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(i)

PILLARISATION (Dutch : verzuiling) is the politico-denominational segregation of a society. These societies were (and in some areas, still are) "vertically" divided into several segments or "pillars" (zuilen, singular zuil) according to different religions or ideologies. The best-known examples of this are the Dutch and Belgian ones.

These pillars all have their own social institutions : their own newspapers, broadcasting organisations , political parties , trade unions and farmers' associations, banks, schools, hospitals, universities, Scouting organisations and sports clubs. Some companies even hire only personnel of a specific religion or ideology. This leads to a situation where many people have no personal contact with people from another pillar.

Austrian , Iraqi Arab , Israeli , Lebanese , Maltese , Nigerian , Northern Irish , and Scottish societies may also be considered to have had displayed aspects of pillarisation, historically or in the present time.

CONTENTS

* 1 Netherlands
Netherlands

* 1.1 Institutions
Institutions
by pillar * 1.2 Depillarisation

* 2 Belgium
Belgium

* 2.1 Institutions
Institutions
by pillar with their ethnic divisions

* 3 Proporz in Austria
Austria
* 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading

NETHERLANDS

LIFE IN THE NETHERLANDS

Culture

* Architecture * Cuisine * Culture * Customs * Holidays * Music * Religion
Religion
* Sport

Economy

* Economy * Recycling * Taxation * Transport

Society

* Demographics * Education * Customs * Languages * Media * Health care

Government

* Foreign Policy * Human Rights * Law * Law enforcement * Military * Politics
Politics

Policies

* Gedogen * Abortion * Drug policy * Euthanasia * Pillarisation * Prostitution * Same-sex marriage

* v * t * e

The Netherlands
Netherlands
had (at least) three pillars: Protestant
Protestant
, Catholic and Social-democratic . Pillarisation
Pillarisation
was originally initiated by Abraham Kuyper
Abraham Kuyper
and his Christian Democratic and neo-Calvinist (gereformeerd ) Anti-Revolutionary Party (ARP) in the late 1800s; it was part of their philosophy of sphere sovereignty .

The Catholic
Catholic
pillar had the highest degree of organisation, because Catholic
Catholic
clergy promoted the organization of almost the whole life of Catholics in confessional institutions. Yet, the conservative Protestant
Protestant
pillar and the Socialist pillar, which mainly consisted of industrial workers , were nearly as tightly knit. The Protestant (hervormd ) Christian Historical Union (CHU) (formed in 1908) did not organise a pillar of its own but linked itself to the Protestant pillar shaped by the ARP.

People who were not associated with one of these pillars, mainly middle and upper class latitudinarian Protestants and atheists, arguably set up their own pillar: the liberal or "general" pillar. Ties between general organisations were much weaker than within the other three pillars. Liberals actually rejected the voluntary segregation of the society, and denied the existence of a "liberal pillar". The political parties usually associated with this group were the Free-minded Democratic League (VDB) and Liberal State Party (LSP). Communists , Humanists and ultra-orthodox Protestants also set up similar organisations; however, such groups were much smaller.

The development of pillarisation in the Netherlands
Netherlands
was favoured by the emancipation of working and lower-middle classes on the one hand, and the execution of elite control on the other hand. The emancipation of the working class led to the establishment of socialist parties, trade unions, media, cooperative shops and collectively organised leisure activities. This "full care" of the socialist movement for its members existed similarly in other European countries. The emancipation of the conservative and often strongly religious lower-middle class fostered the emergence of the Protestant
Protestant
pillar. While the Dutch bourgeoisie was rather liberal and adhered to "enlightened" Protestantism, a large part of the lower middle class embraced a more orthodox Calvinist theology taught by preacher and politician Abraham Kuyper
Abraham Kuyper
.

In 1866 Kuyper founded the gereformeerd ("reformed") current of Protestantism that was both more conservative and more popular with ordinary people than the established Protestant
Protestant
churches in the Netherlands. Kuyper's worldview asserted the principle of "sphere sovereignty", rejecting both ecclesiasticism (rule of the Church over all parts of the society) and statist secularism (rule of the state over all parts of the society). Instead he argued that both had their own spheres in which the other was not to interfere. In 1879 he founded the Anti-Revolutionary Party as the political wing of his religious movement and core of the Protestant
Protestant
pillar.

