Play (play)
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''Play'' is a one-act
play Play most commonly refers to: * Play (activity) Play is a range of Motivation#Incentive theories: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, intrinsically motivated activities done for recreational pleasure and enjoyment. Play is commonly associated w ...
by
Samuel Beckett Samuel Barclay Beckett (; 13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish novelist, playwright, short story writer, theatre director, poet, and literary translator Translation is the communication of the meaning Meaning most commonly ...

Samuel Beckett
. It was written between 1962 and 1963 and first produced in German as ''Spiel'' on 14 June 1963 at the Ulmer Theatre in Ulm-Donau, Germany, directed by
Deryk Mendel Deryk Mendel (1920 – 28 May 2013) was a British ballet dancer, choreographer, actor and director. He was a friend of Samuel Beckett Samuel Barclay Beckett (; 13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish novelist, playwright, short stor ...
, with Nancy Illig (W1), Sigfrid Pfeiffer (W2) and Gerhard Winter (M). The first performance in English was on 7 April 1964 at the
Old Vic Old or OLD may refer to: Places *Old, Baranya Old () is a village in Baranya (county), Baranya county, Hungary. Populated places in Baranya County {{Baranya-geo-stub ..., Hungary *Old, Northamptonshire Old (previously Wold and be ...

Old Vic
in
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
. It was not well-received upon its British premiere.


Synopsis

The curtain rises on three identical grey funeral "
urns An urn is a vase A vase ( or ) is an open container. It can be made from a number of materials, such as ceramic A ceramic is any of the various hard, brittle, heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant Corrosion is a natural process that ...
",Ackerley, C. J. and Gontarski, S. E., (Eds.) ''The Faber Companion to Samuel Beckett'', (London: Faber and Faber, 2006), p. 443 about three feet tall by preference,Beckett, S., ''Collected Shorter Plays of Samuel Beckett'' (London: Faber and Faber, 1984), p. 159 arranged in a row facing the audience. They contain three
stock character A stock character is a stereotypical Police officers buying doughnuts and coffee, an example of perceived stereotypical behavior in North America. Social psychology Social psychology is the Science, scientific study of how the thoug ...
s. In the middle urn is a man (M). To his right is his wife (W1) or long-time partner. The third urn holds his
mistress Mistress is the feminine form of the English word "master" (''master'' + ''-ess'') and may refer to: Romance and relationships * Mistress (lover) A mistress is a woman who is in a relatively long-term sexual and romantic relationship with ...
(W2). Their " ces
re
re
so lost to age and aspect as to seem almost part of the urns."Beckett, S., ''Collected Shorter Plays of Samuel Beckett'' (London: Faber and Faber, 1984), p. 147 Beckett had used similar imagery before, Mahood's jar in '' The Unnameable'', for example, or the dustbins occupied by Nell and Nagg in '' Endgame''. At the beginning and end of the play, a spotlight picks out all three faces, and all three characters recite their own lines, in what Beckett terms a "chorus"; the effect is unintelligible. The main part of this play is made up of short, occasionally fragmented sentences spoken in a " pid
tempo In musical terminology This is a list of musical terms that are likely to be encountered in printed scores, music reviews, and program notes. Most of the terms are Italian (see also Italian musical terms used in English Many musical terms ...

tempo
throughout" "which in his 1978 rehearsals likened to a
lawn mower A lawn mower (also known as a mower, grass cutter or lawnmower) is a machine utilizing one or more revolving blades to cut a grass surface to an even height. The height of the cut grass may be fixed by the design of the mower, but generally is ...

