A Doctor of
Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., DPhil, or Dr. phil.; Latin
Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by
universities in most countries. PhDs are awarded for programs across
the whole breadth of academic fields. The completion of a PhD is often
a requirement for employment as a university professor, researcher, or
scientist in many fields. Individuals who have earned a Doctor of
Philosophy degree may, in most jurisdictions, use the title Doctor
(often abbreviated "Dr") or, in non-English speaking countries,
variants such as "Dr. phil." with their name, and may use post-nominal
letters such as "Ph.D.", "PhD" (depending on the awarding institute).
The requirements to earn a PhD degree vary considerably according to
the country, institution, and time period, from entry-level research
degrees to higher doctorates. During the studies that lead to the
degree, the student is called a doctoral student or PhD student; a
student who has completed all of their coursework and comprehensive
examinations and is working on their thesis/dissertation is sometimes
known as a doctoral candidate or PhD candidate (see: all but
dissertation). A student attaining this level may be granted a
Candidate of Philosophy degree at some institutions.
A PhD candidate must submit a project, thesis or dissertation often
consisting of a body of original academic research, which is in
principle worthy of publication in a peer-reviewed journal. In many
countries, a candidate must defend this work before a panel of expert
examiners appointed by the university. Universities sometimes award
other types of doctorate besides the PhD, such as the Doctor of
Musical Arts (D.M.A.) for music performers and the Doctor of Education
(Ed.D.) for professional educators. In 2005 the European Universities
Association defined the Salzburg Principles, ten basic principles for
third-cycle degrees (doctorates) within the Bologna Process. These
were followed in 2016 by the Florence Principles, seven basic
principles for doctorates in the arts laid out by the European League
of Institutes of the Arts, which have been endorsed by the European
Association of Conservatoires, the International Association of Film
and Television Schools, the International Association of Universities
and Colleges of Art, Design and Media, and the Society for Artistic
In the context of the Doctor of
Philosophy and other similarly titled
degrees, the term "philosophy" does not refer to the field or academic
discipline of philosophy, but is used in a broader sense in accordance
with its original Greek meaning, which is "love of wisdom". In most of
Europe, all fields (history, philosophy, social sciences, mathematics,
and natural philosophy/sciences) other than theology, law, and
medicine (the so-called professional, vocational, or technical
curriculum) were traditionally known as philosophy, and in Germany and
elsewhere in Europe the basic faculty of liberal arts was known as the
"faculty of philosophy".
2.1 Medieval and early modern Europe
2.2 Educational reforms in Germany
2.3 History in the United Kingdom
2.4 History in the United States
3.1 PhD confirmation
4 Value and criticism
4.1 National variations
5 Degrees around the globe
5.1.3 Requirements for completion
5.2.4 Requirements for completion
5.3.3 Requirements for completion
5.4.3 Requirements for completion
5.9 USSR, Russian Federation and former Soviet Republics
5.16 United Kingdom
5.16.4 Other doctorates
5.17 United States
6 Models of supervision
7 International PhD equivalent degrees
8 See also
9 Notes and references
11 External links
The degree is abbreviated PhD (sometimes Ph.D. in North America), from
Latin Philosophiae Doctor, pronounced as three separate letters
(/piːeɪtʃˈdiː/). The abbreviation DPhil, from the
English 'Doctor of Philosophy', is used by a small number of
British and Commonwealth universities, including Oxford and formerly
York and Sussex, as the abbreviation for degrees from those
Medieval and early modern Europe
In the universities of Medieval Europe, study was organized in four
faculties: the basic faculty of arts, and the three higher faculties
of theology, medicine, and law (canon law and civil law). All of these
faculties awarded intermediate degrees (bachelor of arts, of theology,
of laws, of medicine) and final degrees. Initially, the titles of
master and doctor were used interchangeably for the final
degrees—the title Doctor was merely a formality bestowed on a
Teacher/Master of the art—but by the late Middle Ages the terms
Master of Arts and Doctor of Theology/Divinity, Doctor of Law, and
Medicine had become standard in most places (though in the
German and Italian universities the term Doctor was used for all
The doctorates in the higher faculties were quite different from the
current PhD degree in that they were awarded for advanced scholarship,
not original research. No dissertation or original work was required,
only lengthy residency requirements and examinations. Besides these
degrees, there was the licentiate. Originally this was a license to
teach, awarded shortly before the award of the master or doctor degree
by the diocese in which the university was located, but later it
evolved into an academic degree in its own right, in particular in the
According to Keith Allan Noble (1994), the first doctoral degree was
awarded in medieval Paris around 1150. The doctorate of philosophy
developed in Germany as the terminal Teacher's credential in the 17th
century (c. 1652). There were no PhDs in Germany before the 1650s
(when they gradually started replacing the MA as the highest academic
degree; arguably one of the earliest German PhD holders is Erhard
Weigel (Dr. phil. hab., Leipzig, 1652).
