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Pier Paolo Pasolini
Pier Paolo Pasolini
(Italian: [ˈpjɛr ˈpaːolo pazoˈliːni]; 5 March 1922 – 2 November 1975) was an Italian film director, poet, writer, and intellectual. Pasolini also distinguished himself as an actor, journalist, novelist, playwright, and political figure. He remains a controversial personality in Italy due to his blunt style and the focus of some of his works on taboo sexual matters, but he is an established major figure in European literature and cinematic arts. His murder prompted an outcry in Italy and its circumstances continue to be a matter of heated debate.

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Early life 1.2 Early poetry 1.3 Relationship with the Italian Communist Party 1.4 Rome 1.5 Success and charges 1.6 Murder

2 Political views

2.1 1968 protests 2.2 The rising society of consumption 2.3 Strong criticism of Christian Democracy 2.4 Television
Television
linked to cultural alienation 2.5 Others

3 Sexuality 4 Works 5 Legacy 6 Films

6.1 Feature films 6.2 Documentaries 6.3 Episodes in omnibus films

7 Written works

7.1 Narrative 7.2 Poetry 7.3 Essays 7.4 Theatre

8 Notes 9 References 10 External links

Biography[edit] Early life[edit] Pasolini was born in Bologna, traditionally one of the most leftist politically of Italian cities. He was the son of Carlo Alberto Pasolini, a lieutenant in the Italian army, and Susanna Colussi, an elementary school teacher. His parents married in 1921, Pasolini was born in 1922 and named after his paternal uncle. His family moved to Conegliano
Conegliano
in 1923 and, two years later, to Belluno, where another son, Guidalberto, was born. In 1926, Pasolini's father was arrested for gambling debts. His mother moved with the children to her family's house in Casarsa della Delizia, in the Friuli
Friuli
region. That same year, his father Carlo Alberto, first detained and then identified Anteo Zamboni
Anteo Zamboni
as the would-be assassin of Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
following his assassination attempt.[citation needed] Carlo Alberto was persuaded of the virtues of fascism.[1] Pasolini began writing poems at the age of seven, inspired by the natural beauty of Casarsa. One of his early influences was the work of Arthur Rimbaud. In 1931, his father was transferred to Idria in the Julian March
Julian March
(now Idrija
Idrija
in Slovenia);[2] in 1933 they moved again to Cremona
Cremona
in Lombardy, and later to Scandiano
Scandiano
and Reggio Emilia. Pasolini found it difficult to adapt to all these dislocations, though he enlarged his poetry and literature readings (Dostoyevsky, Tolstoy, Shakespeare, Coleridge, Novalis) and left behind the religious fervour of his early years. In the Reggio Emilia
Reggio Emilia
high school, he met his first true friend, Luciano Serra. The two met again in Bologna, where Pasolini spent seven years completing high school. Here he cultivated new passions, including football. With other friends, including Ermes Parini, Franco Farolfi, Elio Meli, he formed a group dedicated to literary discussions. In 1939 Pasolini graduated and entered the Literature College of the University of Bologna, discovering new themes such as philology and aesthetics of figurative arts. He also frequented the local cinema club. Pasolini always showed his friends a virile and strong exterior, totally hiding his interior turmoil. He took part in the Fascist government's culture and sports competitions. In his poems of this period, Pasolini started to include fragments in Friulan, a dialect, now officially recognised as a minority language he did not speak but learned after he had begun to write poetry in it. "I learnt it as a sort of mystic act of love, a kind of félibrisme, like the Provençal poets."[3] Early poetry[edit]

An undated photo of Pasolini

In 1942, Pasolini published at his own expense a collection of poems in Friulan, Versi a Casarsa, which he had written at the age of eighteen. The work was noted and appreciated by such intellectuals and critics as Gianfranco Contini, Alfonso Gatto and Antonio Russi. His pictures had also been well received. Pasolini was chief editor of a magazine called Il Setaccio ("The Sieve"), but he was fired after conflicts with the director, who was aligned with the Fascist regime. A trip to Germany helped him also to perceive the "provincial" status of Italian culture in that period. These experiences led Pasolini to revise his opinion about the cultural politics of Fascism and to switch gradually to a Communist position. In 1942, the family took shelter in Casarsa, considered a more tranquil place to wait for the conclusion of the Second World War, a decision common among Italian military families. In the weeks before the 8 September armistice, Pasolini was drafted. He was captured and imprisoned by the German Wehrmacht, but escaped disguised as a peasant and found his way to Casarsa. Here he joined a group of other young enthusiasts of the Friulan dialect who wanted to give Casarsa Friulan a status equal to that of Udine, the official regional standard. From May 1944 they issued a magazine entitled Stroligùt di cà da l'aga. In the meantime, Casarsa suffered Allied bombardments and forced enlistments by the Italian Social Republic, as well as partisan activity. Pasolini tried to remain apart from these events. Starting in October 1943, he, his mother and other colleagues taught students unable to reach the schools in Pordenone
Pordenone
or Udine. This educational workshop was considered illegal and broke up in February 1944.[4] He had his first experience of gay love for one of his students.[citation needed] His brother Guido, aged 19, joined the Party of Action and their Osoppo- Friuli
Friuli
Brigade, taking to the bush near Slovenia. On 12 February 1945 Guido was killed in an ambush planted by Italian Garibaldine partisans serving in the lines of Tito's Yugoslavian guerrillas. It was a harrowing tragedy for Pasolini and his mother.[5] Six days later Pasolini and others founded the Friulan Language Academy (Academiuta di lenga furlana). Meanwhile, on account of Guido's death, Pasolini's father Carlo Alberto returned to Italy from his detention period in November 1945. He settled in Casarsa. Also in November, Pasolini graduated from university after completing a final thesis about the work of Giovanni Pascoli
Giovanni Pascoli
(1855–1912), an Italian poet and classical scholar.[6] In 1946 Pasolini published a small poetry collection, I Diarii ("The Diaries"), with the Academiuta. In October he traveled to Rome. The following May he began the so-called Quaderni Rossi, handwritten in old school exercise books with red covers. He completed a drama in Italian, Il Cappellano. His poetry collection, I Pianti ("The cries"), was also published by the Academiuta. Relationship with the Italian Communist Party[edit]

Provinces of Friuli–Venezia Giulia

On 30 October 1945, Pasolini joined the pro-devolution association Patrie tal Friul, founded in Udine. The political status of the region became a matter of contention between different political factions. Pasolini wanted a Friuli
Friuli
based on its tradition, attached to its Christianity, but intent on civic and social progress, as opposed to those advocates of regional autonomy who wanted to preserve their privileges based on "immobilism".[7] He also criticized the Communist Party for its opposition to devolution and their preference for Italian centralism. He founded the party Movimento Popolare Friulano, but ended up quitting it, persuaded that it had come to be controlled and used by the Christian-Democrat Party in order to counter the Yugoslavians, who in turn were attempting to annex large swaths of the Friuli
Friuli
region.[7] On 26 January 1947 Pasolini wrote a declaration that was published on the front page of the newspaper Libertà: "In our opinion, we think that currently only Communism is able to provide a new culture." It generated controversy partly due to the fact he was still not a member of the Italian Communist Party
Italian Communist Party
(PCI).

