PIERRE-AUGUSTE RENOIR, commonly known as AUGUSTE RENOIR (US : /rɛnˈwɑːr/ or UK : /ˈrɛnwɑːr/ ; French: ; 25 February 1841 – 3 December 1919), was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style. As a celebrator of beauty and especially feminine sensuality , it has been said that "Renoir is the final representative of a tradition which runs directly from Rubens to Watteau ."
He was the father of actor
Pierre Renoir (1885–1952), filmmaker
* 1 Youth
* 2 Adulthood
* 3 Later years
* 4 Artworks
* 8 Gallery of paintings
* 8.1 Self-portraits * 8.2 Nudes
* 8.3 Interactive image
* 8.3.1 Close-ups
* 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links
The Theater Box , 1874, Courtauld Institute Galleries , London
Although Renoir displayed a talent for his work, he frequently tired of the subject matter and sought refuge in the galleries of the Louvre . The owner of the factory recognized his apprentice’s talent and communicated this to Renoir’s family. Following this, Renoir started taking lessons to prepare for entry into Ecole des Beaux Arts . When the porcelain factory adopted mechanical reproduction processes in 1858, Renoir was forced to find other means to support his learning. Before he enrolled in art school, he also painted hangings for overseas missionaries and decorations on fans.
In 1862, he began studying art under
In 1874, a ten-year friendship with Jules Le Cœur and his family
ended, and Renoir lost not only the valuable support gained by the
association but also a generous welcome to stay on their property near
The Swing (La Balançoire), 1876, oil on canvas, Musée d\'Orsay
Renoir was inspired by the style and subject matter of previous
Hoping to secure a livelihood by attracting portrait commissions, Renoir displayed mostly portraits at the second Impressionist exhibition in 1876. He contributed a more diverse range of paintings the next year when the group presented its third exhibition; they included Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette and The Swing. Renoir did not exhibit in the fourth or fifth Impressionist exhibitions, and instead resumed submitting his works to the Salon. By the end of the 1870s, particularly after the success of his painting Mme Charpentier and her Children (1878) at the Salon of 1879, Renoir was a successful and fashionable painter.
In 1881, he traveled to
In 1883, Renoir spent the summer in
While living and working in Montmartre, Renoir employed Suzanne Valadon as a model, who posed for him (The Large Bathers, 1884–87; Dance at Bougival , 1883) and many of his fellow painters; during that time she studied their techniques and eventually became one of the leading painters of the day.
In 1887, the year when
In 1890, he married Aline Victorine Charigot, a dressmaker twenty
years his junior, who, along with a number of the artist's friends,
had already served as a model for Le Déjeuner des canotiers (Luncheon
of the Boating Party – she is the woman on the left playing with the
dog) in 1881, and with whom he had already had a child, Pierre, in
1885. After his marriage, Renoir painted many scenes of his wife and
daily family life including their children and their nurse, Aline's
Gabrielle Renard . The Renoirs had three sons:
Pierre-Auguste Renoir, c. 1910
Around 1892, Renoir developed rheumatoid arthritis . In 1907, he
moved to the warmer climate of "Les Collettes," a farm at
In 1919, Renoir visited the
Renoir's portrait of Austrian actress Tilla Durieux (1914) contains playful flecks of vibrant color on her shawl that offset the classical pose of the actress and highlight Renoir's skill just five years before his death.
Renoir died in the village of Cagnes-sur-Mer, Provence-Alpes-Côte d\'Azur , on 3 December 1919.
Renoir's paintings are notable for their vibrant light and saturated color, most often focusing on people in intimate and candid compositions. The female nude was one of his primary subjects. In characteristic Impressionist style, Renoir suggested the details of a scene through freely brushed touches of color, so that his figures softly fuse with one another and their surroundings.
His initial paintings show the influence of the colorism of Eugène
Delacroix and the luminosity of Camille Corot . He also admired the
A fine example of Renoir's early work and evidence of the influence of Courbet's realism, is Diana, 1867. Ostensibly a mythological subject, the painting is a naturalistic studio work; the figure carefully observed, solidly modeled and superimposed upon a contrived landscape. If the work is a "student" piece, Renoir's heightened personal response to female sensuality is present. The model was Lise Tréhot, the artist's mistress at that time, and inspiration for a number of paintings.