In theory, the full course of studies might, for example, lead in
succession to the degrees of Bachelor of Arts, Licentiate of Arts,
Master of Arts or Bachelor of Medicine, Licentiate of Medicine, Doctor
of Medicine. But before the early modern era, there were many
exceptions to this. Most students left the university without becoming
masters of arts, whereas regulars (members of monastic orders) could
skip the arts faculty entirely.
Educational reforms in Germany
This situation changed in the early 19th century through the
educational reforms in Germany, most strongly embodied in the model of
the University of Berlin, founded and controlled by the Prussian
government in 1810. The arts faculty, which in Germany was labelled
the faculty of philosophy, started demanding contributions to
research, attested by a dissertation, for the award of their final
degree, which was labelled Doctor of
Philosophy (abbreviated as
Ph.D.)—originally this was just the German equivalent of the Master
of Arts degree. Whereas in the Middle Ages the arts faculty had a set
curriculum, based upon the trivium and the quadrivium, by the 19th
century it had come to house all the courses of study in subjects now
commonly referred to as sciences and humanities. Professors across
the humanities and sciences focused on their advanced research.
Practically all the funding came from the central government, and it
could be cut off if the professor was politically
unacceptable.[relevant? – discuss]
These reforms proved extremely successful, and fairly quickly the
German universities started attracting foreign students, notably from
the United States. The American students would go to Germany to obtain
a PhD after having studied for a bachelor's degrees at an American
college. So influential was this practice that it was imported to the
United States, where in 1861
Yale University started granting the PhD
degree to younger students who, after having obtained the bachelor's
degree, had completed a prescribed course of graduate study and
successfully defended a thesis or dissertation containing original
research in science or in the humanities. In Germany, the name of
the doctorate was adapted after the philosophy faculty started being
split up − e.g. Dr. rer. nat. for doctorates in the faculty of
natural sciences − but in most of the English-speaking world the
name "Doctor of Philosophy" was retained for research doctorates in
The PhD degree and similar awards spread across Europe in the 19th and
early 20th centuries. The degree was introduced in France in 1808,
replacing diplomas as the highest academic degree; into Russia in
1819, when the
Doktor Nauk degree, roughly equivalent to a PhD,
gradually started replacing the specialist diploma, roughly equivalent
to the MA, as the highest academic degree; and in Italy in 1927, when
PhDs gradually started replacing the
Laurea as the highest academic
History in the United Kingdom
Research degrees first appeared in the UK in the late 19th century in
the shape of the
Doctor of Science (DSc or ScD) and other such "higher
University of London
University of London introduced the DSc in 1860, but
as an advanced study course, following on directly from the BSc,
rather than a research degree. The first higher doctorate in the
modern sense was Durham University's DSc, introduced in 1882. This
was soon followed by other universities, including the University of
Cambridge establishing its ScD in the same year and the University of
London transforming its DSc into a research degree in 1885. These
were, however, very advanced degrees, rather than research-training
degrees at the PhD level—
Harold Jeffreys said that getting a
Cambridge ScD was "more or less equivalent to being proposed for the
Finally, in 1917 the current PhD degree was introduced, along the
lines of the American and German model, and quickly became popular
with both British and foreign students. The slightly older degrees
Doctor of Science and Doctor of Literature/Letters still exist at
British universities; together with the much older degrees of Doctor
of Divinity (DD),
Doctor of Music
Doctor of Music (DMus), Doctor of Civil
and Doctor of
Medicine (MD) they form the higher doctorates, but apart
from honorary degrees they are only infrequently awarded.
