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Philosophy of law is a branch of
philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the systematized study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence, reason, knowledge, values, mind, and language. Such questions are often posed as problems to be studied or resolved. Some ...
that examines the nature of
law Law is a set of rules that are created and are law enforcement, enforceable by social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior,Robertson, ''Crimes against humanity'', 90. with its precise definition a matter of longstanding debate. ...
and law's relationship to other systems of norms, especially
ethics Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of morality, right and wrong action (philosophy), behavior".''Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy'' The field of ethics, alo ...
and
political philosophy Political philosophy or political theory is the philosophical study of government, addressing questions about the nature, scope, and legitimacy of public agents and institutions and the relationships between them. Its topics include politics ...
. It asks questions like "What is law?", "What are the criteria for legal validity?", and "What is the relationship between law and
morality Morality () is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper (right) and those that are improper (wrong). Morality can be a body of standards or principles derived from a code of co ...
?" Philosophy of law and
jurisprudence Jurisprudence, or legal theory, is the theoretical study of the propriety of law. Scholars of jurisprudence seek to explain the nature of law in its most general form and they also seek to achieve a deeper understanding of legal reasoning ...
are often used interchangeably, though jurisprudence sometimes encompasses forms of reasoning that fit into
economics Economics () is the social science that studies the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on the behaviour and intera ...
or
sociology Sociology is a social science that focuses on society, human social behavior, patterns of Interpersonal ties, social relationships, social interaction, and aspects of culture associated with everyday life. It uses various methods of Empirical ...
. Philosophy of law can be sub-divided into analytical jurisprudence, and normative jurisprudence. Analytical jurisprudence aims to define what law is and what it is not by identifying law's essential features. Normative jurisprudence investigates both the non-legal norms that shape law and the legal norms that are generated by law and guide human action.