lawn mower
– a burst of energy followed by a pause, a renewed burst followed by another pause."Ackerley, C. J. and Gontarski, S. E., (Eds.) ''The Faber Companion to Samuel Beckett'', (London: Faber and Faber, 2006), p. 445 "He wrote each part separately, then interspersed them, working over the proper breaks in the speeches for a long time before he was satisfied." One character speaks at a time and only when a strong
spotlight Spotlight or spot light may refer to: Lighting * Automotive lighting#Spot lights, Spot lights, automotive auxiliary lamps * Spotlight (theatre lighting) * Spotlight, a searchlight * Stage lighting instrument, stage lighting instruments, of sever ...
shines in his or her face. The style is reminiscent of Mouth's logorrhoea in ''
Not I ''Not I'' is a short dramatic monologue written in 1972 (20 March to 1 April) by Samuel Beckett which was premiered at the "Samuel Beckett Festival" by the Repertory Theater of Lincoln Center, New York City, New York (22 November 1972). Synopsi ...
'', the obvious difference being that these characters constantly use first person
pronouns In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ) is a word or a group of words that one may substitute for a noun or noun phrase. Pronouns have traditionally been regarded as one of the part of speech, parts o ...

pronouns
. Clichés and
pun The pun, also known as paronomasia, is a form of word play Word play or wordplay (also: play-on-words) is a literary technique A narrative technique (known for literary fictional narratives as a literary technique, literary device, or fi ...
s abound. While one is talking the other two are silent and in darkness. They neither acknowledge the existence of the others around them (M: "To think we were never together") nor appear aware of anything outside their own being and past (W2: "At the same time I prefer this to . . . the other thing. Definitely. There are endurable moments"). Beckett writes that this spotlight "provokes" the character's speech, and insists that whenever possible, a single, swivelling light should be used, rather than separate lights switching on and off. In this manner the spotlight is "expressive of a unique
inquisitor An inquisitor was an official (usually with judicial or investigative functions) in an inquisition – an organization or program intended to eliminate heresy and other things contrary to the doctrine or teachings of the Catholicism, Catholic fai ...
".
Billie Whitelaw Billie Honor Whitelaw (6 June 1932 – 21 December 2014) was an English people, English actress. She worked in close collaboration with Irish playwright Samuel Beckett for 25 years and was regarded as one of the foremost interpreters of his wo ...
referred to it as "an instrument of torture." The spotlight is in effect the play's fourth character. In an almost
fugal In music, a fugue () is a Counterpoint, contrapuntal Musical composition, compositional technique in two or more voice (music), voices, built on a Subject (music), subject (a musical theme) that is introduced at the beginning in imitation (music ...
style the three obsess over the affair. Each presents his or her own version of the truth told in the
past tense The past tense is a grammatical tense In grammar, tense is a grammatical category, category that expresses time reference. Tenses are usually manifested by the use of specific forms of verbs, particularly in their grammatical conjugation, co ...
and each from his or her respective points of view. It is one of Beckett's most 'musical' pieces with "a
chorus Chorus may refer to: Music * Chorus (song) or refrain, line or lines that are repeated in music or in verse * Chorus effect, the perception of similar sounds from multiple sources as a single, richer sound * Chorus form, song in which all verses ...

chorus
for three voices,
orchestration Orchestration is the study or practice of writing music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societies. General include common elements such as ...
, stage directions concerning tempo,
volume Volume is a scalar quantity expressing the amount Quantity or amount is a property that can exist as a multitude Multitude is a term for a group of people who cannot be classed under any other distinct category, except for their shared fact ...
and
tone Tone may refer to: Color-related * Tone, mix of tint and shade, in painting and color theory * Tone, the lightness Lightness is a visual perception of the luminance (L) of an object. It is often judged relative to a similarly lit object. ...
, a ''
da capo Da capo (, also , ) is an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Reg ...

da capo
'' repeat of the entire action" and a short
coda Coda or CODA may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Films * Coda (1987 film), ''Coda'' (1987 film), an Australian horror film about a serial killer, made for television * Coda (2019 film), ''Coda'' (2019 film), a Canadian drama film starri ...
. Towards the end of the script, there is the concise instruction: "Repeat play."Beckett, S., ''Collected Shorter Plays of Samuel Beckett'' (London: Faber and Faber, 1984), p. 157 Beckett elaborates on this in the notes, by saying that the repeat might be varied. " the London production, variations were introduced: a weakening of light and voices in the first repeat, and more so in the second; an abridged second opening; increasing breathlessness; changes in the order of the opening words." The purpose of this is to suggest a gradual winding down of the action for he writes of "the impression of falling off which this would give, with the suggestion of a conceivable dark and silence in the end, or of an indefinite approximating towards it."Knowlson, J., (Ed.) ''Samuel Beckett: an Exhibition'' (London: Turret Books, 1971), p. 92 At the end of this second repeat, the play appears as if it is about to start again for a third time (as in ''Act Without Words II''), but does not get more than a few seconds into it before it suddenly stops.