A new PhD graduate from the University of Birmingham shakes hands with
In the English (but not the Scottish) universities the Faculty of Arts
had become dominant by the early 19th century. Indeed, the higher
faculties had largely atrophied, since medical training had shifted to
teaching hospitals, the legal training for the common law system
was provided by the
Inns of Court
Inns of Court (with some minor exceptions, see
Doctors' Commons), and few students undertook formal study in
theology. This contrasted with the situation in the continental
European universities at the time, where the preparatory role of the
Philosophy or Arts was to a great extent taken over by
secondary education: in modern France, the
Baccalauréat is the
examination taken at the end of secondary studies. The reforms at the
Humboldt University transformed the Faculty of
Philosophy or Arts (and
its more recent successors such as the Faculty of Sciences) from a
lower faculty into one on a par with the Faculties of
There were similar developments in many other continental European
universities, and at least until reforms in the early 21st century
many European countries (e.g. Belgium, Spain, and the Scandinavian
countries) had in all faculties triple degree structures of bachelor
(or candidate) − licentiate − doctor as opposed to bachelor −
master − doctor; the meaning of the different degrees varied a lot
from country to country however. To this day this is also still the
case for the pontifical degrees in theology and canon law: for
Sacred theology the degrees are Bachelor of Sacred
Theology (STB), Licentiate of Sacred
Theology (STL), and Doctor of
Theology (STD), and in Canon law: Bachelor of Canon
Licentiate of Canon
Law (JCL), and Doctor of Canon
History in the United States
Yale University PhD diploma from 1861.
Until the mid-19th century, advanced degrees were not a criterion for
professorships at most colleges. That began to change as the more
ambitious scholars at major schools went to Germany for 1 to 3 years
to obtain a PhD in the sciences or humanities. Graduate
schools slowly emerged in the United States. In 1861, Yale awarded the
first three earned PhDs in North America to Eugene Schuyler, Arthur
Williams Wright, and James Morris Whiton, although honorary PhDs
had been awarded in the U.S. for almost a decade, with Bucknell
University awarding the first to Ebenezer Newton Elliott in 1852.
In the next two decades, NYU, the University of Pennsylvania, Harvard,
and Princeton also began granting the degree. Major shifts toward
graduate education were foretold by the opening of
Clark University in
1887, which only offered graduate programs and the Johns Hopkins
University which focused on its PhD program. By the 1890s, Harvard,
Columbia, Michigan and Wisconsin were building major graduate
programs, whose alumni were hired by new research universities. By
1900, 300 PhDs were awarded annually, most of them by six
universities. It was no longer necessary to study in Germany.
However, half of the institutions awarding earned PhDs in 1899 were
undergraduate institutions that granted the degree for work done away
from campus. Degrees awarded by universities without legitimate
PhD programs accounted for about a third of the 382 doctorates
recorded by the U.S. Department of Education in 1900, of which another
8–10% were honorary.
At the start of the 20th century, U.S. universities were held in low
regard internationally and many American students were still traveling
to Europe for PhDs. The lack of centralised authority meant anyone
could start a university and award PhDs. This led to the formation of
Association of American Universities
Association of American Universities by 14 leading research
universities (producing nearly 90% of the approximately 250 legitimate
research doctorates awarded in 1900), with one of the main goals being
to "raise the opinion entertained abroad of our own Doctor's
In Germany, the national government funded the universities and the
research programs of the leading professors. It was impossible for
professors who were not approved by Berlin to train graduate students.
In the United States, by contrast, private universities and state
universities alike were independent of the federal government.
Independence was high, but funding was low. The breakthrough came from
private foundations, which began regularly supporting research in
science and history; large corporations sometimes supported
engineering programs. The postdoctoral fellowship was established by
Rockefeller Foundation in 1919. Meanwhile, the leading
universities, in cooperation with the learned societies, set up a
network of scholarly journals. "Publish or perish" became the formula
for faculty advancement in the research universities. After World War
II, state universities across the country expanded greatly in
undergraduate enrollment, and eagerly added research programs leading
to masters or doctorate degrees. Their graduate faculties had to have
a suitable record of publication and research grants. Late in the 20th
century, "publish or perish" became increasingly important in colleges
and smaller universities.
A South African PhD graduate (on right, wearing ceremonial gown)
Detailed requirements for the award of a PhD degree vary throughout
the world and even from school to school. It is usually required for
the student to hold an
Honours degree or a
Master's Degree with high
academic standing, in order to be considered for a PhD
program. In the US, Canada, India, and Denmark, for
example, many universities require coursework in addition to research
for PhD degrees. In other countries (such as the UK) there is
generally no such condition, though this varies by university and
field. Some individual universities or departments specify
additional requirements for students not already in possession of a
bachelor's degree or equivalent or higher. In order to submit a
successful PhD admission application, copies of academic transcripts,
letters of recommendation, a research proposal, and a personal
statement are often required. Most universities also invite for a
special interview before admission.
A candidate must submit a project, thesis or dissertation often
consisting of a body of original academic research, which is in
principle worthy of publication in a peer-reviewed context. In many
countries a candidate must defend this work before a panel of expert
examiners appointed by the university; in other countries, the
dissertation is examined by a panel of expert examiners who stipulate
whether the dissertation is in principle passable and any issues that
need to be addressed before the dissertation can be passed.
