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PIERRE-AUGUSTE RENOIR, commonly known as AUGUSTE RENOIR (US : /rɛnˈwɑːr/ or UK : /ˈrɛnwɑːr/ ; French: ; 25 February 1841 – 3 December 1919), was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style. As a celebrator of beauty and especially feminine sensuality , it has been said that "Renoir is the final representative of a tradition which runs directly from Rubens to Watteau ."

He was the father of actor Pierre Renoir (1885–1952), filmmaker Jean Renoir
Jean Renoir
(1894–1979) and ceramic artist Claude Renoir (1901–1969). He was the grandfather of the filmmaker Claude Renoir (1913–1993), son of Pierre.

CONTENTS

* 1 Youth * 2 Adulthood * 3 Later years * 4 Artworks * 5 Catalogue raisonné
Catalogue raisonné
* 6 Posthumous prints * 7 Posthumous sales

* 8 Gallery of paintings

* 8.1 Self-portraits * 8.2 Nudes

* 8.3 Interactive image

* 8.3.1 Close-ups

* 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links

YOUTH

The Theater Box , 1874, Courtauld Institute Galleries , London

Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
was born in Limoges
Limoges
, Haute-Vienne
Haute-Vienne
, France, in 1841. His father, Léonard Renoir, was a tailor of modest means, so in 1844, Renoir's family moved to Paris
Paris
in search of more favorable prospects. The location of their home, in rue d’ Argenteuil in central Paris
Paris
, placed Renoir in proximity to the Louvre. Although the young Renoir had a natural proclivity for drawing, he exhibited a greater talent for singing. His talent was encouraged by his teacher, Charles Gounod
Charles Gounod
, who was the choir-master at the Church of St Roch at the time. However, due to the family’s financial circumstances, Renoir had to discontinue his music lessons and leave school at the age of thirteen to pursue an apprenticeship at a porcelain factory.

Although Renoir displayed a talent for his work, he frequently tired of the subject matter and sought refuge in the galleries of the Louvre . The owner of the factory recognized his apprentice’s talent and communicated this to Renoir’s family. Following this, Renoir started taking lessons to prepare for entry into Ecole des Beaux Arts . When the porcelain factory adopted mechanical reproduction processes in 1858, Renoir was forced to find other means to support his learning. Before he enrolled in art school, he also painted hangings for overseas missionaries and decorations on fans.

In 1862, he began studying art under Charles Gleyre
Charles Gleyre
in Paris. There he met Alfred Sisley
Alfred Sisley
, Frédéric Bazille
Frédéric Bazille
, and Claude Monet
Claude Monet
. At times, during the 1860s, he did not have enough money to buy paint. Renoir had his first success at the Salon of 1868 with his painting Lise with a Parasol (1867), which depicted Lise Tréhot , his lover at the time. Although Renoir first started exhibiting paintings at the Paris
Paris
Salon in 1864, recognition was slow in coming, partly as a result of the turmoil of the Franco-Prussian War
Franco-Prussian War
.

During the Paris
Paris
Commune in 1871, while Renoir painted on the banks of the Seine
Seine
River , some Communards thought he was a spy and were about to throw him into the river, when a leader of the Commune, Raoul Rigault , recognized Renoir as the man who had protected him on an earlier occasion.

In 1874, a ten-year friendship with Jules Le Cœur and his family ended, and Renoir lost not only the valuable support gained by the association but also a generous welcome to stay on their property near Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau
and its scenic forest . This loss of a favorite painting location resulted in a distinct change of subjects.

ADULTHOOD

The Swing (La Balançoire), 1876, oil on canvas, Musée d\'Orsay , Paris
Paris
Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette (Bal du moulin de la Galette ), 1876

Renoir was inspired by the style and subject matter of previous modern painters Camille Pissarro
Camille Pissarro
and Edouard Manet
Edouard Manet
. After a series of rejections by the Salon juries, he joined forces with Monet, Sisley, Pissarro, and several other artists to mount the first Impressionist exhibition in April 1874, in which Renoir displayed six paintings. Although the critical response to the exhibition was largely unfavorable, Renoir's work was comparatively well received. That same year, two of his works were shown with Durand-Ruel in London.