The affair

"The affair was unexceptional. From the moment when the man tried to escape his tired marriage and odious professional commitments by taking a mistress, vents took a predictable enough course:the wife soon began to ‘smell her off him’;Beckett, S., ''Collected Shorter Plays of Samuel Beckett'' (London: Faber and Faber, 1984), p. 151 there were painful recriminations when the wife accused the man, hired a
private detective A private investigator (often abbreviated to PI and informally called a private eye), a private detective, or inquiry agent, is a person who can be hired by individuals, groups or NGO A non-governmental organization, or simply an NGO, is an ...
, threatened to kill herself, and confronted the mistress in an old rambling house reminiscent of ''
Watt The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power Power typically refers to: * Power (physics) In physics, power is the amount of energy transferred or converted per unit time. In the International System of Units, the unit of power is the watt, equa ...
'' (and where the servant again is 'Erskine') ... The man renounced the mistress, was forgiven by his wife who 'suggested a little jaunt to celebrate, to the
Riviera ''Riviera'' () is an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Ita ...

Riviera
or …
Grand Canary Gran Canaria (, ; ), also Grand Canary Island, is the third largest and second most populous island of the Canary Islands, an archipelago off the Atlantic coast of Northwest Africa which is part of Spain. the island had a population of that co ...

Grand Canary
,'Beckett, S., ''Collected Shorter Plays of Samuel Beckett'' (London: Faber and Faber, 1984), p. 150 and then, rue to form returned to the mistress, this time to elope with her.
n time N, or n, is the fourteenth letter Letter, letters, or literature may refer to: Characters typeface * Letter (alphabet) A letter is a segmental symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as ...
their relationship too became jaded, and the man" abandons her as well. According to Knowlson and John Pilling in ''Frescoes of the Skull: the later prose and drama of Samuel Beckett'', “" e three figures in ''Play'' … are not three-dimensional characters. Any attempt to analyse them as if they were would be absurd. The
stereotype Social psychology Social psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the unive ...
predominates …
hey Hey or Hey! may refer to: Music * Hey (band), a Polish rock band Albums * Hey (Andreas Bourani album), ''Hey'' (Andreas Bourani album) or the title song (see below), 2014 * Hey! (Julio Iglesias album), ''Hey!'' (Julio Iglesias album) or the ti ...

hey
belong … to the artificial world of
melodrama A modern melodrama is a dramatic work wherein the plot, typically sensationalized and for a strong emotional appeal, takes precedence over detailed characterization. Melodramas typically concentrate on dialogue that is often bombastic or excess ...
and romance embodied in romanticized fiction."


Biographical references

During the late 1950s when staying in London, Beckett often met with
Barbara Bray Barbara Bray (née Jacobs; 24 November 1924 – 25 February 2010) was an English translator and critic. Early life Bray was born in Maida Vale Maida Vale ( ) is an affluent residential district consisting of the northern part of Paddington ...
, at the time a script-editor with the
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BBC
. A small and attractive widow in her thirties, she was also intelligent and well read. “Beckett seems to have been immediately attracted to her and she to him. Their encounter was highly significant for them both, for it represented the beginning of a relationship that was to last, in parallel with that with of is long-time partner Suzanne, for the rest of his life.” In short time their association became “a very intimate and personal one.” “In a visit to
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...

