PHILANTHROPY (from Greek φιλανθρωπία) means etymologically
, the love of humanity, in the sense of caring and nourishing, it
involves both the benefactor in their identifying and exercising their
values, and the beneficiary in their receipt and benefit from the
service or goods provided. A conventional modern definition is
"private initiatives, for the public good, focusing on quality of
life," which combines an original humanistic tradition with a social
scientific aspect developed in the 20th century. The definition also
serves to contrast philanthropy with business endeavors, which are
private initiatives for private good, e.g., focusing on material gain,
and with government endeavors, which are public initiatives for public
good, e.g., focusing on provision of public services. A person who
practices philanthropy is called a philanthropist.
Philanthropy has distinguishing characteristics separate from charity
; not all charity is philanthropy, or vice versa, though there is a
recognized degree of overlap in practice. A difference commonly cited
is that charity aims to relieve the pain of a particular social
problem, whereas philanthropy attempts to address the root cause of
the problem—the difference between the proverbial gift of a fish to
a hungry person, versus teaching them how to fish.
* 1 Definitions
* 3.1 Classical philanthropy
* 3.2 Modern philanthropy
* 4 21st century efforts
* 5 Organizations supporting
* 6 Large individual gifts
* 7 Further reading
* 8 See also
* 9 References
* 10 External links
THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION with: CLEARLY SOURCED DEFINITIONS OF
THE TERM FROM THE MOST IMPORTANT TEXTS IN USE AT LEADING ACADEMIC
PROGRAMS ON PHILANTHROPY (E.G., IU, CUNY, DUKE, ETC.), AND AT THE MOST
IMPORTANT MAJOR PHILANTHROPIC ORGANISATIONS. You can help by adding to
it . (January 2016)
The literal, classical definitions and understandings of the term
philanthropy derive from its origins in the Greek
φιλανθρωπία, which combines the word φίλος (philos)
for "loving" and ἄνθρωπος (anthropos) for "human being" (see
The most conventional modern definition, according to the Catalogue
for Philanthropy, is "private initiatives, for public good, focusing
on quality of life". This combines the social scientific aspect
developed in the century with the original humanistic tradition, and
serves to contrast philanthropy with business (private initiatives for
private good, focusing on material prosperity) and government (public
initiatives for public good, focusing on law and order). These
distinctions have been analyzed by
Olivier Zunz , and others.
Instances of philanthropy commonly overlap with instances of charity
, though not all charity is philanthropy, or vice versa. The
difference commonly cited is that charity relieves the pains of social
problems, whereas philanthropy attempts to solve those problems at
their root causes (the difference between giving a hungry person a
fish, and teaching them how to fish).
The word was first coined as an adjective by the playwright Aeschylus
Prometheus Bound (5th century BCE), to describe
character as "humanity loving" (philanthropic troops), for having
given to the earliest proto-humans who had no culture, fire
(symbolizing technological civilization) and "blind hope" (optimism);
together, they would be used to improve the human condition, to save
mankind from destruction. Thus, in the perspective of this early
writer, humans were distinguished from all other animals by being a
civilization with the power to complete their own creation through
education (self-development) and culture (civic development),
expressed in good works benefiting others. The new word,
φιλάνθρωπος philanthropic, combined two words: φίλος
Philos, "loving" in the sense of benefitting, caring for, nourishing;
and ἄνθρωπος Anthropos, "human being" in the sense of
"humanity", or "human-ness." The first use of the noun form
philanthrôpía came shortly thereafter (c. 390 BCE), in the early
Socrates is reported to have said that
his "pouring out" of his thoughts freely (without charge) to his
listeners was his philanthrôpía.
In the first century BCE, both paideia and philanthrôpía were
translated into Latin by the single word humanity, which was also
understood to be the core of liberal education study humanities, the
studies of humanity, or simply "the humanities." In the second century
Plutarch used the concept of philanthrôpía to describe superior
human beings. This Classically synonymous troika, of philanthropy, the
humanities, and liberal education, declined with the replacement of
the classical world by
Christianity . During the
Middle Ages ,
philanthrôpía was superseded by Caritas charity, selfless love,
valued for salvation.
Philanthropy was modernized by Sir Francis Bacon
in the 1600s, who is largely credited with preventing the word from
being owned by horticulture. Bacon considered philanthrôpía to be
synonymous with "goodness", which correlated with the Aristotelian
conception of virtue, as consciously instilled habits of good
behavior. Then in the 1700s, an influential lexical figurehead by the
Samuel Johnson simply defined philanthropy as "love of
mankind; good nature". This definition still survives today and is
often cited more gender-neutrally as the "love of humanity." However,
Noah Webster who would more accurately reflect the word usage
in American English.