At the same time, new and old elites tried to maintain their control over the newly emancipated social groups. For instance, the Catholic clergy set up confessional unions to prevent Catholic
Catholic
workers from joining socialist unions. One reason behind the formation of Christian parties was to counter the feared rise of left-wing mass parties.

INSTITUTIONS BY PILLAR

The following table shows the most important institutions by pillar:

PROTESTANT CATHOLIC SOCIALIST LIBERAL

POLITICAL PARTY BEFORE 1945

* ARP (from 1879; gereformeerd ) * CHU (from 1908; hervormd) * SGP (from 1918; bevindelijk gereformeerd )

* AB (1904–1926) * RKSP (1926-1945)

SDAP (from 1894)

* LU (1885–1921; mainstream Freethinking ) * VDB (from 1901 left-wing Freethinking) * BVL (1906–1921; old Freethinking) * LSP (from 1921; right-wing Freethinking)

POLITICAL PARTIES AFTER 1945

* ARP (until 1977) * CHU (until 1977) * CDA (from 1977; oecumenisch ) * GPV (1948-2001; gereformeerd-vrijgemaakt ) * RPF (1975–2001; orthodox Protestant) * CU (from 2001; evangelical) * SGP

* KVP (until 1977) * CDA (from 1977; ecumenical)

PvdA (from 1945)

* PvdV (1946–1948; Humanist Freethinking) * VVD (from 1948; Conservative Freethinking) * D66 (from 1966; Liberal Freethinking)

BROADCASTING ORGANISATION

* NCRV (Dutch Christian Radio Association) * EO (Evangelical Broadcasting)

* KRO ( Catholic
Catholic
Radio Broadcasting Organisation) * RKK Omroep (Roman Catholic
Catholic
Communion Broadcasting)

* VARA (Association of Workers\' Radio Amateurs) * O- LLiNK (Left Broadcasting)

* AVRO (General United Radio Broadcasting Organisation) * VPRO (Liberal Protestant
Protestant
Radio Broadcasting) * VRON (Free Radio Broadcasting Netherlands) * TROS
TROS
(Television font-style: normal;"> (nl) (New Left) in PvdA. Because of this and of increased mobility, many people could see that people from the other pillars were not that different from themselves. Increased wealth and education made people independent of many of the pillarised institutions , and young people did not want to be associated with these organisations anymore.

In 1973, two main Protestant
Protestant
parties, ARP and CHU, merged with the Catholic
Catholic
KVP to form the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA). They first participated in the 1977 general elections . In 1976, the Catholic trade union Nederlands Katholiek Vakverbond (nl) (NKV) started to cooperate with the trade union of the Socialist pillar (NVV), to merge into the Federatie Nederlandse Vakbeweging (FNV) in 1982.

The pillarisation of society has not fully disappeared, and many remnants can still be seen in the 21st century: public television , for instance, is still divided in several organisations, instead of being one organisation. The Netherlands
Netherlands
has both public and religious schools , a divide which is also inherited from pillarisation. Moreover, some communities continue to behave as small "pillars" as of 2014 , although rather than forming the structure of society (a pillar), this currently moves them outside the mainstream of society. Members of the Reformed Churches (liberated) have their own (primary and secondary) schools, their own national newspaper, and some other organizations, such as a labour union. Members of several pietist Reformed Churches have also founded their own schools, newspaper and political party. Increasingly, Muslim immigrants in the Netherlands are also using the legal possibilities created for the pillarised structure of society, by setting up their own schools.

BELGIUM

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Apart from having no Protestant
Protestant
pillar, Pillarisation
Pillarisation
in Belgium
Belgium
was very similar to that in Netherlands. There was also no "general" pillar, but a politically well-organised liberal pillar. In 1911, the British sociologist Seebohm Rowntree noted that in Belgium:

There is extraordinarily little social intercourse between Catholics and Liberals, and practically none between Catholics and Socialists. Politics
Politics
enter into almost every phase of social activity and philanthropic effort, and it is the exception rather than the rule for persons holding different political opinions to co-operate in any other matter. Thus in one town there will be a Catholic, a Liberal and a Socialist trade union, a Catholic, a Liberal and a Socialist thrift society, each catering for similar people, but each confining its attentions to members of its own political party. The separation extends to cafes, gymnasia, choral, temperance, and literary societies; indeed it cuts through life!