Hoping to secure a livelihood by attracting portrait commissions, Renoir displayed mostly portraits at the second Impressionist exhibition in 1876. He contributed a more diverse range of paintings the next year when the group presented its third exhibition; they included Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette and The Swing. Renoir did not exhibit in the fourth or fifth Impressionist exhibitions, and instead resumed submitting his works to the Salon. By the end of the 1870s, particularly after the success of his painting Mme Charpentier and her Children (1878) at the Salon of 1879, Renoir was a successful and fashionable painter.

In 1881, he traveled to Algeria
Algeria
, a country he associated with Eugène Delacroix , then to Madrid
Madrid
, to see the work of Diego Velázquez . Following that, he traveled to Italy to see Titian
Titian
's masterpieces in Florence
Florence
and the paintings of Raphael
Raphael
in Rome. On 15 January 1882, Renoir met the composer Richard Wagner
Richard Wagner
at his home in Palermo
Palermo
, Sicily. Renoir painted Wagner's portrait in just thirty-five minutes. In the same year, after contracting pneumonia which permanently damaged his respiratory system, Renoir convalesced for six weeks in Algeria.

In 1883, Renoir spent the summer in Guernsey
Guernsey
, one of the islands in the English Channel
English Channel
with a varied landscape of beaches, cliffs, and bays, where he created fifteen paintings in little over a month. Most of these feature Moulin Huet, a bay in Saint Martin\'s, Guernsey
Guernsey
. These paintings were the subject of a set of commemorative postage stamps issued by the Bailiwick of Guernsey
Guernsey
in 1983.

While living and working in Montmartre, Renoir employed Suzanne Valadon as a model, who posed for him (The Large Bathers, 1884–87; Dance at Bougival , 1883) and many of his fellow painters; during that time she studied their techniques and eventually became one of the leading painters of the day.

In 1887, the year when Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
celebrated her Golden Jubilee
Golden Jubilee
, and upon the request of the queen's associate, Phillip Richbourg, Renoir donated several paintings to the "French Impressionist Paintings" catalog as a token of his loyalty.

In 1890, he married Aline Victorine Charigot, a dressmaker twenty years his junior, who, along with a number of the artist's friends, had already served as a model for Le Déjeuner des canotiers (Luncheon of the Boating Party – she is the woman on the left playing with the dog) in 1881, and with whom he had already had a child, Pierre, in 1885. After his marriage, Renoir painted many scenes of his wife and daily family life including their children and their nurse, Aline's cousin Gabrielle Renard . The Renoirs had three sons: Jean Renoir
Jean Renoir
, who became a filmmaker of note, Pierre Renoir , who became a stage and film actor, and Claude Renoir, who became a ceramic artist.

LATER YEARS

Pierre-Auguste Renoir, c. 1910

Around 1892, Renoir developed rheumatoid arthritis . In 1907, he moved to the warmer climate of "Les Collettes," a farm at Cagnes-sur-Mer
Cagnes-sur-Mer
, close to the Mediterranean coast. Renoir painted during the last twenty years of his life even after his arthritis severely limited his mobility. He developed progressive deformities in his hands and ankylosis of his right shoulder, requiring him to change his painting technique. It has often been reported that in the advanced stages of his arthritis, he painted by having a brush strapped to his paralyzed fingers, but this is erroneous; Renoir remained able to grasp a brush, although he required an assistant to place it in his hand. The wrapping of his hands with bandages, apparent in late photographs of the artist, served to prevent skin irritation.

In 1919, Renoir visited the Louvre
Louvre
to see his paintings hanging with those of the old masters. During this period, he created sculptures by cooperating with a young artist, Richard Guino , who worked the clay. Due to his limited joint mobility, Renoir also used a moving canvas, or picture roll, to facilitate painting large works.

Renoir's portrait of Austrian actress Tilla Durieux (1914) contains playful flecks of vibrant color on her shawl that offset the classical pose of the actress and highlight Renoir's skill just five years before his death.

Renoir died in the village of Cagnes-sur-Mer, Provence-Alpes-Côte d\'Azur , on 3 December 1919.