The precise meaning of philanthropy is still a matter of some
contention, its definition being largely dependent on the particular
interests of the writer employing the term. Nevertheless, there are
some working definitions to which the community associated with the
field of "philanthropic studies" most commonly subscribes. One of the
more widely accepted of these is the one employed by
Lester Salamon ,
who defines philanthropy as "the private giving of time or valuables
(money, security, property) for public purposes; and/or one form of
income of private non-profit organizations".
The Ancient Greek view of philanthropy—that the "love of what it is
to be human" is the essential nature and purpose of humanity, culture
and civilization—was intrinsically philosophical, containing both
metaphysics and ethics. The Greeks adopted the "love of humanity" as
an educational ideal, whose goal was excellence (arete )—the fullest
self-development, of a body, mind, and spirit, which is the essence of
liberal education. The
Platonic Academy 's philosophical dictionary
Philanthropy as "a state of well-educated habits stemming from
love of humanity, a state of being productive of benefit to humans".
Just as Prometheus' human-empowering gifts rebelled against the
Zeus , philanthropic was also associated with freedom and
Socrates and the laws of Athens were described as
"philanthropic and democratic".
The replacement of Classical civilization by
philanthropy with Christian theology and soteriology , administered
Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church 's ecclesiastical and monastic
infrastructures. Gradually there emerged a non-religious agricultural
infrastructure based on peasant farming organized into manors, which
were, in turn, organized for law and order by feudalism .
When it was rediscovered in the
Italian Renaissance , humanism
consisted of a specific academic curriculum: grammar , rhetoric ,
poetry , history , and moral philosophy, or ethics , designed to train
laymen for effective leadership in business, law, and government. One
of the clearest literary expressions of Renaissance humanist
Pico Della Mirandola 's famous 15th-century Oration on
the Dignity of Man , which echoes the philanthropic myth of human
creation, though with the Christian God as the Promethean Creator.
Francis Bacon in 1592 wrote in a letter that his "vast contemplative
ends" expressed his "philanthropic", and his 1608 essay On Goodness
defined his subject as "the affecting of the weal of men ... what the
Grecians call philanthropy".
Henry Cockeram , in his English
dictionary (1623), cited "philanthropy" as a synonym for "humanity"(in
Latin, humanities)—thus reaffirming the Classical formulation.
The Foundling Hospital. The building has been demolished.
Philanthropy began to reach its modern form in the Age of
Enlightenment ; after the
Wars of Religion in 17th century
secular alternatives such as rationalism , empiricism , and science
inclined philosophers toward a progressive view of history. This
tendency achieved an especially pure articulation in the Scottish
Enlightenment , especially in the works of Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 3rd
Earl of Shaftesbury and Francis Hutcheson , who proposed that
philanthropy is the essential key to human happiness, conceived as a
kind of "fitness" (living in harmony with Nature and one's own
circumstances). Self-development, manifested in good deeds toward
others, was the surest way to live a pleasing, fulfilling, and
satisfying life, as well as to help build a commonwealth community.
Influenced by these ideas, and as a facet of the expansion of civil
society , charitable and philanthropic activity among voluntary
associations and rich benefactors became a widespread cultural
practice. Societies, gentleman\'s clubs , and mutual associations
began to flourish in
England , and the upper-classes increasingly
adopted a philanthropic attitude toward the disadvantaged. This new
social activism was channeled into the establishment of charitable
organizations; these proliferated from the middle of the century.
This emerging upper-class fashion for benevolence resulted in the
incorporation of the first charitable organizations. Captain Thomas
Coram , appalled by the number of abandoned children living on the
streets of London, set up the
Foundling Hospital in 1741 to look after
these unwanted orphans in Lamb's Conduit Fields,
Bloomsbury . This was
the first such charity in the world and served as the precedent for
incorporated associational charities everywhere.
Jonas Hanway , another notable philanthropist of the era, established
The Marine Society in 1756 as the first seafarer's charity, in a bid
to aid the recruitment of men to the navy . By 1763, the society had
recruited over 10,000 men and it was incorporated by an Act of
Parliament in 1772. Hanway was also instrumental in establishing the
Magdalen Hospital to rehabilitate prostitutes . These organizations
were funded by subscription and run as voluntary associations. They
raised public awareness of their activities through the emerging
popular press and were generally held in high social regard—some
charities received state recognition in the form of the Royal Charter
Philanthropists, such as anti-slavery campaigner William Wilberforce
, began to adopt active campaigning roles, where they would champion a
cause and lobby the government for legislative change. This included
organized campaigns against the ill treatment of animals and children
and the campaign that eventually succeeded in ending the slave trade
British Empire at the turn of the 19th century.