In both Flanders
Flanders
and Wallonia
Wallonia
, societies are pillarised. In Flanders, Catholics were the dominant pillar, while the Socialists dominated in Wallonia. Even though the liberals are stronger in Belgium
Belgium
(particularly in Brussels
Brussels
) than in the Netherlands, they are still relatively weak, owing to their rather small, bourgeois support: liberal trade unions are very small. De Tijd , a financial daily, is the newspaper aligned with the liberals, as its readership consists mainly of liberal supporters. However, a Flemish newspaper with historical liberal roots, Het Laatste Nieuws , also exists.

Denominational (many Catholic
Catholic
and a few Jewish) schools receive some public money, although not parity of funding as in the Netherlands, so that tuition is almost completely free. Belgian universities charge more or less the same, relatively low, tuition fees.

As a consequence of the language struggle in the latter half of the twentieth century, the pillars split over the language issue, which turnout became the most significant divisive factor in the nation. Now every language group has three pillars of its own. The pillar system remained to be the primordial societal dividing force much longer than it was in the Netherlands. Only near the end of the Cold War
Cold War
did it begin to lose importance, at least at the individual level, and to this day it continues to influence Belgian society. For example, even the 1999–2003 "Rainbow Coalition " of Guy Verhofstadt was often rendered with the terms of pillarisation. Political currents, which rose in late 20th century ( Vlaams Blok , now Vlaams Belang , Groen! , N-VA ), did not attempt to build pillars.

Pillarisation
Pillarisation
was visible even in everyday social organisations such as musical ensembles, sport clubs, recreational facilities, etc. Weakened in the current situation, many major social organisations (trade unions, cooperatives, etc.) still strictly follow the lines of pillars though.

INSTITUTIONS BY PILLAR WITH THEIR ETHNIC DIVISIONS

The following table is limited to the most important institutions and it shows the current division of everyone by the three ethnic groups.

FLEMISH CATHOLIC WALLOON CATHOLIC GERMAN CATHOLIC FLEMISH SOCIALIST WALLOON SOCIALIST GERMAN SOCIALIST FLEMISH LIBERAL WALLOON LIBERAL GERMAN LIBERAL

POLITICAL PARTIES BEFORE 1945 Catholic
Catholic
Party Belgian Labour Party (BWP/POB) Liberal Party

POLITICAL PARTIES BETWEEN 1945 AND 1970 Christian Social Party (CVP/PSC) Belgian Socialist Party (BSP/PSB)

* Liberal Party (until 1961) * Party for Freedom and Progress (PVV/PLP/PFF) (since 1961)

POLITICAL PARTIES AFTER 1970

* CVP (until 2001) * CD&V (since 2001)

* PSC (until 2002) * CDH (since 2002)

CSP

* SP (until 2001) * SP.A (since 2001)

PS SP

* PVV (until 1992) * VLD (1992–2007) * Open VLD (since 2007)

* PRL (since 2002 part of MR) * MR (since 2002)

PFF

TRADE UNIONS Confederation of Christian Trade Unions (ACV/CSC) General Federation of Belgian Labour (ABVV/FGTB) General Confederation of Liberal Trade Unions of Belgium (ACLVB/CGSLB)

Boerenbond

HEALTH INSURANCE Christelijke Mutualiteit Mutualité chrétienne Christlichen Krankenkasse Socialistische Mutualiteit Mutualité socialiste Sozialistische Krankenkasse Liberale Mutualiteit Mutualité Libérale Freie Krankenkasse

HOSPITALS White/Yellow Cross Christian Fund Christian Fund (Center for) Homecare Socialist Fund Socialist Fund Solidarity for the Family Liberal Fund Liberal Fund

AID AGENCIES Caritas Vlaanderen Caritas en Belgique francophone et germanophone Caritas en Belgique Francophone-Deutschsprachiges Belgien FOS-Socialistische Solidariteit Solidarité Socialiste-FCD Solidariteit-FCD none none none

NEWSPAPERS

* De Standaard * Gazet van Antwerpen * Het Volk * Het Belang van Limburg * Het Nieuwsblad

La Libre Belgique Grenz-Echo

* Vooruit (until 1978) * Volksgazet (until 1978) * De Morgen (since 1978)

none none

* Het Laatste Nieuws * De Tijd

Le Soir none

CULTURAL ASSOCIATIONS Davidsfonds none none Vermeylenfonds none none Willemsfonds none none

SCHOOLS Flemish Secretariat for Catholic
Catholic
Education ( Catholic
Catholic
Schools), Flemish Association of Catholic
Catholic
Colleges Catholic
Catholic
schools Public schools Public schools Public schools Public schools, non-denominational private schools Public schools, non-denominational private schools Public schools, non-denominational private schools