ARTWORKS

Two Sisters , oil on canvas, 1881, Art Institute of Chicago
Art Institute of Chicago
Girls at the Piano, 1892, Musée d\'Orsay , Paris
Paris

Renoir's paintings are notable for their vibrant light and saturated color, most often focusing on people in intimate and candid compositions. The female nude was one of his primary subjects. In characteristic Impressionist style, Renoir suggested the details of a scene through freely brushed touches of color, so that his figures softly fuse with one another and their surroundings.

His initial paintings show the influence of the colorism of Eugène Delacroix and the luminosity of Camille Corot . He also admired the realism of Gustave Courbet
Gustave Courbet
and Édouard Manet
Édouard Manet
, and his early work resembles theirs in his use of black as a color. Renoir admired Edgar Degas ' sense of movement. Another painter Renoir greatly admired was the 18th-century master François Boucher
François Boucher
.

A fine example of Renoir's early work and evidence of the influence of Courbet's realism, is Diana, 1867. Ostensibly a mythological subject, the painting is a naturalistic studio work; the figure carefully observed, solidly modeled and superimposed upon a contrived landscape. If the work is a "student" piece, Renoir's heightened personal response to female sensuality is present. The model was Lise Tréhot, the artist's mistress at that time, and inspiration for a number of paintings.

In the late 1860s, through the practice of painting light and water en plein air (outdoors), he and his friend Claude Monet
Claude Monet
discovered that the color of shadows is not brown or black, but the reflected color of the objects surrounding them, an effect known today as diffuse reflection . Several pairs of paintings exist in which Renoir and Monet worked side-by-side, depicting the same scenes (La Grenouillère, 1869).

One of the best known Impressionist works is Renoir's 1876 Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette ( Bal du moulin de la Galette ). The painting depicts an open-air scene, crowded with people at a popular dance garden on the Butte Montmartre close to where he lived. The works of his early maturity were typically Impressionist snapshots of real life, full of sparkling color and light. By the mid-1880s, however, he had broken with the movement to apply a more disciplined formal technique to portraits and figure paintings, particularly of women. It was a trip to Italy in 1881 when he saw works by Raphael
Raphael
and other Renaissance
Renaissance
masters, that convinced him that he was on the wrong path, and for the next several years he painted in a more severe style in an attempt to return to classicism. Concentrating on his drawing and emphasizing the outlines of figures, he painted works such as The Large Bathers (1884–87; Philadelphia Museum of Art
Philadelphia Museum of Art
) during what is sometimes called his "Ingres period".

After 1890 he changed direction again. To dissolve outlines, as in his earlier work, he returned to thinly brushed color. From this period onward he concentrated on monumental nudes and domestic scenes, fine examples of which are Girls at the Piano , 1892, and Grandes Baigneuses, 1887. The latter painting is the most typical and successful of Renoir's late, abundantly fleshed nudes.

A prolific artist, he created several thousand paintings. The warm sensuality of Renoir's style made his paintings some of the most well-known and frequently reproduced works in the history of art. The single largest collection of his works—181 paintings in all—is at the Barnes Foundation , in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
.

CATALOGUE RAISONNé

A five-volume catalogue raisonné of Renoir's works (with one supplement) was published by Bernheim-Jeune between 1983 and 2014. Bernheim-Jeune is the only surviving major art dealer that was used by Renoir. The Wildenstein Institute is preparing, but has not yet published, a critical catalogue of Renoir's work. A disagreement between these two organizations concerning an unsigned work in Picton Castle was at the centre of the second episode of the fourth season of the television series Fake or Fortune .

POSTHUMOUS PRINTS

In 1919, Ambroise Vollard , a renowned art dealer, published a book on the life and work of Renoir, La Vie et l'Œuvre de Pierre-Auguste Renoir, in an edition of 1000 copies. In 1986, Vollard's heirs started reprinting the copper plates, generally, etchings with hand applied watercolor . These prints are signed by Renoir in the plate and are embossed "Vollard" in the lower margin. They are not numbered, dated or signed in pencil.

POSTHUMOUS SALES

One of Renoir's paintings has sold for more than US$70 million. Bal du moulin de la Galette sold for $78.1 million May 17, 1990 at Sotheby's New York.

In 2012, Renoir's Paysage Bords de Seine
Seine
was offered for sale at auction but the painting was discovered to have been stolen from the Baltimore Museum of Art in 1951. The sale was cancelled.