Paris
in January 1961, Barbara … informed Beckett that she intended to move
here Here is an adverb that means "in, on, or at this place". It may also refer to: Software * Here Technologies Here Technologies (trading as A trade name, trading name, or business name is a pseudonym A pseudonym () or alias () (originally: ...
to live permanently”Knowlson, J., ''Damned to Fame: The Life of Samuel Beckett'' (London: Bloomsbury, 1996), p 480 “a move which had been discussed more than once with Sam.”Cronin, A., ''Samuel Beckett The Last Modernist'' (London: Flamingo, 1997), p 500 His response was unusual. In March he married Suzanne in a civil ceremony in the seaside town of
Folkestone Folkestone ( ) is a port town on the English Channel, in Kent, south-east England. The town lies on the southern edge of the North Downs at a valley between two cliffs. It was an important harbour and shipping port for most of the 19th and 20th ...

Folkestone
, England. Ostensibly this was to ensure if he died before her Suzanne would “inherit the rights to his work, since, under
French law The Law of France refers to the legal system in the French Republic France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe Western Europe is the region of ...
, there was no ‘
common-law wife Common-law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial tribunals by virtue of being stated in written opinions. ''Black's Law Dictionary'' ...
’ legislation … Or he may simply have wanted to affirm where his true loyalty lay. Whatever the reason, the marriage made it clear … that he was unwilling to leave the woman with whom he had already lived for more than twenty years.” For all that, in June 1961 Bray still decided to move and despite his recent marriage “[a]lmost every day [he went] round, often spending a good part of the day or a large part of the evening there.” “Oddly enough, this side of his life was [not well] known about in Paris … [Beckett’s] natural reserve and well-developed sense of decorum were allied to his fear of giving offence to Suzanne.” Anthony Cronin notes that strangely – or perhaps not so strangely – during this time he was often to be found talking “fervently and seriously about suicide.” Despite his unwillingness to do much about it he was clearly suffering badly from guilt. To comply with the law Beckett “was obliged to be in residence in Folkestone for a minimum of two weeks to allow him to be married in the Register office, Registry Office there” and this time spent there observing the locals may well have influenced the “middle class, English, ‘Home Counties’” setting of ''Play'' though James Knowlson also points to two visits to Sweetwater about the same time. “Ash (near Sandwich), Ash and Snodland” are both towns in Kent. An important point to mention here is that it was during the first London production that he encountered
Billie Whitelaw Billie Honor Whitelaw (6 June 1932 – 21 December 2014) was an English people, English actress. She worked in close collaboration with Irish playwright Samuel Beckett for 25 years and was regarded as one of the foremost interpreters of his wo ...
for the first time. “Whitelaw’s deep brooding voice caught so many inflections that Beckett found himself at times listening to her instead of rehearsing the play.”


Reception

In 1998, David Benedict of ''The Independent'' argued that ''Play'' is a "finer, more dramatically distilled" work than ''Waiting for Godot'' (1953).