MAJOR UNIVERSITIES Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Université catholique de Louvain none Universiteit Gent Université de Liège none Vrije Universiteit Brussel Université libre de Bruxelles none

OTHER UNIVERSITIES

* Universiteit Antwerpen
Universiteit Antwerpen
* Industriële Hogeschool Brabant * Hogeschool-Universiteit * Vlaams Verbond van Katholieke Hogescholen * Vesalius College * Instituut voor Tropische Geneeskunde

* Université de Namur * Facultés Universitaires Catholiques de Mons * Facultés universitaires Saint-Louis

none Trans-Universiteit Limburg Faculté Universitaire des Sciences Agronomiques de Gembloux none Erasmus Hogeschool Université de Mons none

YOUTH ORGANIZATIONS

* KVHV * JONGCD font-style: normal;"> (nl) * KLJ (nl) * KAJ

* FSC * GCB * Jeunes cdH

* Die Junge Mitte * FSC * GCB

* Rode Valken * Animo Jong Links

MJS MJS

* FOS * VLD JONG

* SGP * Les Jeunes Réformateurs

* JFF * SGP * MJS

BANKS Volksdepositokas Spaarbank Dexia none Bank van De Post Banque de La Poste Bank von der Post Generale Bankmaatschappij Générale de Banque Generale Bank

SPORT CLUBS

* Sporta (nl) * Gym border:solid #aaa 1px">

* Politics
Politics
portal * Religion
Religion
portal * Society portal

* Consociationalism * Identity politics * Millet (Ottoman Empire) * Sectarianism
Sectarianism
* Social environment * Sui iuris * Test Act
Test Act

REFERENCES

* ^ https://www.theguardian.com/society/2004/apr/14/northernireland.societyhousing * ^ http://www.heraldscotland.com/news/12484352.Only_in_Scottish_schools_is_there_this_kind_of_segregation/ * ^ John Halsey Wood Jr., Going Dutch in the Modern Age: Abraham Kuyper's Struggle for a Free Church in the Netherlands
Netherlands
(2013). * ^ A B C D Van Zanden, Jan L. (1998), The Economic History of the Netherlands
Netherlands
1914-1995: A small open economy in the 'long' twentieth century, Routledge, p. 10 * ^ Seebohm Rowntree 's Land and Labour, Lessons from Belgium (1911), quoted in Cliff, Tony (Spring 1961). "Belgium: Strike to Revolution?". International Socialism. 1 (4): 10–7. Retrieved 19 May 2016.

FURTHER READING

* Deschouwer, Kris (2001), "Freezing pillars and frozen cleavages: Party systems and voting alignments in consociational democracies", Party Systems and Voter Alignments Revisited, Routledge, pp. 205–221

* Post, Harry (1989), Pillarization: An Analysis of Dutch and Belgian Society, Avebury * van Schendelen, M. P. C. M. (1984), Consociationalism, pillarization and conflict-management in the Low Countries, Boom * Christophe de Voogd: "Histoire des Pays-Bas des origines à nos jours", Fayard, Paris, 2004

* v * t * e

Segregation in countries by type

Geographical (religious )

* Bosnia and Herzegovina * Partition of India
Partition of India
* Israel
Israel
* Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
* Greece and Turkey * Partition of Bengal * Saudi Arabia

RACIAL

* Australia * Argentina * Bahrain * Brazil * Dominican Republic * Fiji * France * Malaysia * Nazi Germany * Poland * Portugal * Rhodesia * South Africa * Spain * Saudization * Emiratisation

* United States

* schools * Anti-miscegenation laws in the United States

GENDER

* Islam (in Iran ) * Taliban
Taliban
* Saudi Arabia * Judaism * Separatist feminism

DYNAMICS

* Auto-segregation * Balkanization * Ethnic cleansing
Ethnic cleansing
* Exclusionary zoning * Forced migration

* Internment

* labor camps

* Residential segregation in the United States * Social exclusion

Related topics

* Apartheid
Apartheid

* laws

* Anti-miscegenation laws * Black Codes * Corporative federalism * Discrimination
Discrimination
* Hafrada * Jim Crow laws * Nativism * Nuremberg Laws
Nuremberg Laws
* Racism
Racism
* Rankism * Religious intolerance * Reservation in India * Second-class citizen * Separate but equal
Separate but equal
* Separate school (Canada) * Shunning * Social apartheid * Xenophobia