GALLERY OF PAINTINGS

*

Lise Sewing, 1866, Dallas Museum of Art
Dallas Museum of Art
*

La Grenouillère, 1868, Nationalmuseum
Nationalmuseum
, Stockholm *

Portrait of Alfred Sisley
Alfred Sisley
, 1868 *

Claude Monet
Claude Monet
Painting in His Garden at Argenteuil , 1873, Wadsworth Atheneum , Hartford , Connecticut *

Portrait of Claude Monet
Claude Monet
, 1875, Musée d\'Orsay , Paris, France *

A Girl with a Watering Can , 1876, National Gallery of Art
National Gallery of Art
, Washington, D.C. *

Mme. Charpentier and her children, 1878, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
, New York *

By the Water, 1880, Art Institute of Chicago
Art Institute of Chicago
, Chicago, Illinois *

Luncheon of the Boating Party , 1880–1881, The Phillips Collection , Washington, D.C. *

Portrait of Charles and Georges Durand-Ruel , 1882 *

Dance at Bougival , 1882–1883, (woman at left is painter Suzanne Valadon ), Boston Museum of Fine Arts *

Dance in the Country (Aline Charigot and Paul Lhote), 1883, Musée d\'Orsay , Paris
Paris
*

Pencil study for Dance in the Country, 1883, Honolulu Museum of Art
Honolulu Museum of Art
*

Children at the Beach at Guernsey
Guernsey
, 1883, Barnes Foundation , Philadelphia
Philadelphia
*

Jeune garçon sur la plage d'Yport, 1883, Barnes Foundation , Philadelphia
Philadelphia
*

Girl With a Hoop, 1885, National Gallery of Art
National Gallery of Art
, Washington, D.C.

*

Girl Braiding Her Hair ( Suzanne Valadon
Suzanne Valadon
), 1885 *

Still Life: Flowers , 1885, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum
, New York *

Julie Manet with cat, 1887 *

Young Girl with Red Hair, 1894 *

Portrait of Berthe Morisot and daughter Julie Manet , 1894 *

Gabrielle Renard and infant son Jean Renoir
Jean Renoir
, 1895 *

The Artist's Family, 1896, The Barnes Foundation , Philadelphia
Philadelphia
*

Portrait of Ambroise Vollard , 1908 *

Portrait of Paul Durand-Ruel , 1910 *

Portrait of Ambroise Vollard , 1917

SELF-PORTRAITS

*

Self-portrait
Self-portrait
, 1875 *

Self-portrait
Self-portrait
, 1876 *

Self-portrait
Self-portrait
, 1910 *

Self-portrait
Self-portrait
, 1910

NUDES

*

Diana the Huntress, 1867, The National Gallery of Art
National Gallery of Art
, Washington, DC *

Nude in the Sun, 1875, Musée d\'Orsay , Paris
Paris
*

Seated Girl, 1883 *

The Large Bathers , 1887, Philadelphia Museum of Art
Philadelphia Museum of Art
*

After The Bath, 1888 *

Three Bathers, 1895, Cleveland
Cleveland
Museum of Art Cleveland
Cleveland
, Ohio *

Nude , National Museum of Serbia , Belgrade *

After The Bath, 1910, Barnes Foundation , Philadelphia
Philadelphia
*

Woman at the Well, 1910 *

Seated Bather Drying Her Leg, 1914, Musée de l\'Orangerie , Paris
Paris

*

Women Bathers, 1916, National Museum
National Museum
, Stockholm *

Bathers, 1918, Barnes Foundation , Philadelphia
Philadelphia

INTERACTIVE IMAGE

Interactive imagemap of the LUNCHEON OF THE BOATING PARTY (1881) by Pierre-Auguste Renoir. Hover your mouse over a person in the painting to see their name , and click to link to an article about them. (view • discuss )

Close-ups

Luncheon of the Boating Party (1881) - Details of the Women Aline Charigot Angèle Legault Louise-Alphonsine Fournaise Ellen Andrée Jeanne Samary Luncheon of the Boating Party (1881) - Details of the Men Alphonse Fournaise, Jr. Pierre Lestringuèz Paul Lhôte Jules Laforgue
Jules Laforgue
Antonio Maggiolo Gustave Caillebotte
Gustave Caillebotte
Charles Ephrussi Raoul Barbier