In the late 1860s, through the practice of painting light and water
en plein air (outdoors), he and his friend
One of the best known Impressionist works is Renoir's 1876 Dance at
Le Moulin de la Galette (
Bal du moulin de la Galette ). The painting
depicts an open-air scene, crowded with people at a popular dance
garden on the Butte Montmartre close to where he lived. The works of
his early maturity were typically Impressionist snapshots of real
life, full of sparkling color and light. By the mid-1880s, however, he
had broken with the movement to apply a more disciplined formal
technique to portraits and figure paintings, particularly of women. It
was a trip to Italy in 1881 when he saw works by
After 1890 he changed direction again. To dissolve outlines, as in his earlier work, he returned to thinly brushed color. From this period onward he concentrated on monumental nudes and domestic scenes, fine examples of which are Girls at the Piano , 1892, and Grandes Baigneuses, 1887. The latter painting is the most typical and successful of Renoir's late, abundantly fleshed nudes.
A prolific artist, he created several thousand paintings. The warm
sensuality of Renoir's style made his paintings some of the most
well-known and frequently reproduced works in the history of art. The
single largest collection of his works—181 paintings in all—is at
Barnes Foundation , in
A five-volume catalogue raisonné of Renoir's works (with one supplement) was published by Bernheim-Jeune between 1983 and 2014. Bernheim-Jeune is the only surviving major art dealer that was used by Renoir. The Wildenstein Institute is preparing, but has not yet published, a critical catalogue of Renoir's work. A disagreement between these two organizations concerning an unsigned work in Picton Castle was at the centre of the second episode of the fourth season of the television series Fake or Fortune .
In 1919, Ambroise Vollard , a renowned art dealer, published a book on the life and work of Renoir, La Vie et l'Œuvre de Pierre-Auguste Renoir, in an edition of 1000 copies. In 1986, Vollard's heirs started reprinting the copper plates, generally, etchings with hand applied watercolor . These prints are signed by Renoir in the plate and are embossed "Vollard" in the lower margin. They are not numbered, dated or signed in pencil.
One of Renoir's paintings has sold for more than US$70 million. Bal du moulin de la Galette sold for $78.1 million May 17, 1990 at Sotheby's New York.
GALLERY OF PAINTINGS
Lise Sewing, 1866,
Dallas Museum of Art
La Grenouillère, 1868,
Mme. Charpentier and her children, 1878,
Metropolitan Museum of Art
By the Water, 1880,
Art Institute of Chicago
Luncheon of the Boating Party , 1880–1881, The Phillips Collection , Washington, D.C. *
Portrait of Charles and Georges Durand-Ruel , 1882 *
Pencil study for Dance in the Country, 1883,
Honolulu Museum of Art
Girl With a Hoop, 1885,
National Gallery of Art
Girl Braiding Her Hair (
Still Life: Flowers , 1885,
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum
Julie Manet with cat, 1887 *
Young Girl with Red Hair, 1894 *
Portrait of Ambroise Vollard , 1908 *
Portrait of Paul Durand-Ruel , 1910 *
Portrait of Ambroise Vollard , 1917
Diana the Huntress, 1867, The
National Gallery of Art
Nude in the Sun, 1875, Musée d\'Orsay ,
Seated Girl, 1883 *
The Large Bathers , 1887,
Philadelphia Museum of Art
After The Bath, 1888 *
Nude , National Museum of Serbia , Belgrade *
Woman at the Well, 1910 *
Seated Bather Drying Her Leg, 1914, Musée de l\'Orangerie ,
Women Bathers, 1916,