* See also: Desegregation

* busing

* Pillarisation

* CATEGORY

* caste * gender * racial

* COMMONS

* v * t * e

Religion and politics

* Ideology * Politics
Politics
* Religion
Religion

GENERAL CONCEPTS

* Anti-clericalism

* Anticlericalism and Freemasonry

* Caesaropapism

* Clericalism

* Clerical fascism

* Confessionalism * Divine rule * Engaged Spirituality

* Feminist theology

* Thealogy * Womanist theology

* Identity politics * Political religion * Progressive Reconstructionism * Religious anarchism * Religious anti-Masonry * Religious anti-Zionism * Religious communism * Religious humanism * Religious law * Religious nationalism

* Religious pacifism

* Religion
Religion
and peacebuilding

* Religious police * Religious rejection of politics * Religious segregation * Religious separatism * Religious socialism * Religious views on same-sex marriage

* Secularism
Secularism

* Laïcité * Secular religion * Separation of church and state
Separation of church and state

* Spiritual left * State atheism * State religion * Theocracy * Theonomy

CHRISTIANITY AND POLITICS

* Blaine Amendment * Christian anarchism * Christian anti-communism

* Christian anti-Masonry

* Papal ban

* Christian anti-Zionism * Christian communism * Christian corporatism * Christian democracy * Christian egalitarianism

* Christian environmentalism

* Evangelical environmentalism

* Christian fascism

* German Christians * National Catholicism * Positive Christianity * Protestant
Protestant
Reich Church

* Christian feminism

* Mormon feminism

* Christian humanism * Christian law

* Christian left

* Evangelical left

* Christian libertarianism

* Christian pacifism
Christian pacifism

* Christian peacemaking

* Christian reconstructionism * Christian republic * Christian right

* Christian socialism

* In Utah

* Christian state * Christian Zionism
Christian Zionism
* Cisalpinism * Dominion Theology * Febronianism * Gallicanism * Liberation theology * Papal state * Pillarisation * Political Catholicism

* Relations between the Catholic
Catholic
Church and the state

* In Argentina

* Sphere sovereignty * Subsidiarity * Temporal power * Theodemocracy

* Ultramontanism

* Neo-ultramontanism

ISLAM AND POLITICS

* Hui pan-nationalism * Human Rights in Islam * Imamate * Islamic anarchism * Islamic anti-Masonry * Islamic anti-Zionism * Islamic democracy * Islamic fascism * Islamic feminism
Islamic feminism

* Islamic law

* by country

* Islamic nationalism

* In Pakistan * In South Asia

* Islamic pacifism * Islamic republic * Islamic socialism * Islamic state * Islamic Zionism

* Islamism

* Criticism

* Islamization
Islamization
* Khilafat * Petro-Islam * Political quietism

* Taliban
Taliban

* Talibanization

* Two-nation theory

JUDAISM AND POLITICS

* Halachic state * Jewish anarchism

* Jewish anti-Zionism

* Haredim

* Jewish Autonomism * Jewish democracy

* Jewish fascism

* Kahanism
Kahanism
* Revisionist Maximalism

* Jewish feminism * Jewish law * Jewish left * Jewish pacifism * Jewish political movements * Jewish right * Jewish secularism

* Jewish socialism

* Bundism
Bundism

* Humanistic Judaism * Poale Zion * Religious Zionism * World Agudath Israel
Israel

HINDUISM AND POLITICS

* Akhand Bharat * Hindu feminism * Hindu law
Hindu law
* Hindu modernism

* Hindu nationalism

* Hindutva * Hindu Rashtra * Panun Kashmir * Bangabhumi

* Hindu revolution * Indigenous Aryans * Rama Rajya * Saffronisation

BUDDHISM AND POLITICS

* Buddhists anti-communism * Buddhist feminism * Buddhist law * Buddhist modernism
Buddhist modernism

* Buddhist nationalism

* 969 Movement * Nichirenism * Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism

* Buddhist socialism * Engaged Buddhism * Humanistic Buddhism * Secular Buddhism

OTHER

* American civil religion

* Imperial cult

* Ancient Rome

* Gandhism * Gottgläubig * Juche
Juche
* Khalistan movement * Neopaganist feminism

* Religious aspects of Nazism

* Creativity (religion)
Creativity (religion)
* Nazi Satanism

* Personality cult * Sta

.