Piazza del Popolo in San Vito al Tagliamento

He was planning to extend the work of the Academiuta to the literature of other Romance languages and met the exiled Catalan poet, Carles Cardó. After joining the PCI, Pasolini took part in several demonstrations. In May 1949, Pasolini attended the Peace Congress in Paris. Observing the struggles of workers and peasants, and watching the clashes of protesters with Italian police, he began to conceive his first novel. During this period, while holding a position as a teacher in a secondary school, Pasolini stood out in the local Communist Party section as a skillful writer defying the notion that communism was contrary to Christian values, even though Pope Pius XII had excommunicated communist sympathizers from the Church. The local Christian-Democrats took notice. In the summer of 1949, Pasolini was blackmailed by a priest to renounce politics or lose his teaching position. Similarly, after some posters were put in the loggia of San Giovanni, Giambattista Caron, a Christian-Democrat deputy, warned Nico Naldini that his cousin Pasolini "should abandon communist propaganda" to prevent "pernicious reactions".[8] A small scandal broke out during a local festival in Ramuscello in September 1949. Someone informed Cordovado, the local sergeant of the carabinieri, of sexual conduct (masturbation) by Pasolini with three youngsters aged sixteen and younger after dancing and drinking.[8] Cordovado summoned the boys' parents, who hesitated, but did not file charges, despite Cordovado's urging. He nevertheless drew up a report, and the informer elaborated publicly on his accusations, sparking a public uproar. A judge in San Vito al Tagliamento
San Vito al Tagliamento
charged Pasolini with "corruption of minors and obscene acts in public places".[8][9] He and the 16-year-old were both indicted.[10]

The Fountain of the Turtles, next to Pasolini's temporary dwelling (1950)

The next month, when questioned, he would not deny the facts, but talked of a "literary and erotic drive" and cited André Gide, the 1947 Nobel Prize for Literature
Nobel Prize for Literature
laureate. Cordovado informed his superiors and the regional press stepped in.[10] According to Pasolini, the Christian-Democrats instigated the entire affair to smear his name ("the Christian-Democrats pulled the strings"). He was fired from his job in Valvasone[9] and he was expelled from the Communist Party by the party's Udine
Udine
section, which he considered a betrayal. He addressed a critical letter to the head of the section, his friend Ferdinando Mautino and claimed he was being subject to a "tacticism" of the Communist Party. In the party, the expulsion was opposed by Teresa Degan, Pasolini's colleague in education. He also wrote her a letter admitting his regret for being "such a naive, even indecently so".[8] His parents reacted angrily and the situation in the family became untenable.[11] Rome[edit] In January 1950 Pasolini moved to Rome
Rome
with his mother Susanna to start a new life. He was acquitted of both charges in 1950 and 1952.[9] "I came to Rome
Rome
from the Friulan countryside. Unemployed for many years; ignored by everybody; driven by the fear to be not as life needed to be". After one year sheltered in a maternal uncle's flat next to Piazza Mattei, Pasolini and his 59-year-old mother moved to a run-down suburb called Rebibbia, next to a prison, for 3 years; he transferred his Friulan countryside inspiration to this Roman suburb, one of the infamous borgate where poor proletarian immigrants lived in often horrendous sanitary and social conditions. Instead of asking for help from other writers, Pasolini preferred to go his own way. He found a job working in the Cinecittà
Cinecittà
film studios and sold his books in the 'bancarelle' ("sidewalk shops") of Rome. In 1951, with the help of the Abruzzese-language poet Vittorio Clemente, he found a job as a secondary school teacher in Ciampino, a suburb of the capital. He had a long commute involving two train changes and earned a meagre salary of 27,000 Italian lire. Success and charges[edit]

Pasolini filming Accattone

In 1954, Pasolini, who now worked for the literary section of Italian state radio, left his teaching job and moved to the Monteverde quarter. At this point, his cousin Graziella moved in. They also accommodated Pasolini's ailing, cirrhotic father Carlo Alberto who died in 1958. Pasolini published La meglio gioventù, his first important collection of dialect poems. His first novel, Ragazzi di vita (English: Hustlers), was published in 1955. The work had great success but was poorly received by the PCI establishment and, most importantly, by the Italian government. It initiated a lawsuit for "obscenity" against Pasolini and his editor, Garzanti.[12] Although exonerated, Pasolini became a target of insinuations, especially in the tabloid press. In 1955, together with Francesco Leonetti, Roberto Roversi and others, he edited and published a poetry magazine called Officina. The magazine closed in 1959 after 14 issues. In 1957, together with Sergio Citti, Pasolini collaborated on Federico Fellini's film Le notti di Cabiria, writing dialogue for the Roman dialect parts. He also co-wrote the dialogue for Fellini's La dolce vita.[citation needed] In 1960 he made his debut as an actor in Il gobbo
Il gobbo
and co-wrote Long Night in 1943. Along with Ragazzi di vita, he had his celebrated poem Le ceneri di Gramsci published, where Pasolini voiced tormented tensions between reason and heart, as well as the existing ideological dialectics within communism, a debate over artistic freedom, Socialist realism and commitment.[13] His first film as director and screenwriter was Accattone
Accattone
in 1961, again set in Rome's marginal quarters. It was a story of pimps, prostitutes and thieves that contrasted with Italy's postwar economic reforms. Although Pasolini tried to distance himself from neorealism, the film is considered to be a kind of second neorealism. Nick Barbaro, a critic writing in the Austin Chronicle, stated it "may be the grimmest movie" he has ever seen.[14] The movie aroused controversy and scandal. In 1963, the episode "La ricotta", included in the collective movie RoGoPaG, was censored and Pasolini was tried for "offense to the Italian state and religion".[15] During this period Pasolini frequently traveled abroad: in 1961, with Elsa Morante
Elsa Morante
and Alberto Moravia
Alberto Moravia
to India (where he went again seven years later); in 1962 to Sudan
Sudan
and Kenya; in 1963, to Ghana, Nigeria, Guinea, Jordan
Jordan
and Israel
Israel
(where he shot the documentary, Sopralluoghi in Palestina). In 1970 he traveled again to Africa to shoot the documentary, Appunti per un'Orestiade africana. In 1966 he was a member of the jury at the 16th Berlin International Film Festival.[16] In 1967, in Venice, he met and interviewed the American poet Ezra Pound.[17] They discussed the Italian movement neoavanguardia and Pasolini read some verses from the Italian version of Pound's Pisan Cantos.[17] The late 1960s and early 1970s were the era of the so-called "student movement". Pasolini, though acknowledging the students' ideological motivations, thought them "anthropologically middle-class" and therefore destined to fail in their attempts at revolutionary change. Regarding the Battle of Valle Giulia, which took place in Rome
Rome
in March 1968, he said that he sympathized with the police, as they were "children of the poor", while the young militants were exponents of what he called "left-wing fascism".[citation needed] His film of that year, Teorema, was shown at the Venice Film Festival
Venice Film Festival
in a hot political climate. Pasolini had proclaimed that the Festival would be managed by the directors.[citation needed] In 1970 Pasolini bought an old castle near Viterbo, several miles north of Rome, where he began to write his last novel, Il Petrolio, where he denounced obscure dealing in the highest levels of government and the corporate world (the ENI, CIA, the mafia, etc.).[18] The novel-documentary was left incomplete at his death. In 1972 he started to collaborate with the extreme-left association Lotta Continua, producing a documentary, 12 dicembre, concerning the Piazza Fontana bombing. The following year he began a collaboration for Italy's most renowned newspaper, Il Corriere della Sera. At the beginning of 1975 Garzanti published a collection of his critical essays, Scritti corsari ("Corsair Writings"). Murder[edit]