Analytical jurisprudence

Unlike
experimental jurisprudence Experimental jurisprudence (X-Jur) is an emerging field of legal scholarship that explores the nature of legal phenomena through psychological investigations of legal concepts. The field departs from traditional analytic Philosophy of law, legal p ...
, which investigates the content our folk legal concepts using the methods of
social science Social science is one of the branches of science, devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among individuals within those societies. The term was formerly used to refer to the field of sociology, the o ...
, analytical jurisprudence seeks to provide a general account of the nature of law through the tools of conceptual analysis. The account is general in the sense of targeting universal features of law that hold at all times and places. Whereas lawyers are interested in what the law is on a specific issue in a specific jurisdiction, philosophers of law are interested in identifying the features of law shared across cultures, times, and places. Taken together, these foundational features of law offer the kind of universal definition philosophers are after. The general approach allows philosophers to ask questions about, for example, what separates law from morality, politics, or practical reason. Often, scholars in the field presume that law has a unique set of features that separate it from other phenomena, though not all share the presumption. While the field has traditionally focused on giving an account of law's nature, some scholars have begun to examine the nature of domains within law, e.g. tort law, contract law, or criminal law. These scholars focus on what makes certain domains of law distinctive and how one domain differs from another. A particularly fecund area of research has been the distinction between tort law and criminal law, which more generally bears on the difference between civil and criminal law. Several schools of thought have developed around the nature of law, the most influential of which are: * Natural moral law theory, which asserts that law is inherent in nature and constitutive of morality, at least in part. On this view, while legislators can enact and even successfully enforce immoral laws, such laws are legally invalid. The view is captured by the maxim: an unjust law is not a true law, where 'unjust' means 'contrary to the natural law.' Natural law theory has medieval origins in the philosophy of
Thomas Aquinas Thomas Aquinas, Dominican Order, OP (; it, Tommaso d'Aquino, lit=Thomas of Aquino, Italy, Aquino; 1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican Order, Dominican friar and Catholic priest, priest who was an influential List of Catholic philo ...
, especially in his '' Treatise on law''. In late 20th century,
John Finnis John Mitchell Finnis, , (born 28 July 1940) is an Australian legal philosopher, jurist and scholar specializing in jurisprudence and the philosophy of law. He is the Biolchini Family Professor of Law, emeritus, at Notre Dame Law School and a P ...
revived interest in the theory and provided a modern reworking of it. *
Legal positivism Legal positivism (as understood in the Anglosphere) is a school of thought of analytical jurisprudence developed largely by legal philosophers during the 18th and 19th centuries, such as Jeremy Bentham and John Austin (legal philosopher), John Aus ...
, which is the view that law depends primarily on social facts. Legal positivism has traditionally been associated with three doctrines: the pedigree thesis, the separability thesis, and the discretion thesis. The pedigree thesis says that the right way to determine whether a directive is law is to look at the directive's source. The thesis claims that it is the fact that the directive was issued by the proper official within a legitimate government, for example, that determines the directive's legal validity—not the directive's moral or practical merits. The separability thesis states that law is conceptually distinct from morality. While law might contain morality, the separability thesis states that "it is in no sense a necessary truth that laws reproduce or satisfy certain demands of morality, though in fact they have often done so." Legal positivists disagree about the extent of the separability thesis. Exclusive legal positivists, notably
Joseph Raz Joseph Raz (; he, יוסף רז; born Zaltsman; 21 March 19392 May 2022) was an Israeli Legal philosophy, legal, Moral philosophy, moral and political philosopher. He was an advocate of legal positivism and is known for his conception of perf ...
, go further than the standard thesis and deny that it is possible for morality to be a part of law at all. The discretion thesis states that judges create new law when they are given discretion to adjudicate cases where existing law underdetermines the result. The earliest proponent of legal positivism was
John Austin John Austin may refer to: Arts and entertainment *John P. Austin (1906–1997), American set decorator *Johnny Austin (1910–1983), American musician *John Austin (author) (fl. 1940s), British novelist Military *John Austin (soldier) (1801– ...
who was influenced by the writings of Jeremy Bentham in the early 19th century. Austin held that the law is the command of the sovereign backed by the threat of punishment. Contemporary legal positivism has long abandoned this view. In the twentieth century, two positivists had a profound influence on the field:
Hans Kelsen Hans Kelsen (; ; October 11, 1881 – April 19, 1973) was an Austrian jurist, legal philosopher and political philosopher. He was the author of the 1920 Austrian Constitution, which to a very large degree is still valid today. Due to the rise o ...

Hans Kelsen
and H. L. A. Hart. Kelsen is most influential for his notion of ' grundnorm,' an ultimate and basic legal norm, which some scholars, especially in Europe, accept today. In the Anglophone world, Hart has been the most influential scholar. Hart rejected the earlier claim that sanctions are essential to law and instead argued that law is rule-based. According to Hart, law is a system of primary rules that guide the conduct of law's subjects, and secondary rules that regulate how the primary rules may be changed, identified, and adjudicated. Hart's theory, although widely admired, sparked vigorous debate among late twentieth century philosophers of law including Ronald Dworkin, John Rawls, Joseph Raz, and John Finnis. * Legal realism, which asserts that law is the product of decisions made by courts, law enforcement, and attorneys, which are often decided on contradictory or arbitrary grounds. According to legal realism, law is not a rational system of rules and norms. Legal realism is critical of the idea that law has a nature that can be analyzed in the abstract. Instead, legal realists advocate an empirical approach to jurisprudence founded in social sciences and the actual practice of law in the world. For this reason, legal realism has often been associated with the
sociology of law The sociology of law (legal sociology, or law and society) is often described as a sub-discipline of sociology or an interdisciplinary approach within jurisprudence, legal studies. Some see sociology of law as belonging "necessarily" to the field ...
. In the United States, legal realism gained prominence in the late 19th century with Oliver Wendell Holmes and John Chipman Grey. Legal realism became influential in Scandinavia in the 20th century with Axel Hägerström. * Legal interpretivism, which denies that law is source-based because law necessarily depends on human interpretation that is guided by the moral norms of communities. Given that judges have discretion to adjudicate cases in more than one way, legal interpretivism says that judges characteristically adjudicate in the way that best preserves the moral norms, institutional facts, and social practices of the societies in which they are a part. It is consistent with legal interpretivism that one cannot know whether a society has a legal system in force, or what any of its laws are, until one knows some moral truths about the justifications for the practices in that society. In contrast with legal positivism or legal realism, it is possible for the legal interpretivist to claim that ''no one'' in a society knows what its laws are (because no one may know the best justification of its practices.) Legal interpretivism originated with Ronald Dworkin in the late 20th century in his book '' Law's Empire.'' In recent years, debates about the nature of law have become increasingly fine-grained. One important debate exists within legal positivism about the separability of law and morality. Exclusive legal positivists claim that the legal validity of a norm never depends on its moral correctness. Inclusive legal positivists claim that moral considerations ''may'' determine the legal validity of a norm, but that it is not necessary that this is the case. Positivism began as an inclusivist theory; but influential exclusive legal positivists, including Joseph Raz, John Gardner, and Leslie Green, later rejected the idea. A second important debate, often called the " Hart–Dworkin debate", concerns the battle between the two most dominant schools in the late 20th and early 21st century, legal interpretivism and legal positivism.