Interpretations

“The earliest version (April 1962) was written for a woman and two men, Syke and Conk, figures in white boxes. In the final version we are presented instead with, as Michael Robinson describes it in ''The Long Sonata of the Dead: A Study of Samuel Beckett'', “the three corners of love’s eternal triangle (the emphasis here is on the eternal) … They have no names [now], simply the designations M, W1 and W2 which aim at anonymity but also stand for all men and women who have, like them, been caught up in a three-part love affair,” The play is entitled ''Play'', in the same way that Beckett's only venture into film is called ''Film (film), Film'' but as always with Beckett there are other levels. “Speaking of his previous life the man remarks: ‘I know now, all that was just … play’, but what then is the meaning of ‘all this? And when will this become the same?’ All three characters admit that life was senseless yet there appears to be ‘no sense in this … either, none whatsoever’; though this does not prevent them from making ‘the same mistakes as when it was the sun that shone, of looking for sense where possibly there is none. They are playing … a pointless game with unending time of which they are the playthings.” This also could be a reference to one of the world's most famous theatrical metaphors: “All the world's a stage, And all the men and women merely players.” In writing to George Devine, who directed the Old Vic production, Beckett suggests that “the inquirer (light) begins to emerge as no less a victim of his inquiry than they and as needing to be free, within narrow limits, literally to act the part, i.e. to vary only slightly his speeds and intensities.” But the role of the light is even more ambiguous, for it has also been seen as “a metaphor for our attention (relentless, all-consuming, whimsical)” and a way of “switching on and switching off speech exactly as a playwright does when he moves from one line of dialogue on his page to the next.” Neither of these analogies conflicts with the more popular views where the spotlight is believed to represent God, or some other moral agent tasked with assessing, each character's case to be relieved from the binds of the urn by having them relive this relationship, which has ruined all their lives. This view ascribes a motive to the light beyond mere torture. That may not be the case. Just as easily as God, the light could represent the devil. This reliving of the details surrounding the affair only takes up the first half of the text however; Beckett called this part the ‘Narration.’ As Paul Lawley says in "Beckett’s dramatic counterpoint: a reading of ''Play''", “ e second half of the text (preceded by a five second long blackout) – called ‘Meditation’ by Beckett himself – sheds a subtle new light on the first. In the Meditation each of the heads casts about for the sense of its situation, considers the nature of the light, probes for certainties amid the darkness and then makes an attempt to imagine what has happened to the other two corners of this particular Eternal Triangle ... We can now see that the heads are not chained exclusively to their ‘past’, their narration(s): they are victims of the light, certainly, but not only victims, for they can recognize themselves as such and can speak of the light when forced to speak by the light. The light obliges them to speak but it does not necessarily determine ''what'' they speak – yet we only realize this in the Meditation section of the text.”Lawley, P., ‘Beckett’s dramatic counterpoint: a reading of ''Play''’ in ''Journal of Beckett Studies'' 9 (1983) “They cope with the light in various ways and natures. W1 screams at the light: ‘Get off me’ and she wonders what she must do to satisfy the disturbing and tormenting light. W2 is content with the idea that the light must know that she is doing her best. But she also wonders if she is perhaps a little ‘unhinged’ (meaning that she may go Insanity, mad). For M the light enables fantasy. He imagines the two women drinking green tea together in the places they have each been with him and comforting each other. He fantasises waking up with both women and then going for a boat trip with the two of them on a summer's afternoon. “At the end of the second part, M is completely aware of the mechanism of the light but not aware of his own narcissism” however. “If the play consisted only of the Narration it would be as though the light were obliging them not only to speak, but to speak only of these events, to tell only this story.” Many of Beckett's plays and prose pieces are located “in ‘places’ which may strike us as being most adequately described as ‘Hell’, ‘Limbo’ or ‘Purgatory’– and the parallels with Dante Alighieri, Dante are always tempting” – and indeed the most popular interpretation of ''Play'' is that the three are in some place like this. The use of urns to encase the bodies of the three players is thought to symbolise their entrapment inside the demons of their past; the way in which all three urns are described at the start of the play as "touching" each other is often deciphered as symbolising the shared problem which all three characters have endured. “The whole situation resembles very closely that of ''Bérénice'', in which two men, the Emperor Titus and King Antiochus, are in love with the heroine; Berenice of Cilicia, Bérénice, for her part, is in love with Titus and regards Antiochus as her dearest friend. Yet the tragedy ends, bloodlessly, with Titus remaining unwillingly in Rome, while the other two reluctantly leave the city to go their separate ways. By the end of ''Bérénice'', all three major characters have threatened to commit suicide; perhaps the three characters in ''Play'' are being punished because they ''have'' committed suicide. The text certainly indicates that very least the husband might have “sought refuge in death” also “[n]ot only does W1 threaten both her own life and that of W2, but W1 describes herself as ‘Dying for dark,’ and W2 affirms, ‘I felt like death.’ As so often with Beckett, the loose clichés assume an eerie literality.” Beckett tasked himself with re-reading all of Jean Racine, Racine’s plays in the mid-1950s and James Knowlson suggests that “this daily diet of Racinian claustrophobia forced Beckett to concentrate on the true essentials of theatre: Time, Space and Speech [which] pointed him in the direction that made a tightly focused, monologic play like ''Happy Days (play), Happy Days'' or ''Play'' possible. It is conceivable that the three parties are not actually dead at all. Purgatory is, after all, not a Theology, theological concept Beckett would have been brought up with though Dante’s interpretation of it did catch his imagination. In the final paragraph of his 1929 essay "Dante...Bruno. Vico...Joyce" (whose strained, unpleasant second sentence reads, in full, "The conception of Philosophy and Philology as a pair of nigger minstrels out of the Teatro dei Piccoli is soothing, like the contemplation of a carefully folded ham-sandwich"), Beckett makes a striking comparison between The Divine Comedy, Dante’s version of Purgatory and Joyce’s: “Dante's is conical and consequently implies culmination. Mr. Joyce's is spherical and excludes culmination … On this earth that is [his] Purgatory.". If the trio are separated physically then each would be in a private hell where he or she imagines and reimagines what may have happened to the other two and relives the events of the narration in his or her own mind. If we view the three urns purely as a theatrical device to bring these separate points of view together this interpretation is also valid. “Life on earth, the endless recurring cycle of history, constitutes Purgatory for Joyce in ''Finnegans Wake''. From Joyce’s Purgatory there is no escape, not even for the individual human being, who dies only to be reborn into the cycle. Likewise Beckett’s take on Purgatory is that it “is a state rather than a process.”