Pasolini Memorial monument in Lido di Ostia, where he was killed in 1975

Pasolini was murdered on 2 November 1975 on the beach at Ostia. He had been run over several times by his own car. Multiple bones were broken and his testicles were crushed by what appeared to be a metal bar. An autopsy revealed that his body had been partially burned with gasoline after death. The crime was long viewed as a Mafia-style revenge killing, extremely unlikely for one person to have carried out. Pasolini was buried in Casarsa. Giuseppe (Pino) Pelosi (1958–2017), then 17 years old, was caught driving Pasolini's car and confessed to the murder. He was convicted in 1976, initially with "unknown others," but this phrase was later removed from the verdict.[19][20] Twenty-nine years later, on 7 May 2005, Pelosi retracted his confession, which he said had been made under the threat of violence to his family. He claimed that three people "with a Southern accent" had committed the murder, insulting Pasolini as a "dirty communist."[21] Other evidence uncovered in 2005 suggested that Pasolini had been murdered by an extortionist. Testimony by Pasolini's friend Sergio Citti indicated that some of the rolls of film from Salò had been stolen, and that Pasolini planned to meet with the thieves on 2 November 1975 after a visit to Stockholm.[22][23][24][25] Citti's investigation uncovered additional evidence, including a bloody wooden stick and an eyewitness who said he saw a group of men pull Pasolini from the car.[19][20] The Rome
Rome
police reopened the case after Pelosi's retraction, but the judges responsible for the investigation found that the new elements were insufficient to justify a continued inquiry. Political views[edit]

Pasolini visiting Antonio Gramsci's tomb

1968 protests[edit] Pasolini generated heated public discussion with controversial analyses of public affairs. For instance, during the disorders of 1968, when the autonomist university students were carrying on a guerrilla-like uprising against the police in the streets of Rome
Rome
and all the leftist forces declared their complete support for the students, describing the disorders as a civil fight of proletariat against the System, Pasolini, alone among the communists, declared that he was with the police; or, more precisely, with the policemen. He considered them true proletariat, sent to fight for a poor salary and for reasons which they could not understand, against pampered boys of their same age, because they had not had the fortune of being able to study, referring to "poliziotti figli di proletari meridionali picchiati da figli di papà in vena di bravate" (lit. "policemen, sons of proletarian southerners, beaten up by arrogant daddy's boys"). He found that the policemen were but the outer layer of the real power, e.g. the judiciary and the judges.[26] Pasolini was not alien to courts and trials. During all his life, Pasolini was frequently entangled in lawsuits filed against him, up to 33, variously charged with "public disgrace", "foul language", "obscenity", "pornography", "contempt of religion", "contempt of the state", etc., for which he was always eventually acquitted. The 1968 revolt was seen by Pasolini as an internal, benign reform of the establishment in Italy, since the protesters were part of the petit bourgeoisie.[27] Notwithstanding his position, he saw it as a way of goading protesters into re-thinking their revolt, and did not stop him from contributing to the autonomist Lotta continua movement. The rising society of consumption[edit] He was particularly concerned about the class of the subproletariat, which he portrayed in Accattone, and to which he felt both humanly and artistically drawn. Pasolini observed that the kind of purity which he perceived in the pre-industrial popular culture was rapidly vanishing, a process that he named la scomparsa delle lucciole (lit. "the disappearance of glow-worms"). The joie de vivre of the boys was being rapidly replaced with more bourgeois ambitions such as a house and a family. He described the coprophagia scenes in Salò as a comment on the processed food industry. Pasolini's stance finds its roots in the belief that a Copernican change was taking place in the Italian society and the world. Linked to that very idea, Pasolini was also an ardent critic of consumismo, i.e. consumerism, which he felt had rapidly destroyed Italian society since the mid 1960s to the early 1970s. As he saw it, the society of consumerism ("neocapitalism") and the new fascism had thus expanded an alienation / homogenization and centralization that the former clerical-fascism had not managed to achieve, so bringing about an anthropological change.[28] That change is related to the loss of humanism and the expansion of productivity as central to the human condition, which he despised. He found that 'new culture' was degrading and vulgar.[29] In one interview, he said: "I hate with particular vehemency the current power, the power of 1975, which is a power that manipulates bodies in a horrible way; a manipulation that has nothing to envy to that performed by Himmler or Hitler." Strong criticism of Christian Democracy[edit] The June 1975 elections saw the rise of leftist options, and dwelling on his blunt, ever more political approach and prophetic style during this period, he declared in the Corriere della Sera the time was reached to put the most prominent Christian-Democrat figures to trial in a court, where a staging would be needed showing them walking in handcuffs and conducted by the carabinieri.[30] Pasolini also declared the Christian-Democratic party leadership was "riddled with Mafia influence".[19] Television
Television
linked to cultural alienation[edit] He was angered by economic globalization and cultural domination of the North of Italy (around Milan) over other regions, especially the South.[citation needed] He felt this was accomplished through the power of TV. He lashed out at publicity and television. A debate TV program recorded in 1971, where he denounced censorship, was not actually aired until the day following his murder in November 1975. In a reform blueprint drawn up by himself in September and October 1975 (he got closer to the Communist Party, "an island of salvation"), among the desirable measures to be implemented, he cited the abolition of compulsory secondary school, and television.[30] Others[edit] He opposed the gradual disappearance of Italy's minority languages by writing some of his poetry in Friulan, the regional language of his childhood. His opposition to the liberalization of abortion law made him unpopular on the left.[31] After 1968 he left communism,[clarification needed] claiming instead the Radical Party (Partito Radicale): left-libertarian, liberal, anti-clerical and led by his friend Marco Pannella. In 1975, leaving a letter to Congress with radical party on written :" Dear Pannella, dear friends, dear radical Spadaccia [...] you don't need to do anything else (I believe) that continue to be yourself: which means continuously be unrecognizable. Forget immediately i grandi successi: and continue straight ahead, obstinate, eternally opposed, to demand, to want, to identify yourself with the other; to shock; to blaspheme." Sexuality[edit] The glbtq encyclopedia states the following regarding Pasolini's homosexuality:

While openly gay from the very start of his career (thanks to a gay sex scandal that sent him packing from his provincial hometown to live and work in Rome), Pasolini rarely dealt with homosexuality in his movies. The subject is featured prominently in Teorema (1968), where Terence Stamp's mysterious God-like visitor seduces the son and father of an upper-middle-class family; passingly in Arabian Nights (1974), in an idyll between a king and a commoner that ends in death; and, most darkly of all, in Salò, or The 120 Days of Sodom
120 Days of Sodom
(1975), his infamous rendition of the Marquis de Sade's compendium of sexual horrors.[32] In 1963 Pasolini met "the great love of his life," fifteen-year-old Ninetto Davoli, whom he later cast in his 1966 film Uccellacci e uccellini (literally Bad Birds and Little Birds but translated in English as The Hawks and the Sparrows). Pasolini became the youth's mentor and friend. "Even though their sexual relations lasted only a few years, Ninetto continued to live with Pasolini and was his constant companion, as well as appearing in six more of his films."[33] Works[edit] Pasolini's first novel, Ragazzi di vita
Ragazzi di vita
(1955), dealt with the Roman lumpenproletariat. The book caused obscenity charges to be filed against Pasolini, the first of many instances in which his art provoked legal problems. The movie Accattone
Accattone
(1961), also about the Roman underworld, also provoked controversy, and conservatives demanded stricter censorship by the government. He wrote and directed the black-and-white The Gospel According to Matthew (1964). It is based on scripture, but adapted by Pasolini, and he is credited as writer. Jesus, a barefoot peasant, is played by Enrique Irazoqui. While filming it, Pasolini vowed to direct it from the "believer's point of view", but later said that upon viewing the completed work, he realized he had expressed his own beliefs. In his 1966 film Uccellacci e uccellini (literally Bad Birds and Little Birds but translated in English as The Hawks and the Sparrows), a picaresque—and at the same time mystic—fable, Pasolini hired the great Italian comedian Totò
Totò
to work with Ninetto Davoli, the director's lover at the time and one of his preferred "naif" actors. It was a unique opportunity for Totò
Totò
to demonstrate that he was a great dramatic actor as well.[citation needed] In Teorema (Theorem, 1968), starring Terence Stamp
Terence Stamp
as a mysterious stranger, Pasolini depicted the sexual coming-apart of a bourgeois family. (Variations of this theme were filmed by François Ozon
François Ozon
in Sitcom and Takashi Miike
Takashi Miike
in Visitor Q).[citation needed] Later movies centered on sex-laden folklore, such as Boccaccio's Decameron (1971), Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales
The Canterbury Tales
(1972), and Il fiore delle mille e una notte (literally The Flower of 1001 Nights, released in English as Arabian Nights, 1974). These films are usually grouped as the Trilogy of Life. While basing them on classics, Pasolini wrote the screenplays and took sole credit as writer. This trilogy, prompted largely by Pasolini's attempt to show the secular sacredness of the body against man-made social controls and especially against the venal hypocrisy of religious state (indeed, the religious characters in The Canterbury Tales are shown as pious but amorally grasping fools) were an effort at representing a state of natural sexual innocence essential to the true nature of free humanity. Alternately playfully bawdy and poetically sensuous, wildly populous, subtly symbolic and visually exquisite, the films were wildly popular in Italy and remain perhaps his most enduringly popular works. Yet despite the fact that the trilogy as a whole is considered by many as a masterpiece, Pasolini later reviled his own creation on account of the many soft-core imitations of these three films in Italy that happened afterwards on account of the very same popularity he wound up deeply uncomfortable with. He believed that a bastardisation of his vision had taken place that amounted to a commoditisation of the body he had tried to deny in his trilogy in the first place. The disconsolation this provided is seen as one of the primary reasons for his final film, Salo, in which humans are not only seen as commodities under authoritarian control but are viewed merely as ciphers for its whims, without the free vitality of the figures in the Trilogy of Life. His final work, Salò (Salò, or the 120 Days of Sodom, 1975), exceeded what most viewers could accept at the time in its explicit scenes of intensely sadistic violence. Based on the novel 120 Days of Sodom by Marquis de Sade, it is considered Pasolini's most controversial film. In May 2006, Time Out's Film Guide named it the "Most Controversial Film" of all time. Salò was intended as the first film of his Trilogy of Death, followed by an aborted biopic film about Gilles de Rais. Legacy[edit] As a director, Pasolini created a picaresque neorealism, showing a sad reality. Many people did not want to see such portrayals in artistic work for public distribution. Mamma Roma
Mamma Roma
(1962), featuring Anna Magnani and telling the story of a prostitute and her son, was an affront to the public ideals of morality of those times. His works, with their unequaled poetry applied to cruel realities, showing that such realities were less distant from most daily lives, and contributed to changes in the Italian psyche.[34] Pasolini's work often engendered disapproval perhaps primarily because of his frequent focus on sexual behavior, and the contrast between what he presented and what was publicly sanctioned. While Pasolini's poetry often dealt with his gay love interests, this was not the only, or even main, theme. His interest in and use of Italian dialects should also be noted. Much of the poetry was about his highly revered mother. He depicted certain corners of the contemporary reality as few other poets could do. His poetry, which took some time before it was translated, was not as well known outside Italy as were his films. A collection in English was published in 1996.[35] Pasolini also developed a philosophy of language mainly related to his studies on cinema.[36] This theoretical and critical activity was another hotly debated topic. His collected articles and responses are still available today.[34][37][38] These studies can be considered as the foundation of his artistic point of view: he believed that the language—such as English, Italian, dialect or other—is a rigid system in which human thought is trapped. He also thought that the cinema is the "written" language of reality which, like any other written language, enables man to see things from the point of view of truth.[36] His films won awards at the Berlin International Film Festival, Cannes Film Festival, Venice Film Festival, Italian National Syndicate for Film Journalists, Jussi Awards, Kinema Junpo Awards, International Catholic Film Office and New York Film Critics Circle. The Gospel According to St. Matthew was nominated for the United Nations Award of the British Academy of Film and Television
Television
Arts (BAFTA) in 1968.