Normative jurisprudence

In addition to analytic jurisprudence, legal philosophy is also concerned with normative theories of law. "Normative jurisprudence involves normative, evaluative, and otherwise prescriptive questions about the law." For example, What is the goal or purpose of law? What moral or political theories provide a foundation for the law? Three approaches have been influential in contemporary moral and political philosophy, and these approaches are reflected in normative theories of law: *
Utilitarianism In ethical philosophy, utilitarianism is a family of Normative ethics, normative ethical theories that prescribe actions that maximize happiness and well-being for all affected individuals. Although different varieties of utilitarianism admit ...
is the view that laws should be crafted so as to produce the best consequences. Historically, utilitarian thought regarding law is associated with the philosopher
Jeremy Bentham Jeremy Bentham (; 15 February 1748 ld Style and New Style dates, O.S. 4 February 1747– 6 June 1832) was an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism. Bentham defined as the "fundam ...

Jeremy Bentham
. In contemporary legal theory, the utilitarian approach is frequently championed by scholars who work in the
law and economics Law and economics, or economic analysis of law, is the application of microeconomic theory to the analysis of law, which emerged primarily from scholars of the Chicago school of economics. Economics, Economic concepts are used to explain the effec ...
tradition. *
Deontology In moral philosophy Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of morality, right and wrong action (philosophy), behavior".''Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy'' ...
is the view that laws should reflect our obligation to preserve the autonomy and rights of others. Historically, deontological thought regarding law is associated with
Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant (, , ; 22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German Philosophy, philosopher and one of the central Age of Enlightenment, Enlightenment thinkers. Born in Königsberg, Kant's comprehensive and systematic works in epistemolo ...

Immanuel Kant
, who formulated one particularly prominent deontological theory of law. Another deontological approach can be found in the work of contemporary legal philosopher Ronald Dworkin. * Aretaic moral theories such as contemporary
virtue ethics Virtue ethics (also aretaic ethics, from Ancient Greek, Greek wikt:ἀρετή, ἀρετή 'arete (moral virtue), aretḗ'' is an approach to ethics that treats the concept of virtue, moral virtue as central. Virtue ethics is usually contr ...
emphasize the role of character in morality. Virtue jurisprudence is the view that the laws should promote the development of virtuous characters by citizens. Historically, this approach is associated with
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher and polymath during the Classical Greece, Classical period in Ancient Greece. Taught by Plato, he was the founder of the Peripatet ...

Aristotle
. Contemporary virtue jurisprudence is inspired by philosophical work on virtue ethics. There are many other normative approaches to the philosophy of law, including
critical legal studies Critical legal studies (CLS) is a school of critical theory that developed in the United States during the 1970s.Alan Hunt, "The Theory of Critical Legal Studies," Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, Vol. 6, No. 1 (1986): 1-45, esp. 1, 5. Se DOI, 10.1 ...
and libertarian theories of law.