Andrew Carnegie 's philanthropy. Puck magazine cartoon by Louis
Dalrymple , 1903
During the 19th century, a profusion of charitable organizations was
set up to alleviate the awful conditions of the working class in the
slums . The Labourer\'s Friend Society , chaired by Lord Shaftesbury
in the United Kingdom in 1830, was set up to improve working class
conditions. This included the promotion of allotment of land to
labourers for "cottage husbandry" that later became the allotment
movement, and in 1844 it became the first Model Dwellings Company
—an organization that sought to improve the housing conditions of
the working classes by building new homes for them, while at the same
time receiving a competitive rate of return on any investment. This
was one of the first housing associations , a philanthropic endeavor
that flourished in the second half of the nineteenth century, brought
about by the growth of the middle class . Later associations included
Peabody Trust , and the
Guinness Trust . The principle of
philanthropic intention with capitalist return was given the label
"five per cent philanthropy."
In 1863, the Swiss businessman
Henry Dunant used his personal fortune
to finding the Geneva Society for Public Welfare, which became the
International Committee of the Red Cross . During the Franco-Prussian
War of 1870, Dunant personally led Red Cross delegations that treated
soldiers. He shared the first
Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize for this work in 1901.
Philanthropy became a very fashionable activity among the expanding
middle classes in Britain and America.
Octavia Hill and John Ruskin
were an important force behind the development of social housing and
Andrew Carnegie exemplified the large-scale philanthropy of the newly
rich in industrialized America. In
Gospel of Wealth
Gospel of Wealth (1889), Carnegie
wrote about the responsibilities of great wealth and the importance of
social justice. He established public libraries throughout the
English-speaking countries as well as contributing large sums to
schools and universities. Other American philanthropists of the early
20th century were
John D. Rockefeller
John D. Rockefeller and
Henry Ford . The sheer size
of their endowments directed their attention to addressing the causes
and instruments, as distinct from the symptoms and expressions, of
social problems and cultural opportunities.
21ST CENTURY EFFORTS
In recent decades, wealth creators in new high tech sectors have
turned to second careers in philanthropy at earlier ages, creating
large foundations. Individual philanthropy began to be chic,
attracting celebrities from popular arts. Commercial movies and
television adopted the idea, and many initiatives have been led by
wealthy individuals such as
Bill Gates and
Warren Buffett . Despite
this emergence of high tech and celebrity philanthropic foundations,
The Chronicle of Philanthropy have indicated that the
rich—those making over $100,000 a year—give a smaller share of
their income to charity (4.2% on average) than those making more than
$50,000–$100,000 a year.
Trends in philanthropy have been affected in various ways by a
technological and cultural change. Today, many donations are made
Internet (see also donation statistics ).
A social movement of effective altruism has emerged. Members of this
movement use a scientific approach to consider all causes and actions
and then act in the way that brings about the greatest positive
impact, based on their values. Many effective altruists pursue a
high-earning career for the purpose of donating a significant portion
of earned income to charities they consider to be most effective.
Charity evaluators , like
Charity Navigator were
established, which assess charities in various ways to help
prospective donors make their choice.
Organizations such as
Opportunity International and Kiva
Raise5 (micro-volunteering), or Charity kicks
(micro-donating ) leverage crowdfunding philanthropy to raise money
GlobalGiving helps local nonprofits in more than 166
countries access the funding, tools, training, and support they need
to become more effective.
GiveDirectly facilitates direct cash
transfers to individual low-income households in East Africa. Zidisha
is a nonprofit person-to-person microlending website which uses an
eBay-style marketplace to allow individuals in developing countries to
crowd-fund loans from individual web users worldwide.
Vittana is an
online platform that allows low-income youth in developing countries
to crowd-fund tuition for higher education.
THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION with: further coverage of modern
extant organizations that have long histories of studying philanthropy
and analyzing its societal roles—SUCH AS THE CUNY AND DUKE EFFORTS
PIONEERED IN THE 80S, REMNANTS OF THE ROCKEFELLER-FUNDED POSTWAR
JAPANESE EFFORTS, ETC., SEE TALK—I\'M WITH CONCOMITANT REDUCTION OF
SPACE FOR THE LILLY SCHOOL (and reigning it of its clear advert-style
partiality). You can help by adding to it . (January 2016)
A variety of organizations that have been created over the decades to
study, support, and evaluate practical philanthropic endeavors and
ideas exist today and continue research into philanthropy, analysis of
its trends, and student-training for its occupations and further
LARGE INDIVIDUAL GIFTS
John D. Rockefeller
John D. Rockefeller in 1885 Front building of the Bill
Charles Henry de Soysa to undertake various
projects in Ceylon and overseas.
* From 1895–1915, millions, from
Charles T. Hinde to undertake
various projects in Southern California.
* In 1901, $350 million from
Andrew Carnegie , who distributed
almost 90% of his wealth to philanthropic causes, including the
Carnegie Hall and the founding of Carnegie Mellon
* Especially in the teen years of the early 20th century, $540
John D. Rockefeller
John D. Rockefeller to the
Rockefeller Foundation and
various other Rockefeller Charities.
* In 1984 and the years preceding and following, as disclosed in
1997, $4.1 billion ($3.5 billion from sale of the 38.75% equity stake
DFS Group , alongside $600 million in other giving), from Chuck
Feeney , to
Atlantic Philanthropies .
* In July 1992, $100 million from Henry and Betty Rowan to Glassboro
State College, to become
Rowan University .
* In 1993, $1 billion from
Walter Annenberg to various education
efforts, including a single $500 million bequest to support public
schools in the United States.
* In 1998, $1 billion from
Ted Turner to create the United Nations
Foundation , in support of children's (especially girl's) and women's
issues, climate change and energy, sustainable development and
technology, and other areas mediated by the
United Nations . The main
issue areas that the Foundation addresses are .
* In 2003, $200 million from
Joan B. Kroc to
National Public Radio
National Public Radio .
* In 2005 and years following, a total of ~$500 million from T.
Boone Pickens (as of 2011, although ~$115 million was lost by Pickens'
BP Capital in 2008), to
Oklahoma State University
Oklahoma State University , the initial
approximate half to the university's athletic program, and a
subsequent amounts of ~$220 M for faculty chairs and scholarships.
* In 2006,
Warren Buffett donated $40 billion to five different
foundations. Out of that $30 billion went to the Bill ">
The following are suggested articles for further reading, in
particular, reputable sources with an emphasis on material that might
improve the content of the article. The format used is intended to
make each citation reference-ready.
* Aknin, Lara B.; Barrington-Leigh, Christopher P.; Dunn, Elizabeth
W.; Helliwell, John F.; Burns, Justine; Biswas-Diener, Robert; Kemeza,
Imelda; Nyende, Paul; Ashton-James, Claire E. ">(print, online).
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology . 104 (4, April):
635–652. doi :10.1037/a0031578 . Retrieved 29 January 2016. "This
research provides the first support for a possible psychological
universal: Human beings around the world derive emotional benefits
from using their financial resources to help others (prosocial
spending). …survey data from 136 countries were examined and showed
that prosocial spending is associated with greater happiness around
the world, in poor and rich countries alike. …recalling a past
instance of prosocial spending has a causal impact on happiness across
countries that differ greatly in terms of wealth (Canada, Uganda, and
India). …participants in Canada and South Africa randomly assigned
to buy items for charity reported higher levels of positive affect
than participants assigned to buy the same items for themselves,
even… an opportunity to build or strengthen social ties. Our
findings suggest that the reward experienced from helping others may
be deeply ingrained in human nature, emerging in diverse cultural and
* Zunz, Olivier (2011).
Philanthropy in America, A History: Politics
and Society in Twentieth-Century America. Princeton, NJ, USA:
Princeton University Press. ISBN 1400839416 . Archived from the
original on October 17, 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
* Sulek, Marty (2010). "On the Classical Meaning of
Philanthrôpía". Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly. 39 (3):
* Dunn, E.W.; Aknin, L.B. ">(print, online). Science . Vol. 319 no.