Ebbo Demant directed the documentary Das Mitleid ist gestorben (1978) about Pasolini. Stefano Battaglia made Re: Pasolini (2005) in dedication to Pasolini.

In 2014 Abel Ferrara
Abel Ferrara
directed a biopic about Pasolini, with Willem Dafoe in the lead role. It was selected to compete for the Golden Lion at the 71st Venice International Film Festival.[39][40] In 2015 Malga Kubiak directed a drama movie based on the story of Pier Paolo Pasolini's life and death titled PPPasolini. The movie was screened at the 7th edition of the LGBT
LGBT
Film Festival In Warsaw, Poland and received a People's Choice Award at the festival.[41] Films[edit] Feature films[edit] All titles listed below were written and directed by Pier Paolo Pasolini unless stated otherwise. Oedipus Rex and Medea are loosely based on plays by Sophocles
Sophocles
and Euripides
Euripides
respectively.

Year Original title English title Notes

1961 Accattone Accattone Screenplay by Pier Paolo Pasolini
Pier Paolo Pasolini
based on his novel Una vita violenta. Additional dialogue by Sergio Citti.

1962 Mamma Roma Mamma Roma Screenplay by Pier Paolo Pasolini
Pier Paolo Pasolini
with additional dialogue by Sergio Citti.

1964 Il vangelo secondo Matteo The Gospel According to St. Matthew Silver Lion-Venice Film Festival United Nations Award-British Academy of Film & Television
Television
Arts

1966 Uccellacci e uccellini The Hawks and the Sparrows

1967 Edipo re Oedipus Rex

1968 Teorema Theorem[42] Pasolini's novel Teorema was also published in 1968.

1969 Porcile Pigsty

1969 Medea Medea

1971 Il Decameron The Decameron Based on The Decameron
The Decameron
by Giovanni Boccaccio. Won the Silver Bear
Silver Bear
at the 21st Berlin International Film Festival.[43]

1972 I racconti di Canterbury The Canterbury Tales Based on The Canterbury Tales
The Canterbury Tales
by Geoffrey Chaucer. Won the Golden Bear at the 22nd Berlin International Film Festival.[44]

1974 Il fiore delle Mille e una Notte A Thousand and One Nights (Arabian Nights) Screenplay written in collaboration with Dacia Maraini. Won the Grand Prix Spécial Prize.[45]

1975 Salò o le 120 giornate di Sodoma Salo, or the 120 Days of Sodom Based on Les 120 journées de Sodome ou l'école du libertinage by the Marquis de Sade. Screenplay written in collaboration with Sergio Citti with extended quotes from Roland Barthes' Sade, Fourier, Loyola and Pierre Klossowski's Sade mon prochain.

Documentaries[edit]

Sopralluoghi in Palestina per Il Vangelo secondo Matteo (1964) Comizi d'amore (Love Meetings, 1964) Appunti per un film sull'India (1969) Appunti per un romanzo dell'immondizia (1970) Appunti per un'Orestiade Africana (Notes Towards an African Orestes, 1970) Le mura di Sana'a (1971) 12 Dicembre 1972 (1972) Pasolini e la forma della città (1975)

Episodes in omnibus films[edit]

La ricotta
La ricotta
in RoGoPaG
RoGoPaG
(1963) First segment of La rabbia
La rabbia
(1963) La Terra vista dalla Luna in Le streghe
Le streghe
(The Witches, 1967) Che cosa sono le nuvole? Capriccio all'Italiana
Capriccio all'Italiana
(1968) La sequenza del fiore di carta in Amore e rabbia
Amore e rabbia
(1969)

Written works[edit] Narrative[edit]

Ragazzi di vita
Ragazzi di vita
(The Ragazzi, 1955) Una vita violenta (A Violent Life, 1959) Il sogno di una cosa (1962) Amado Mio—Atti Impuri (1982, originally written in 1948) Alì dagli occhi azzurri (1965) Teorema (1968) Reality (The Poets' Encyclopedia, 1979) Petrolio (1992, incomplete)

Poetry[edit]

La meglio gioventù (1954) Le ceneri di Gramsci (1957) L'usignolo della chiesa cattolica (1958) La religione del mio tempo (1961) Poesia in forma di rosa (1964) Trasumanar e organizzar (1971) La nuova gioventù (1975) Roman Poems. Pocket Poets No. 41 (1986) The Selected Poetry
Poetry
of Pier Paolo Pasolini: A Bilingual Edition. (2014)

Essays[edit]

Passione e ideologia (1960) Canzoniere italiano, poesia popolare italiana (1960) Empirismo eretico (1972) Lettere luterane (1976) Le belle bandiere (1977) Descrizioni di descrizioni (1979) Il caos (1979) La pornografia è noiosa (1979) Scritti corsari (1975) Lettere (1940–1954) (Letters, 1940–54, 1986)

Theatre[edit]

Orgia (1968) Porcile (1968) Calderón (1973) Affabulazione (1977) Pilade (1977) Bestia da stile (1977)

Notes[edit]