Some universities in the non-English-speaking world have begun
adopting similar standards to those of the anglophone Ph.D. degree for
their research doctorates (see the Bologna process).
A PhD student or candidate is conventionally required to study on
campus under close supervision. With the popularity of distance
education and e-learning technologies, some universities now accept
students enrolled into a distance education part-time mode.
In a "sandwich Ph.D." program, PhD candidates do not spend their
entire study period at the same university. Instead, the Ph.D.
candidates spend the first and last periods of the program at their
home universities, and in between conduct research at another
institution or field research. Occasionally a "sandwich Ph.D."
will be awarded by two universities.
A PhD confirmation is a preliminary presentation or lecture that a PhD
candidate presents to faculty and possibly other interested
members.[where?] The lecture follows after a suitable topic has been
identified, and can include such matters as the aim of the research,
methodology, first results, planned (or finished) publications, etc.
The confirmation lecture can be seen as a trial run for the final
public defense, though faculty members at this stage can still largely
influence the direction of the research. At the end of the lecture,
the PhD candidate can be seen as "confirmed" – faculty members give
their approval and trust that the study is well directed and will with
high probability result in the candidate being successful.
In the United States, this is generally called advancing to Candidacy,
the confirmation event being called the Candidacy Examination.
Value and criticism
PhD students are often motivated to pursue the PhD by scientific and
humanistic curiosity, the desire to contribute to the academic
community, service to others, or personal development. A career in
academia generally requires a PhD, though, in some countries, it is
possible to reach relatively high positions without a doctorate. In
North America, professors are increasingly being required to have a
PhD, because the percentage of faculty with a PhD is used as a
university ratings measure.
The motivation may also include increased salary, but in many cases,
this is not the result.
Research by Casey suggests that, over all
subjects, PhDs provide an earnings premium of 26% over non-accredited
graduates, but notes that master's degrees provide a premium of 23%
and a bachelor's 14%. While this is a small return to the individual
(or even an overall deficit when tuition and lost earnings during
training are accounted for), he claims there are significant benefits
to society for the extra research training. However, some research
suggests that overqualified workers are often less satisfied and less
productive at their jobs. These difficulties are increasingly
being felt by graduates of professional degrees, such as law school,
looking to find employment. Ph.D. students often have to take on debt
to undertake their degree.
A PhD is also required in some positions outside academia, such as
research jobs in major international agencies. In some cases, the
Executive Directors of some types of foundations may be expected to
hold a PhD A PhD is sometimes felt to be a necessary
qualification in certain areas of employment, such as in foreign
U.S. News wrote in 2013 that "[i]f having a
master's degree at the minimum is de rigueur in Washington's foreign
policy world, it is no wonder many are starting to feel that the PhD
is a necessary escalation, another case of costly signaling to
potential employers." Similarly, an article on the Australian
public service states that "credentialism in the public service is
seeing a dramatic increase in the number of graduate positions going
to PhDs and masters degrees becoming the base entry level
The Economist published an article in 2010 citing various criticisms
against the state of Ph.D.s. These included a prediction by economist
Richard B. Freeman
Richard B. Freeman that, based on pre-2000 data, only 20% of life
science Ph.D. students would gain a faculty job in the U.S., and that
in Canada 80% of postdoctoral research fellows earned less than or
equal to an average construction worker ($38,600 a year). According to
the article, only the fastest developing countries (e.g. China or
Brazil) have a shortage of PhDs.
The US higher education systems often offers little incentive to move
students through Ph.D. programs quickly, and may even provide
incentive to slow them down. To counter this, the United States
Doctor of Arts
Doctor of Arts degree in 1970 with seed money from the
Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. The aim of the
Doctor of Arts
Doctor of Arts degree was to shorten the time needed to complete the
degree by focusing on pedagogy over research, although the Doctor of
Arts still contains a significant research component. Germany is one
of the few nations engaging these issues, and it has been doing so by
reconceptualising Ph.D. programs to be training for careers, outside
academia, but still at high-level positions. This development can be
seen in the extensive number of Ph.D. holders, typically from the
fields of law, engineering, and economics, at the very top corporate
and administrative positions. To a lesser extent, the UK research
councils have tackled the issue by introducing, since 1992, the
EngD.[clarification needed]
Mark C. Taylor opined in 2011 in Nature that total reform of Ph.D.
programs in almost every field is necessary in the U.S. and that
pressure to make the necessary changes will need to come from many
sources (students, administrators, public and private sectors,
etc.). Other articles in Nature have also examined the issue of
Freeman Dyson, professor emeritus at the Institute for Advanced Study
in Princeton, is opposed to the PhD system and does not have a PhD
In German-speaking nations; most Eastern European nations; successor
states of the former Soviet Union; most parts of Africa, Asia, and
many Spanish-speaking countries, the corresponding degree to a Doctor
Philosophy is simply called "Doctor" (Doktor), and the subject area
is distinguished by a
Latin suffix (e.g., "Dr. med." for Doctor
medicinae, Doctor of Medicine; "Dr. rer. nat." for Doctor rerum
naturalium, Doctor of the Natural Sciences; "Dr. phil." for Doctor
philosophiae, Doctor of Philosophy; "Dr. iur." for Doctor iuris,
Doctor of Laws).