Philosophical approaches to legal problems

Philosophers of law are also concerned with a variety of philosophical problems that arise in particular legal subjects, such as
constitutional law Constitutional law is a body of law which defines the role, powers, and structure of different entities within a State (polity), state, namely, the executive (government), executive, the parliament or legislature, and the judiciary; as well as th ...
,
Contract A contract is a legally enforceable agreement between two or more Party (law), parties that creates, defines, and governs mutual rights and obligations between them. A contract typically involves the transfer of goods, Service (economics), ser ...

Contract
law,
Criminal law Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime. It prescribes conduct perceived as threatening, harmful, or otherwise endangering to the property, health, safety, and welfare, moral welfare of people inclusive of one's self. Most crimin ...
, and
Tort A tort is a civil wrong that causes a claimant to suffer loss or harm, resulting in legal liability for the person who commits the tortious act. Tort law can be contrasted with criminal law, which deals with criminal wrongs that are punishab ...

Tort
law. Thus, philosophy of law addresses such diverse topics as theories of contract law, theories of criminal punishment, theories of tort liability, and the question of whether judicial review is justified.


Notable philosophers of law

*
Socrates Socrates (; ; –399 BC) was a Greeks, Greek philosopher from Classical Athens, Athens who is credited as the founder of Western philosophy and among the first moral philosophers of the Ethics, ethical tradition of thought. An enigmati ...

Socrates
*
Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, wikt:Πλάτων, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a Greeks, Greek philosopher born in Athens during the Classical Greece, Classical period in Ancient Greece. He founded the Platonist school of thou ...

Plato
*
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher and polymath during the Classical Greece, Classical period in Ancient Greece. Taught by Plato, he was the founder of the Peripatet ...

Aristotle
*
Thomas Aquinas Thomas Aquinas, Dominican Order, OP (; it, Tommaso d'Aquino, lit=Thomas of Aquino, Italy, Aquino; 1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican Order, Dominican friar and Catholic priest, priest who was an influential List of Catholic philo ...
* Hadley Arkes *
Francis Bacon Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban (; 22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626), also known as Lord Verulam, was an English philosopher and statesman who served as Attorney General and Lord Chancellor of England England is a Countries of ...

Francis Bacon
*
John Locke John Locke (; 29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Age of Enlightenment, Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "father of liberalism ...

John Locke
*
Francisco Suarez Francisco is the Spanish and Portuguese form of the masculine given name ''Franciscus''. Nicknames In Spanish, people with the name Francisco are sometimes nicknamed "Paco (name), Paco". Francis of Assisi, San Francisco de Asís was known as '' ...

Francisco Suarez
*
Francisco de Vitoria Francisco de Vitoria ( – 12 August 1546; also known as Francisco de Victoria) was a Spanish Roman Catholic philosopher A philosopher is a person who practices or investigates philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the systematized s ...

Francisco de Vitoria
*
Hugo Grotius Hugo Grotius (; 10 April 1583 – 28 August 1645), also known as Huig de Groot () and Hugo de Groot (), was a Dutch humanist, diplomat, lawyer, theologian, jurist, poet and playwright. A teenage intellectual prodigy, he was born in Delft ...

Hugo Grotius
* Benedict de Spinoza * John Austin (legal philosophy) * Frederic Bastiat * Evgeny Pashukanis *
Jeremy Bentham Jeremy Bentham (; 15 February 1748 ld Style and New Style dates, O.S. 4 February 1747– 6 June 1832) was an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism. Bentham defined as the "fundam ...

Jeremy Bentham
* Emilio Betti *
Norberto Bobbio Norberto Bobbio (; 18 October 1909 – 9 January 2004) was an Italian philosopher of law and political science Political science is the science, scientific study of politics. It is a social science dealing with systems of governanc ...