5870, March 21. pp. 1687f. PMID 18356530 . doi
:10.1126/science.1150952 . Retrieved 29 January 2016. "Although much
research has examined the effect of income on happiness, we suggest
that how people spend their money may be at least as important as how
much money they earn. Specifically, we hypothesized that spending
money on other people may have a more positive impact on happiness
than spending money on oneself. Providing converging evidence for this
hypothesis, we found that spending more of one's income on others
predicted greater happiness both cross-sectionally (in a nationally
representative survey study) and longitudinally (in a field study of
windfall spending). Finally, participants who were randomly assigned
to spend money on others experienced greater happiness than those
assigned to spend money on themselves. "
* McCully, George (2008). "Promethean Fire: The Archetype (Chapter
Philanthropy Reconsidered: Private Initiatives, Public Good,
Quality of Life (A Catalogue for
Bloomington, IN, USA: AuthorHouse (self-published). pp. 1–21. ISBN
1438905637 . Archived from the original on August 26, 2008. Retrieved
29 January 2016. Chapter I subtitle: From its first coinage in ancient
Prometheus Bound, philanthropic meant "the love of
humanity," or of what it is to be human, an educational and cultural
* Beatty, Sally (2007). "Money: Families Wrestle With Closing
The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal (April 17). Retrieved
29 January 2016. "Wealthy families are setting up new philanthropic
foundations in increasing numbers, but they are also shutting them
down at an accelerating pace. / Some of the biggest names in
philanthropy are backing the idea of setting a time limit on their
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation announced in December it
will spend its entire endowment… within 50 years of the death of the
last of its three current trustees, then close its doors."
* Martin, Hubert (1961). "The Concept of Philanthropia in Plutarch's
Lives". American Journal of Philology. 82: 164–175.
* Lester, Charles Edwards (1883). Lester\'s
History of the United
States: Illustrated in Its Five Great Periods: Colonization,
Consolidation, Development, Achievement, Advancement. New York: P. F.
Collier & Son. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
* Berman, Edward H. (1983). The Influence of the Carnegie, Ford, and
Rockefeller Foundations on American Foreign Policy: The Ideology of
Philanthropy. Albany, NY: SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-873-95725-0 .
The Giving Pledge
Foundation (United States law)
High impact philanthropy
Philanthropy in the United States
Organizations and institutions
Chan Zuckerberg Initiative
Council on Foundations
* European Foundation Centre
List of philanthropists
* ^ "What Is Philanthropy?", Catalogue for Philanthropy, accessed
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* ^ A B Zunz, Olivier (2011).
Philanthropy in America, A History:
Politics and Society in Twentieth-Century America. Princeton, NJ, USA:
Princeton University Press. ISBN 1400839416 . Archived from the
original on October 17, 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
* ^ Aristotle, ">
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Philanthropy is what sustains the charitable
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Thomas Coram (1668-1751)". thedorsetpage.com. Retrieved 29
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UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. xiv, 23, and passim. ISBN
0521085063 . Retrieved 29 January 2016.
* ^ "Henry Dunant". nndb.com. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
* ^ Abigail A. VanSlyck, "'The Utmost Amount of Effectiv
Andrew Carnegie and the Reform of the American
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* ^ Frank, Robert (August 20, 2012). "The Rich Are Less Charitable
Than the Middle Class: Study".
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Income To Charity Than Middle-Class Americans Do". The Huffington Post
. Retrieved February 21, 2014.
* ^ "The 2011 Online Giving Report, presented by Steve MacLaughlin,
Jim O\'Shaughnessy, and Allison Van Diest" (PDF). blackbaud.com.
February 2012. Retrieved January 2013. Check date values in:
access-date= (help )
* ^ Andrew. Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie, Boston: Houghton
* ^ "Our History". The Rockefeller Foundation. Retrieved 29 January
* ^ Bertoni, Steven (2012). "Chuck Feeney: The Billionaire Who Is
Trying To Go Broke" (online). Forbes (September 18). Retrieved 28
* ^ Miller, Judith (1997). "He Gave Away $600 Million, and No One
The New York Times
The New York Times (January 23). Retrieved 28 January
* ^ Gurney, Kaitlin. "10 years later, Rowan still reaps gift\'s
rewards - Rowan Milestones",
The Philadelphia Inquirer , July 9, 2002.
Accessed August 1, 2007. "
Rowan University catapulted onto the
national stage a decade ago when industrialist
Henry Rowan gave sleepy
Glassboro State College $100 million, the largest single sum ever
donated to a public institution.... Rowan and his late wife, Betty,
gave the money on July 6, 1992, with just one requirement: that a
first-rate engineering school is built. In gratitude, Glassboro State
changed its name to Rowan College."
* ^ Celis 3d, William (1993). "Clinton Hails Annenberg\'s $500
Million Education Gift" (online).
The New York Times
The New York Times (December 18).