^ Siciliano, Enzo (2014). Pasolini; Una vida tormentosa. Torres de Papel. p. 37. ISBN 978-84-943726-4-3.  ^ Ste vedeli, da je Pier Paolo Pasolini
Pier Paolo Pasolini
v otroštvu nekaj časa živel v Idriji?: Prvi interaktivni multimedijski portal, MMC RTV Slovenija. Rtvslo.si (20 October 2012); retrieved 22 May 2014. ^ Stack, O. (1969). Pasolini on Pasolini, pp. 15–17, London: Thames and Hudson. ^ Martellini, Luigi (2006). Pier Paolo Pasolini; Retrato de un intelectual. Valencia: Universidad de Valencia. p. 28. ISBN 978-84-370-7928-8.  ^ Martelini, L. 2006, p. 29 ^ Martelini, L. 2006, p. 33 ^ a b Siciliano, Enzo. 2014, 111–112 ^ a b c d Siciliano, Enzo. 2014, 148 ^ a b c Martelini, L. 2006, p. 48 ^ a b Siciliano, Enzo. 2014, 149 ^ Siciliano, Enzo. 2014, 151 ^ Martelini, L. 2006, p. 62 ^ Martelini, L. 2006, pp. 79–81 ^ "Film Review: Accattone".  ^ Barbaro, Nick (January 19, 2001). "Che Bella: Italian Neorealism and the Movies – and the AFS Series – It Inspired". The Austin Chronicle. Archived from the original on 7 December 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-13.  ^ "Berlinale 1966: Juries". berlinale.de. Retrieved 22 February 2010.  ^ a b Video on YouTube. Retrieved on 2014-05-22. ^ Martelini, L. 2006, p. 192 ^ a b c Vulliamy, Ed (24 August 2014). "Who really killed Pier Paolo Pasolini?". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 May 2017.  ^ a b Gumbell, Andrew (23 September 1995). "Who killed Pasolini?". The Independent. Retrieved 25 May 2015.  ^ Cataldi, Benedetto (5 May 2005). "Pasolini death inquiry reopened". BBC.  ^ "Asesinato de Pasolini, nueva investigación". La Razón (in Spanish). La Razón. Retrieved 4 July 2012.  ^ Héctor Rivera (28 March 2010). "Pasolini de nuevo". Sentido contrario (in Italian). Grupo Milenio. Retrieved 4 July 2012. [permanent dead link] ^ " Pier Paolo Pasolini
Pier Paolo Pasolini
(1922–1975)". Cinematismo (in Italian). Cinematismo. Retrieved 4 July 2012.  ^ Google Drive Viewer. Docs.google.com, 2 April 2010; retrieved 22 May 2014. ^ Martelini, L. 2006, p. 141 ^ Martelini, L. 2006, pp. 141–142 ^ Martelini, L. 2006, pp. 184–185 ^ Siciliano, Enzo. 2014, p. 389 ^ a b Siciliano, Enzo. 2014, pp. 388–389 ^ Liukkonen, Petri. "Pier Paolo Pasolini". Books and Writers (kirjasto.sci.fi). Finland: Kuusankoski
Kuusankoski
Public Library. Archived from the original on 7 March 2006.  ^ Ehrenstein, David (2005). "Pasolini, Pier Paolo" Archived 15 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine., glbtq: An Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Culture ^ Ireland, Doug (4 August 2005). "Restoring Pasolini". LA Weekly. LA Weekly, LP. Retrieved 29 August 2010.  ^ a b Pier Paolo Pasolini
Pier Paolo Pasolini
(1995). Il Caos (collected articles) (in Italian). Rome: Editori Riuniti.  ^ Pier Paolo Pasolini
Pier Paolo Pasolini
(1996). Collected Poems. Noonday Press. ISBN 9780374524692.  ^ a b Pasolini, Pier Paolo (1988–2005). Heretical empiricism. New Academia Publishing. ISBN 9780976704225.  ^ A. Covi (1971). Dibattiti sui film (in Italian). Padova: Gregoriana.  ^ A. Asor Rosa (1988). Scrittori e Popolo – il populismo nella letteratura italiana contemporanea (in Italian). Torino: Gregoriana.  ^ "International competition of feature films". Venice. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 24 July 2014.  ^ " Venice Film Festival
Venice Film Festival
Lineup Announced". Deadline. Retrieved 24 July 2014.  ^ "7th edition of LGBT
LGBT
Film Festival In Warsaw". Warszawa. Archived from the original on 14 April 2016. Retrieved 5 April 2016.  ^ The translated English title is used infrequently. ^ "Berlinale 1972: Prize Winners". berlinale.de. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  ^ "Berlinale 1972: Prize Winners". berlinale.de. Retrieved 16 March 2010.  ^ "Festival de Cannes: Arabian Nights". festival-cannes.com. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 

References[edit]

Aichele, George. "Translation as De-canonization: Matthew's Gospel According to Pasolini – filmmaker Pier Paolo Pasolini
Pier Paolo Pasolini
– Critical Essay." Cross Currents (2002). Distefano, John. "Picturing Pasolini", Art Journal (1997). Eloit, Audrene. "Oedipus Rex by Pier Paolo Pasolini
Pier Paolo Pasolini
The Palimpsest: Rewriting and the Creation of Pasolini's Cinematic Language." Literature Film Quarterly (2004). Fabbro, Elena (ed.). Il mito greco nell'opera di Pasolini. Atti del Convegno Udine-Casarsa della Delizia, 24–26 ottobre 2002. Udine: Forum (2004); ISBN 88-8420-230-2 Forni, Kathleen. "A "Cinema of Poetry": What Pasolini Did to Chancer's Canterbury Tales." Literature Film Quarterly (2002). Frisch, Anette. "Francesco Vezzolini: Pasolini Reloaded." Interview, Rutgers University Alexander Library, New Brunswick, NJ. Green, Martin. "The Dialectic Adaptation." Greene, Naomi. Pier Paolo Pasilini: Cinema as Heresy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1990. Meyer-Krahmer, Benjamin. "Transmediality and Pastiche as Techniques in Pasolini’s Art Production", in: P.P.P. – Pier Paolo Pasolini
Pier Paolo Pasolini
and death, eds. Bernhart Schwenk, Michael Semff, Ostfildern 2005, pp. 109–118 Passannanti, Erminia, Il corpo & il potere. Salò o le 120 giornate di Sodoma di Pier Paolo Pasolini, Prima edizione, Troubador, Leicester, 2004; Seconda Edizione, Joker, Savona 2008. Passannanti, Erminia,Il Cristo del'Eresia. Pier Paolo Pasolini. Cinema e Censura, Joker, Savona 2009. Passannanti, Erminia, La ricotta. Il Sacro trasgredito. Il cinema di Pier Paolo Pasolini
Pier Paolo Pasolini
e la censura religiosa, 2009 also published in "Italy on Screen" (Peter Lang Ed., 2011). The book contains excerpts from the 1962 court trial. Pugh, Tison. "Chaucerian Fabliaux, Cinematic Fabliau: Pier Paolo Pasolini's I racconti di Canterbury", Literature Film Quarterly (2004). Restivo, Angelo. The Cinema of Economic Miracles: Visuality and Modernization in the Italian Art Film. London: Duke UP, 2002. Rohdie, Sam. The Passion of Pier Paolo Pasolini. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana UP, 1995. Rumble, Patrick A. Allegories of contamination: Pier Paolo Pasolini's Trilogy of life. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996. Schwartz, Barth D. Pasolini Requiem. 1st ed. New York: Pantheon Books, 1992. Siciliano, Enzo. Pasolini: A Biography. Trans. John Shepley. New York: Random House, 1982. Viano, Maurizio. A Certain Realism: Making Use of Pasolini's Film Theory and Practice. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. Willimon, William H. "Faithful to the script", Christian Century (2004).

