The Politics of Language and Nationalism
in Modern Central Europe. Basingstoke and New York, NY: Palgrave
Macmillan. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-230-55070-4.
^ Digital version
Book of Henryków
Book of Henryków in latin
^ Barbara i Adam Podgórscy: Słownik gwar śląskich. Katowice:
Wydawnictwo KOS, 2008, ISBN 978-83-60528-54-9
^ Bogdan Walczak: Zarys dziejów języka polskiego. Wrocław:
Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego, 1999, ISBN 83-229-1867-4
^ "Table 8. Detailed List of Languages Spoken at Home for the
Population 5 Years and Over : By State" (PDF). Census.gov.
^ "PNC ATM Banking". PNC. Retrieved 2017-11-02.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 16, 2013.
Retrieved September 21, 2008.
^ The Slavic Languages, CUP
^ Roland Sussex and Paul Cubberley (2006). The Slavic Languages.
Cambridge University Press. P. 530.
^ Robert A. Rothstein (1994). "Polish". The Slavonic Languages, edited
Bernard Comrie and Greville G. Corbett. Routledge. Pp. 754–756.
Silesia and Central European Nationalisms", 2007. West Lafayette,
IN: Purdue University Press ISBN 978-1-55753-371-5
^ ["Języki świata i ich klasyfikowanie"] (en: "Languages of the
world and their classification"), Polish Scientific Publishers,
^ "Ekspertyza naukowa dr Tomasza Wicherkiewicza", Language Policy and
the Laboratory for Research on Minority, Adam Mickiewicz University in
^ "ISO documentation of Silesian language". SIL International.
Archived from the original on October 3, 2012. Retrieved
^ (in English) "List of languages with ISO codes". Ethnologue. SIL
International. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
^  Archived June 2, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Internetowy System Aktów Prawnych". Isap.sejm.gov.pl. Retrieved
^ Magosic, Paul Robert (2005). "The Rusyn Question". Retrieved
^ "kielbasa. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language:
Fourth Edition. 2000". Bartleby.com. Archived from the original on
2008-06-30. Retrieved 2009-05-06.
^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved
Bisko, Wacław (1966). Mówimy po polsku. A beginner's course of
Polish (DTBook). translated and adapted by Stanisław Kryński.
Wiedza Powszechna (pl).
Sadowska, Iwona (2012). Polish: A Comprehensive Grammar. Oxford; New
York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-47541-9.
Swan, Oscar E. (2002). A Grammar of Contemporary Polish. Bloomington,
IN: Slavica. ISBN 0-89357-296-9.
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Polish edition of, the free encyclopedia
Polish edition of Wikisource, the free library
Wikivoyage has a phrasebook for Polish.
Find more aboutPolish languageat's sister projects
Definitions from Wiktionary
Media from Wikimedia Commons
Quotations from Wikiquote
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Interpreting Translation Polish-English Site
Basic Polish Phrases
Basic Polish Phrases Audio Course
Polish Pronunciation Audio and Grammar Charts
King's College London: Polish Language Resources
University of Pittsburgh: Polish Language Website
"A Touch of Polish", BBC
A Grammar of the Polish Language
A Concise Polish Grammar, by Ronald F. Feldstein (110-page 600-KB pdf)
Oscar Swan's Electronic Polish-English, English-Polish dictionary
English-Polish Online Dictionary
Basic English-Polish Dictionary
Big English-Polish Dictionary with example sentences from translation
Polish Swadesh list of basic vocabulary words from Wiktionary's
Learn Polish—List of Online Polish Courses
Polish English wordlist, 600 terms
A taste of linguistic diversity of contemporary Poland, Culture.pl
KELLY Project word list 9000 most useful words for learners of Polish
Dictionaries24.com Online dictionary with English-Polish and
Languages of Poland
Polish Sign Language
Languages of Belarus
Russian Sign Language
Up to Proto-Slavic
Old Church Slavonic
Cyril and Methodius
West Slavic languages
East Slavic languages
Old East Slavic
South Slavic languages
Separate Slavic dialects
Slavic dialects of Greece
Slavic first palatalization
Slavic second palatalization
Slavic liquid metathesis and pleophony
Ruki sound law
Italics indicate extinct languages.
Wars (First, Second, Third)
Upper Silesia plebiscite
Treaty of Dresden
Treaty of Teschen
Book of Henryków
Battle of Legnica
Battle of Leuthen
Jelenia Góra valley
Lower Silesian Wilderness
Zielona Góra Acclivity
Slezská Harta Dam
Niederschlesischer Oberlausitzkreis / Görlitz
Lower Silesian and Opole
Bielski Okręg Przemysłowy
Katowice urban area
Legnicko-Głogowski Okręg Miedziowy
Lower Silesian Coal Basin
Upper Silesian Coal Basin
Ostrava-Karviná / Rybnik Coal Areas
Upper Silesian metropolitan area
Regional costume (Śląskie stroje ludowe)
Evangelical Church in Berlin, Brandenburg and Silesian Upper Lusatia
Silesian Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession
Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession in Poland
Roman Catholic Church
Pentecostal Church in Poland
Moravian–Silesian Football League
National football team
Silesian German (Lower Silesian)
Coats of arms
Schlesien Unvergessene Heimat
Silesian Autonomy Movement
BNF: cb11946267z (data)