Norberto Bobbio
* António Castanheira Neves * Jules Coleman * Ronald Dworkin * Francesco D'Agostino * Francisco Elías de Tejada y Spínola * Carlos Cossio * Miguel Reale *
John Finnis John Mitchell Finnis, , (born 28 July 1940) is an Australian legal philosopher, jurist and scholar specializing in jurisprudence and the philosophy of law. He is the Biolchini Family Professor of Law, emeritus, at Notre Dame Law School and a P ...
* Lon L. Fuller *
Leslie Green Leslie William Green (6 February 1875 – 31 August 1908) was an English architect. He is best known for his design of iconic Metro station, stations constructed on the London Underground railway system in central London during the first dec ...
* Robert P. George * Germain Grisez * H. L. A. Hart *
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (; ; 27 August 1770 – 14 November 1831) was a German philosopher. He is one of the most important figures in German idealism and one of the founding figures of 19th century philosophy, modern Western philosophy. ...
* Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. * Alf Ross *
Tony Honoré Anthony Maurice Honoré, (30 March 1921 – 26 February 2019) was a British lawyer and jurist, known for his work on ownership, causation (law), causation and Roman law.John Gardne''Tony Honoré as Teacher and Mentor: A Personal Memoir''; read 1 ...
* Rudolf Jhering *
Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant (, , ; 22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German Philosophy, philosopher and one of the central Age of Enlightenment, Enlightenment thinkers. Born in Königsberg, Kant's comprehensive and systematic works in epistemolo ...

Immanuel Kant
*
Johann Gottlieb Fichte Johann Gottlieb Fichte (; ; 19 May 1762 – 29 January 1814) was a German philosopher who became a founding figure of the philosophical movement known as German idealism, which developed from the theoretical and ethical writings of Immanuel Kan ...

Johann Gottlieb Fichte
*
Hans Kelsen Hans Kelsen (; ; October 11, 1881 – April 19, 1973) was an Austrian jurist, legal philosopher and political philosopher. He was the author of the 1920 Austrian Constitution, which to a very large degree is still valid today. Due to the rise o ...

Hans Kelsen
*
Joel Feinberg Joel Feinberg (October 19, 1926 in Detroit, Detroit, Michigan – March 29, 2004 in Tucson, Arizona) was an Americans, American political and legal philosopher. He is known for his work in the fields of ethics, Action theory (philosophy), action ...
* David Lyons * Robert Alexy * Reinhold Zippelius * Neil MacCormick * William E. May *
Martha Nussbaum Martha Craven Nussbaum (; born May 6, 1947) is an American philosopher and the current Ernst Freund Distinguished Service Professor of Law and Ethics at the University of Chicago, where she is jointly appointed in the law school and the philosoph ...

Martha Nussbaum
*
Gustav Radbruch Gustav Radbruch (21 November 1878 – 23 November 1949) was a German legal scholar and politician. He served as Federal Ministry of Justice (Germany), Minister of Justice of Germany during the early Weimar Republic, Weimar period. Radbruch is als ...
*
Joseph Raz Joseph Raz (; he, יוסף רז; born Zaltsman; 21 March 19392 May 2022) was an Israeli Legal philosophy, legal, Moral philosophy, moral and political philosopher. He was an advocate of legal positivism and is known for his conception of perf ...
* Jeremy Waldron *
Friedrich Carl von Savigny Friedrich Carl von Savigny (21 February 1779 – 25 October 1861) was a German jurist A jurist is a person with expert knowledge of law; someone who analyses and comments on law. This person is usually a specialist legal scholar, mostly (but ...
* Robert Summers * Roberto Unger * Catharine MacKinnon *
John Rawls John Bordley Rawls (; February 21, 1921 – November 24, 2002) was an American moral philosophy, moral, legal philosophy, legal and political philosophy, political philosopher in the Liberalism, liberal tradition. Rawls received both the Schock ...
* Pierre Schlag * Robin West *
Carl Schmitt Carl Schmitt (; 11 July 1888 – 7 April 1985) was a German jurist A jurist is a person with expert knowledge of law; someone who analyses and comments on law. This person is usually a specialist legal scholar, mostly (but not always) with ...
*
Jürgen Habermas Jürgen Habermas (, ; ; born 18 June 1929) is a German social theorist in the tradition of critical theory and pragmatism. His work addresses communicative rationality and the public sphere. Associated with the Frankfurt School, Habermas's work ...
* Carlos Santiago Nino * Geoffrey Warnock * Scott J. Shapiro *
Shen Buhai Shen Buhai (; c. 400c. 337) was a Chinese essayist, philosopher, and politician. He served as Chancellor of China, Chancellor of the Han (state), Han state under Marquis Zhao of Han for fifteen years, from 354 BC to 337 BC. A contemporary of sy ...
*Shang Yang *Han Fei *Zhu Xi