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pier Paolo Pasolini.

Pier Paolo Pasolini
Pier Paolo Pasolini
on IMDb Interview with Jonas Mekas in Bomb Magazine Pasolini on Filmgalerie451 Piers Paolo Pasolini, Italian Website with Extensive Commentary "Pier Paolo Pasolini", Senses of Cinema BBC News Report on the Reopening of the Murder Case Guy Flatley: "The Atheist Who Was Obsessed with God", MovieCrazed Doug Ireland, "Restoring Pasolini", ZMag Pasolini's Own Notes on Salò from 1974 Pier Paolo Pasolini
Pier Paolo Pasolini
Poems – Original Italian Text. Video (in Italian): Pasolini on the Destructive Impact of Television on YouTube
YouTube
(Interrupted and Half-Censored by Enzo Biagi) Italian Website dedicated to Pasolini Pasolini's Second to Last Interview, Long Believed to Have Been Lost "Pasolini’s Legacy: A Sprawl of Brutality", Dennis Lim, The New York Times, 26 December 2012

v t e

Pier Paolo Pasolini

Films directed

Fiction feature

Accattone Mamma Roma The Gospel According to St. Matthew The Hawks and the Sparrows Oedipus Rex Teorema Pigsty Medea The Decameron The Canterbury Tales Arabian Nights Salò, or the 120 Days of Sodom

Documentary

La rabbia Love Meetings Location Hunting in Palestine Appunti per un film sull'India Notes Towards an African Orestes

Short or segment

"La ricotta" in Ro.Go.Pa.G. "La Terra vista dalla Luna" in The Witches "Che cosa sono le nuvole?" in Caprice Italian Style "La sequenza del fiore di carta" in Love and Anger

Literary works

Ragazzi di vita Affabulazione Petrolio (it)

Works about

Who Killed Pasolini? Sacred Poet Pasolini Bibliography

v t e

Nastro d'Argento Award for Best Director

Alessandro Blasetti / Vittorio De Sica
Vittorio De Sica
(1946) Roberto Rossellini
Roberto Rossellini
(1947) Alberto Lattuada
Alberto Lattuada
/ Giuseppe De Santis (1948) Vittorio De Sica
Vittorio De Sica
(1949) Augusto Genina
Augusto Genina
(1950) Alessandro Blasetti (1951) Renato Castellani
Renato Castellani
(1952) Luigi Zampa
Luigi Zampa
(1953) Federico Fellini
Federico Fellini
(1954) Federico Fellini
Federico Fellini
(1955) Michelangelo Antonioni
Michelangelo Antonioni
(1956) Pietro Germi (1957) Federico Fellini
Federico Fellini
(1958) Pietro Germi (1959) Roberto Rossellini
Roberto Rossellini
(1960) Luchino Visconti
Luchino Visconti
(1961) Michelangelo Antonioni
Michelangelo Antonioni
(1962) Nanni Loy
Nanni Loy
/ Francesco Rosi
Francesco Rosi
(1963) Federico Fellini
Federico Fellini
(1964) Pier Paolo Pasolini
Pier Paolo Pasolini
(1965) Antonio Pietrangeli
Antonio Pietrangeli
(1966) Gillo Pontecorvo
Gillo Pontecorvo
(1967) Elio Petri (1968) Franco Zeffirelli
Franco Zeffirelli
(1969) Luchino Visconti
Luchino Visconti
(1970) Elio Petri (1971) Luchino Visconti
Luchino Visconti
(1972) Bernardo Bertolucci
Bernardo Bertolucci
(1973) Federico Fellini
Federico Fellini
(1974) Luchino Visconti
Luchino Visconti
(1975) Michelangelo Antonioni
Michelangelo Antonioni
(1976) Valerio Zurlini (1977) Paolo and Vittorio Taviani
Paolo and Vittorio Taviani
(1978) Ermanno Olmi
Ermanno Olmi
(1979) Federico Fellini
Federico Fellini
(1980) Francesco Rosi
Francesco Rosi
(1981) Marco Ferreri
Marco Ferreri
(1982) Paolo and Vittorio Taviani
Paolo and Vittorio Taviani
(1983) Pupi Avati
Pupi Avati
/ Federico Fellini
Federico Fellini
(1984) Sergio Leone
Sergio Leone
(1985) Mario Monicelli
Mario Monicelli
(1986) Ettore Scola
Ettore Scola
(1987) Bernardo Bertolucci
Bernardo Bertolucci
(1988) Ermanno Olmi
Ermanno Olmi
(1989) Pupi Avati
Pupi Avati
(1990) Gianni Amelio
Gianni Amelio
(1991) Gabriele Salvatores
Gabriele Salvatores
(1992) Gianni Amelio
Gianni Amelio
(1993) Nanni Moretti
Nanni Moretti
(1994) Gianni Amelio
Gianni Amelio
(1995) Giuseppe Tornatore
Giuseppe Tornatore
(1996) Maurizio Nichetti (1997) Roberto Benigni
Roberto Benigni
(1998) Giuseppe Tornatore
Giuseppe Tornatore
(1999) Silvio Soldini (2000) Nanni Moretti
Nanni Moretti
(2001) Marco Bellocchio
Marco Bellocchio
(2002) Gabriele Salvatores
Gabriele Salvatores
(2003) Marco Tullio Giordana (2004) Gianni Amelio
Gianni Amelio
(2005) Michele Placido
Michele Placido
(2006) Giuseppe Tornatore
Giuseppe Tornatore
(2007) Paolo Virzì
Paolo Virzì
(2008) Paolo Sorrentino
Paolo Sorrentino
(2009) Paolo Virzì
Paolo Virzì
(2010) Nanni Moretti
Nanni Moretti
(2011) Paolo Sorrentino
Paolo Sorrentino
(2012) Giuseppe Tornatore
Giuseppe Tornatore
(2013) Paolo Virzì
Paolo Virzì
(2014) Paolo Sorrentino
Paolo Sorrentino
(2015) Paolo Virzì
Paolo Virzì
(2016)