Music

In 1965 Philip Glass composed music for a production of ''Play''. The piece was scored for two soprano saxophones, and is his first work in a Minimalism, minimalist idiom – an idiom which was substantially influenced by the work of Beckett.


Film


''Comédie'' (1966)

In 1966 Beckett worked with a young director, Marin Karmitz (an assistant to Jean-Luc Godard as well as Roberto Rossellini), on a film version of ''Play'', resulting in the film, ''Comédie''. The cast included Michael Lonsdale, Eléonore Hirt and Delphine Seyrig.


''Beckett on Film'' (2000)

Another filmed version of ''Play'' was directed by Anthony Minghella for the ''Beckett on Film'' project, starring Alan Rickman, Kristin Scott Thomas and Juliet Stevenson. For this particular interpretation of the play, it is assumed that the action takes place in Hell, perhaps in reference to Jean-Paul Sartre's famous assertion, 'Hell is—other people' though T. S. Eliot’s rebuttal, “Hell is oneself,” is probably more accurate. In this filmed version, the action is set in a vast landscape of "urn people", all speaking at once. “This [interpretation] was much turned over, along with doubts whether it should be there at all, in animated discussions that went on throughout the Barbican Arts Centre, Barbican meeting places.” A camera is used instead of a stage light to provoke the characters into action; Minghella uses a jump cut editing technique to make it seem as though there are even more than two repetitions of the text. He “made the equipment into a threatening force by switching it with bullying speed from one face to another, forcing unusual speed of delivery for the actors. Juliet Stevenson told [ Katharine Worth ] that during rehearsals she had wondered whether the lines were being delivered too fast for viewers to take in their sense [but] theatre critic, Alice Griffin … thought that the lines ‘came across more clearly and more easily understandable than sometimes in the theatre.’ This she attributed partly to Minghella's use of close-up, a recurring feature of the film versions naturally enough.”Worth, K., ‘Sources of Attraction to Beckett’s Theater’ in Oppenheim, L., (Ed.) ''Palgrave Advances in Samuel Beckett Studies'' (London: Palgrave, 2004), p 221 The postmodern outlook of the film ("a field of urns in a dismal swamp, a gnarled, blasted oak in the background, a lowering, Chernobyl disaster, Chernobyl sky") was however criticized by ''The Guardians Art critic Adrian Searle as "Adolescence, adolescent, and worse, clichéd and illustrational," adding: "Any minute, expect a dragon". It is also perhaps noteworthy that this version does not feature the last section of the script, in which the characters almost embark upon a third cycle of the text. See also:
''Beckett on Film''
Official site

at ''Beckett on Film'', Official site


References


External links



*[https://web.archive.org/web/20080513182322/http://www.english.fsu.edu/jobs/num09/Num9Lawley.htm Beckett’s Dramatic Counterpoint: a Reading of ''‘Play’'' - Paul Lawley]
DANTE… BRUNO. VICO… JOYCE By Samuel Beckett
{{Beckett 1963 plays Adultery in plays Theatre of the Absurd Plays by Samuel Beckett