See also

*Legal maxim *Critical legal studies *Critical rationalism *Constitutional economics *Experimental jurisprudence *Indeterminacy debate in legal theory *Judicial activism *Jurisprudence *Justice *Law *Law and economics *Law and literature *Legal formalism *Interpretivism (legal) *
Legal positivism Legal positivism (as understood in the Anglosphere) is a school of thought of analytical jurisprudence developed largely by legal philosophers during the 18th and 19th centuries, such as Jeremy Bentham and John Austin (legal philosopher), John Aus ...
* Legal realism *Libertarian theories of law *Natural law *Philosophy, theology, and fundamental theory of Catholic canon law *Rule of law *Rule according to higher law * Virtue jurisprudence *''Mens rea'' *''Actus reus''


References


Further reading

* Plato, ''Minos'' (many editions). * Plato, ''Laws'' (many editions). * * Thomas Aquinas, ''Summa Contra Gentiles'' (many editions). * Hadley Arkes, ''First Things'' (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1986). * Ronald Dworkin, ''Taking Rights Seriously'' (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1977). * Ronald Dworkin, ''A Matter of Principle'' (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1986). * Ronald Dworkin, ''Law's Empire'' (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1986). * Ronald Dworkin, ''Freedom's Law: The Moral Reading of the American Constitution'' (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1997). * Lon L. Fuller, ''The Morality of Law'' (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1965). * John Chipman Gray, ''The Nature and Sources of Law'' (Peter Smith, 1972, reprint). * H. L. A. Hart, ''The Concept of Law'' (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1961). * H. L. A. Hart, ''Punishment and Responsibility'' (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1968). * Sterling Harwood, ''Judicial Activism: A Restrained Defense'' (London: Austin & Winfield Publishers, 1996). * Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, ''Philosophy of Right'' (Oxford University Press 1967) * Ian Farrell & Morten Ebbe Juul Nielsen, ''Legal Philosophy: 5 Questions'', New York: Automatic Press, April 2007 * Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., ''The Common Law'' (Dover, 1991, reprint). * Immanuel Kant, ''Metaphysics of Morals (Doctrine of Right)'' (Cambridge University Press 2000, reprint). * Hans Kelsen, ''Pure Theory of Law'' (Lawbook Exchange Ltd., 2005, reprint). * Catharine MacKinnon, ''Toward a Feminist Theory of the State. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989). * Duncan Kennedy, ''A Critique of Adjudication'' (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1998). * David Lyons, ''Ethics & The Rule of Law'' (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984). * David Lyons, ''Moral Aspects of Legal Theory'' (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993). * Neil MacCormick, ''Legal Reasoning and Legal Theory'' (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979). * Joseph Raz, ''The Authority of Law'' (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983, reprint). * Robert S. Summers, ''Instrumentalism and American Legal Theory'' (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1982). * Robert S. Summers, ''Lon Fuller'' (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1984). * Roberto Mangabeira Unger, ''The Critical Legal Studies Movement'' (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1986). * Jeffrie G. Murphy and Jules L. Coleman,'' The Philosophy of Law: An Introduction to Jurisprudence'' (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1989).


External links


Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Philosophy of Law
{{Authority control Philosophy of law, Legal ethics Social philosophy Philosophy of science by discipline, Law