SEE ALSO

* Biography portal

* List of paintings by Pierre-Auguste Renoir

REFERENCES

* ^ Read, Herbert: The Meaning of Art, page 127. Faber, 1931. * ^ Renoir, Jean: Renoir, My Father, pages 57–67. Collins, 1962. * ^ A B Jennings, Guy (2003). History & Techniques of the Great Masters: Renoir. London: Quantum Publishing Ltd. p. 6. ISBN 1861604696 . * ^ Vollard, Ambroise: Renoir, An Intimate Record, pages 24–29. Knopf, 1925. * ^ Vollard, page 30. * ^ A B C Distel, Anne. "Renoir, Auguste." Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Oxford University Press. Web. 27 December 2014. * ^ Wadley, Nicholas: Renoir, A Retrospective, page 15. Park Lane, 1989. * ^ Renoir, Jean, pages 118–21. Different and less life-threatening versions are offered by Paul Valéry and Vollard. In all accounts, however, their re-acquaintance led to great celebration. * ^ A B Wadley, page 15. * ^ Haine, Scott. The History of France (1st ed.). Greenwood Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-313-30328-2 . * ^ A B Brodskaja, Natalja (2010). Impressionism. London: Parkstone Press. p. 114. ISBN 9781844847433 . * ^ Poulet, A. L., & Murphy, A. R. (1979). Corot to Braque: French Paintings from the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, page 117. Boston: The Museum. ISBN 0-87846-134-5 . * ^ A B Wadley, page 25. * ^ Wadley, pages 371, 374. * ^ Renoir, Jean (2001). Renoir, My Father. NYRB Classics. p. 200. ISBN 0940322773 . * ^ Wadley, page 28. * ^ André, Albert: Renoir. Crés, 1928. * ^ A B C "Boonen, A.; van de Rest, J.; Dequeker, J.; van der Linden, S.: "How Renoir Coped with Rheumatoid Arthritis". \'\'British Medical Journal\'\', 1997:315:1704–1708". Bmj.com. Retrieved 7 April 2012. * ^ Rey, Robert: La Peinture française à la fin du XIXe siècle, la renaissance du sentiment classique : Degas, Renoir, Cézanne, Gauguin, Seurat, Les Beaux-Arts, Van Oest, 1931 (thesis). * ^ "From the Tour: Mary Cassatt", August Renoir. Retrieved 7 March 2007. * ^ Clark, Kenneth: The Nude, pages 154–61. Penguin, 1960. * ^ Asked late in life if he felt an affinity to Ingres, he responded: "I should very much like to". Rey, quoted in Wadley, page 336. * ^ "For me, Renoir becomes a really great artist in the late nudes, above all in Les Grandes Baigneuses". David Sylvester, quoted by Wadley, page 378 * ^ Bernheim-Jeune * ^ Wildenstein Institute * ^ Renoir Work Sells for $78.1 Million. Auction: The painting \'Au Moulin de la Galette\' is highlight of Sotheby\'s offering of Impressionist and modern art. The price is the second highest ever. Los Angeles Times, 18 May 1990

FURTHER READING

External video Renoir, "La Promenade" on YouTube
YouTube
, (1:49) Frick Collection

\'Renoir, Impressionism, and Full-Length Painting,\' An Introduction to the Exhibition on YouTube
YouTube
, (6:14) Frick Collection

* Claude Roger-Marx (1952). Les Lithographies de Renoir. Monte-Carlo: Andre Sauret. * Joseph G. Stella (1975). The Graphic Work of Renoir: Catalogue Raisonne. London: Lund Humphries. * Jean Leymarie et Michel Melot (1971). Les Gravures Des Impressionistes, Manet, Pissarro, Renoir, Cezanne, Sisley. Paris: Arts et Metiers Graphiques. * Kang, Cindy. “Auguste Renoir (1841–1919).” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. (May 2011) * Michel Melot (1996). The Impressionist Print. New Haven: Yale University Press. * Theodore Duret (1924). Renoir. Paris: Bernheim-Jeune. * Paul Haeserts (1947). Renoir Sculpteur. Bruxelles: Hermès.

EXTERNAL LINKS

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Wikimedia Commons
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