Interactive imagemap of the LUNCHEON OF THE BOATING PARTY (1881) by Pierre-Auguste Renoir. Hover your mouse over a person in the painting to see their name , and click to link to an article about them. (view • discuss )
Luncheon of the Boating Party (1881) - Details of the Women
Aline Charigot Angèle Legault Louise-Alphonsine
Jeanne Samary Luncheon
of the Boating Party (1881) - Details of the Men Alphonse
Fournaise, Jr. Pierre Lestringuèz Paul Lhôte
* Biography portal
* ^ Read, Herbert: The Meaning of Art, page 127. Faber, 1931. * ^ Renoir, Jean: Renoir, My Father, pages 57–67. Collins, 1962. * ^ A B Jennings, Guy (2003). History & Techniques of the Great Masters: Renoir. London: Quantum Publishing Ltd. p. 6. ISBN 1861604696 . * ^ Vollard, Ambroise: Renoir, An Intimate Record, pages 24–29. Knopf, 1925. * ^ Vollard, page 30. * ^ A B C Distel, Anne. "Renoir, Auguste." Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Oxford University Press. Web. 27 December 2014. * ^ Wadley, Nicholas: Renoir, A Retrospective, page 15. Park Lane, 1989. * ^ Renoir, Jean, pages 118–21. Different and less life-threatening versions are offered by Paul Valéry and Vollard. In all accounts, however, their re-acquaintance led to great celebration. * ^ A B Wadley, page 15. * ^ Haine, Scott. The History of France (1st ed.). Greenwood Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-313-30328-2 . * ^ A B Brodskaja, Natalja (2010). Impressionism. London: Parkstone Press. p. 114. ISBN 9781844847433 . * ^ Poulet, A. L., & Murphy, A. R. (1979). Corot to Braque: French Paintings from the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, page 117. Boston: The Museum. ISBN 0-87846-134-5 . * ^ A B Wadley, page 25. * ^ Wadley, pages 371, 374. * ^ Renoir, Jean (2001). Renoir, My Father. NYRB Classics. p. 200. ISBN 0940322773 . * ^ Wadley, page 28. * ^ André, Albert: Renoir. Crés, 1928. * ^ A B C "Boonen, A.; van de Rest, J.; Dequeker, J.; van der Linden, S.: "How Renoir Coped with Rheumatoid Arthritis". \'\'British Medical Journal\'\', 1997:315:1704–1708". Bmj.com. Retrieved 7 April 2012. * ^ Rey, Robert: La Peinture française à la fin du XIXe siècle, la renaissance du sentiment classique : Degas, Renoir, Cézanne, Gauguin, Seurat, Les Beaux-Arts, Van Oest, 1931 (thesis). * ^ "From the Tour: Mary Cassatt", August Renoir. Retrieved 7 March 2007. * ^ Clark, Kenneth: The Nude, pages 154–61. Penguin, 1960. * ^ Asked late in life if he felt an affinity to Ingres, he responded: "I should very much like to". Rey, quoted in Wadley, page 336. * ^ "For me, Renoir becomes a really great artist in the late nudes, above all in Les Grandes Baigneuses". David Sylvester, quoted by Wadley, page 378 * ^ Bernheim-Jeune * ^ Wildenstein Institute * ^ Renoir Work Sells for $78.1 Million. Auction: The painting \'Au Moulin de la Galette\' is highlight of Sotheby\'s offering of Impressionist and modern art. The price is the second highest ever. Los Angeles Times, 18 May 1990
* Claude Roger-Marx (1952). Les Lithographies de Renoir. Monte-Carlo: Andre Sauret. * Joseph G. Stella (1975). The Graphic Work of Renoir: Catalogue Raisonne. London: Lund Humphries. * Jean Leymarie et Michel Melot (1971). Les Gravures Des Impressionistes, Manet, Pissarro, Renoir, Cezanne, Sisley. Paris: Arts et Metiers Graphiques. * Kang, Cindy. “Auguste Renoir (1841–1919).” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. (May 2011) * Michel Melot (1996). The Impressionist Print. New Haven: Yale University Press. * Theodore Duret (1924). Renoir. Paris: Bernheim-Jeune. * Paul Haeserts (1947). Renoir Sculpteur. Bruxelles: Hermès.