Retrieved 28 January 2016. The $500 million gift, to be awarded in the
form of matching grants over five years, will help underwrite the
efforts of schools to restructure their programs. / Mr. Annenberg, who
this year alone has donated nearly $1 billion to education, added: 'We
must ask ourselves whether improving education will halt the violence.
If anyone can think of a better way, we may have to try that, but the
way I see this tragedy, education is the most wholesome and effective
* ^ Adam Cohen & Aixa M. Pascual (29 September 1997). "Ted Turner:
Putting His Money...". Time. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
* ^ Dyan Machan (1 June 1998), Tim Wirth's Shopping List, Forbes
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* ^ A B Steinberg, Jacques (November 7, 2003). "Billions and
Billions Served, Hundreds of Millions Donated".
The New York Times
The New York Times .
National Public Radio
National Public Radio announced yesterday that
it had received a bequest worth at least $200 million from the widow
of the longtime chairman of the McDonald's restaurant chain.... Few
cultural institutions have been the beneficiaries of gifts as large as
that received by NPR, according to The Chronicle of Philanthropy. One
of the largest, worth $424 million, was given to the Metropolitan
Museum of Art by foundations built on the
Reader's Digest fortune.
* ^ Staley, Oliver (2011). "Philanthropy: T. Boone Pickens, OSU\'s
Big, Big Man on Campus" (online). Bloomberg
Business (April 14).
Retrieved 28 January 2016. "T. Boone Pickens, the Texas oilman turned
hedge fund investor, says he had a simple motivation for giving more
than $500 million to his alma mater, Oklahoma State University: He got
sick of watching the school's football team, the Cowboys, lose. "I
quit coming to homecoming games because we got beat," says Pickens. "I
don't like that feeling." / … Pickens, who graduated from what was
then Oklahoma A&M in 1951, wasn't a big benefactor until 2002 when he
contributed $20 million toward the $293 million renovations of OSU's
football stadium, which now bears his name. Three years later he
donated $165 million to the school's athletic department. … /
Pickens's 2005 gift of $165 million was intended to narrow the gap
between the two schools. His millions, along with an additional $37
million from OSU's endowment, were invested with Pickens's hedge fund,
BP Capital. The investment had more than doubled in value, to $407
million, by June 2008. Then the financial crisis hit. By the time the
school cashed out in November 2008, all that was left was $125
million. Pickens, who agreed to waive his management fees, says he
didn't profit in any way from the arrangement. Holder says the school
acted in good faith. "I'd do it all over again," he says.
* ^ Riedel, David (2010). "Facebook CEO to Gift $100M to Newark
CBS News (September 22). Retrieved 28 January 2016.
The New York Times
The New York Times reports Wednesday night that Mark Zuckerberg, the
CEO of Facebook, has made an arrangement to donate $100 million to
improve Newark, N.J., public schools. Part of the arrangement includes
a deal that lets Newark mayor
Cory Booker exercise more control of the
state-run schools, according to the Times. …
New Jersey governor
Chris Christie will make the announcement with Zuckerberg and Booker
on the "
Oprah Winfrey Show" Friday, according to the Times. …
Newark's public schools are long troubled. The state took control of
them in 1995. The deal reached between Mayor Booker and Gov. Christie
will not give Booker outright control of the schools or change the
state's power over them, reports the Times. Instead, Booker will be a
strong voice in choosing a new superintendent of schools. The state
will retain the right to take control of the school system.
* ^ http://www.med.upenn.edu/
* ^ Karmali, Naazneen (2013). "
Azim Premji Donates $2.3 Billion
After Signing Giving Pledge" (online). Forbes (February 23). Retrieved
28 January 2016. Days after tech tycoon
Azim Premji officially
announced he’d signed the Giving Pledge, the Indian billionaire made
his biggest philanthropic donation ever: Premji, ranked as India’s
third-richest person with a fortune of over $13 billion, announced
Friday that he is donating $2.2 billion, or a 12% stake, in his IT
outsourcer Wipro, to a trust to fund his education-focused Azim Premji
* ^ "James Packer’s gift to Australia: Crown Resorts will pump
$200 million into charities over the next ten years". The Daily
Telegraph. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
* ^ Rogoway, Mike. "Phil and Penny Knight\'s charitable
contributions top $2 billion". The Oregonian. Retrieved 5 July 2017.
* ^ O'Connor, Clare. "The Education Of
Oprah Winfrey: How She Saved
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* ^ Goode, Darren. "Republican pledges $175 million to push party
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