v t e

Recipients of the Viareggio Prize

1930s

Anselmo Bucci
Anselmo Bucci
– Lorenzo Viani (1930) Corrado Tumiati (1931) Antonino Foschini (1932) Achille Campanile
Achille Campanile
(1933) Raffaele Calzini (1934) Mario Massa – Stefano Pirandello (1935) Riccardo Bacchelli
Riccardo Bacchelli
(1936) Guelfo Civinini (1937) Vittorio Giovanni Rossi
Vittorio Giovanni Rossi
– Enrico Pea (1938) Arnaldo Frateili – Orio Vergani – Maria Bellonci
Maria Bellonci
(1939)

1940s

Silvio Micheli – Umberto Saba
Umberto Saba
(1946) • Antonio Gramsci
Antonio Gramsci
(1947) • Aldo Palazzeschi
Aldo Palazzeschi
Elsa Morante
Elsa Morante
Sibilla Aleramo
Sibilla Aleramo
(1948) • Arturo Carlo Jemolo – Renata Viganò (1949)

1950s

Francesco Jovine Carlo Bernari (1950) • Domenico Rea (1951) • Tommaso Fiore (1952) • Carlo Emilio Gadda
Carlo Emilio Gadda
(1953) • Rocco Scotellaro (1954) • Vasco Pratolini
Vasco Pratolini
(1955) • Carlo Levi
Carlo Levi
– Gianna Manzini (1956) • Italo Calvino
Italo Calvino
Pier Paolo Pasolini
Pier Paolo Pasolini
(1957) • Ernesto de Martino
Ernesto de Martino
(1958) • Marino Moretti
Marino Moretti
(1959)

1960s

Giovanni Battista Angioletti (1960) • Alberto Moravia
Alberto Moravia
(1961) • Giorgio Bassani (1962) • Antonio Delfini – Sergio Solmi (1963) • Giuseppe Berto (1964) • Goffredo Parise
Goffredo Parise
(1965) • Ottiero Ottieri – Alfonso Gatto (1966) • Raffaello Brignetti (1967) • Libero Bigiaretti (1968) • Fulvio Tomizza
Fulvio Tomizza
(1969)

1970s

Nello Saito (1970) • Ugo Attardi (1971) • Romano Bilenchi (1972) • Achille Campanile
Achille Campanile
(1973) • Clotilde Marghieri (1974) • Paolo Volponi (1975) • Mario Tobino
Mario Tobino
Dario Bellezza
Dario Bellezza
– Sergio Solmi (1976) • Davide Lajolo (1977) • Antonio Altomonte – Mario Luzi (1978) • Giorgio Manganelli (1979)

1980s

Stefano Terra (1980) • Enzo Siciliano (1981) • Primo Levi
Primo Levi
(1982) • Giuliana Morandini (1983) • Gina Lagorio – Bruno Gentili (1984) • Manlio Cancogni (1985) • Marisa Volpi (1986) • Mario Spinella (1987) • Rosetta Loy (1988) • Salvatore Mannuzzu (1989)

1990s

Luisa Adorno – Cesare Viviani – Maurizio Calvesi (1990) • Antonio Debenedetti (1991) • Luigi Malerba (1992) • Alessandro Baricco (1993) • Antonio Tabucchi
Antonio Tabucchi
(1994) • Maurizio Maggiani – Elio Pagliarani (1995) • Ermanno Rea Alda Merini
Alda Merini
(1996) • Claudio Piersanti – Franca Grisoni – Corrado Stajano (1997) • Giorgio Pressburger
Giorgio Pressburger
– Michele Sovente – Carlo Ginzburg
Carlo Ginzburg
(1998) • Ernesto Franco (1999)

2000s

Giorgio van Straten Sandro Veronesi
Sandro Veronesi
(2000) • Niccolò Ammaniti – Michele Ranchetti – Giorgio Pestelli (2001) • Fleur Jaeggy Jolanda Insana – Alfonso Berardinelli (2002) • Giuseppe Montesano (2003) • Edoardo Albinati – Andrea Tagliapietra – Livia Livi (2004) • Raffaele La Capria
Raffaele La Capria
Alberto Arbasino
Alberto Arbasino
– Milo de Angelis (2005) • Gianni Celati – Giovanni Agosti – Giuseppe Conte – Roberto Saviano
Roberto Saviano
(2006) • Filippo Tuena – Paolo Mauri – Silvia Bre – Simona Baldanzi – Paolo Colagrande – Paolo Fallai (2007) • Francesca Sanvitale
Francesca Sanvitale
– Miguel Gotor – Eugenio De Signoribus (2008) • Edith Bruck – Adriano Prosperi – Ennio Cavalli (2009)

2010s

Nicola Lagioia – Michele Emmer – Pierluigi Cappello (2010) • Alessandro Mari – Mario Lavagetto – Gian Mario Villalta (2011) • Nicola Gardini – Franco Lo Piparo – Antonella Anedda (2012) • Paolo Di Stefano – Giulio Guidorizzi – Enrico Testa (2013) • Francesco Pecoraro – Alessandro Fo – Luciano Mecacci (2014) • Antonio Scurati – Massimo Bucciantini – Franco Buffoni (2015) • Franco Cordelli – Bruno Pischedda – Sonia Gentili (2016) • Gianfranco Calligarich – Giuseppe Montesano – Stefano Carrai (2017)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 54152375 LCCN: n79046419 ISNI: 0000 0001 2133 4091 GND: 118591908 SELIBR: 205709 SUDOC: 027059456 BNF: cb119187049 (data) BIBSYS: 90054814 ULAN: 500106210 MusicBrainz: 878668a4-7483-4604-b3c7-d0b172b3d026 NDL: 00452221 NKC: jn20000604361 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV01068 BNE: XX1122947 RKD: 240898 SN

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