Degrees around the globe
Main article: List of doctoral degrees awarded by country
Doctor (title) § Worldwide usage, and Doctorate
§ Practice by country
The UNESCO, in its International Standard Classification of Education
(ISCED), states that: "Programmes to be classified at
ISCED level 8
are referred to in many ways around the world such as PhD, DPhil,
D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D,
Doctorate or similar terms. However, it is
important to note that programmes with a similar name to 'doctor'
should only be included in
ISCED level 8 if they satisfy the criteria
described in Paragraph 263. For international comparability purposes,
the term 'doctoral or equivalent' is used to label
ISCED level 8".
See also: Education in Argentina
In Argentina, the admission to a PhD program at public Argentine
University requires the full completion of a
Master's degree or a
Licentiate degree. Non-Argentine Master's titles are generally
accepted into a PhD program when the degree comes from a recognized
While a significant portion of postgraduate students finance their
tuition and living costs with teaching or research work at private and
state-run institutions, international institutions, such as the
Fulbright Program and the Organization of American States (OAS), have
been known to grant full scholarships for tuition with apportions for
Requirements for completion
Upon completion of at least two years' research and coursework as a
graduate student, a candidate must demonstrate truthful and original
contributions to his or her specific field of knowledge within a frame
of academic excellence. The doctoral candidate's work should be
presented in a dissertation or thesis prepared under the supervision
of a tutor or director, and reviewed by a Doctoral Committee. This
Committee should be composed of examiners that are external to the
program, and at least one of them should also be external to the
institution. The academic degree of Doctor, respective to the
correspondent field of science that the candidate has contributed with
original and rigorous research, is received after a successful defense
of the candidate's dissertation.
Education in Australia
Education in Australia and Australian Qualifications
Admission to a Ph.D. program in Australia requires applicants to
demonstrate capacity to undertake research in the proposed field of
study. The standard requirement is a bachelor's degree with either
first-class or upper second-class honors.
Research master's degrees
and coursework master's degrees with a 25% research component are
usually considered equivalent. It is also possible for research
master's degree students to 'upgrade' to Ph.D. candidature after
demonstrating sufficient progress.
Ph.D. students are sometimes offered a scholarship to study for their
Ph.D. degree. The most common of these was the government-funded
Australian Postgraduate Award (APA) until its dissolution in 2017. It
was replaced by
Research Training Program (RTP), awarded to students
of "exceptional research potential", which provides a living stipend
to students of approximately A$27,000 a year (tax-free). RTPs are paid
for a duration of 3 years, while a 6-month extension is usually
possible upon citing delays out of the control of the student.
Some universities also fund a similar scholarship that matches the APA
amount. Due to a continual increase in living costs, many Ph.D.
students are forced to live under the poverty line. In addition to
the more common RTP and university scholarships, Australian students
have other sources of scholarship funding, coming from industry,
private enterprise, and organisations.
Australian citizens, permanent residents, and New Zealand citizens are
not charged course fees for their Ph.D. or research master's degree,
with the exception in some universities of the student services and
amenities fee (SSAF) which is set by each university and typically
involves the largest amount allowed by the Australian government. All
fees are paid for by the Australian government, except for the SSAF,
Research Training Program. International students and
coursework master's degree students must pay course fees unless they
receive a scholarship to cover them.
Requirements for completion
Completion requirements vary. Most Australian Ph.D. programs do not
have a required coursework component. The credit points attached to
the degree are all in the product of the research, which is usually an
80,000-word thesis that makes a significant new contribution to the
field. Recent pressure on higher degree by research (HDR) students to
publish has resulted in increasing interest in Ph.D by publication as
opposed to the more traditional Ph.D by dissertation, which typically
requires a minimum of two publications, but which also requires
traditional thesis elements such as an introductory exegesis, and
linking chapters between papers . The Ph.D. thesis is sent to
external examiners who are experts in the field of research and who
have not been involved in the work. Examiners are nominated by the
candidate's university and their identities are often not revealed to
the candidate until the examination is complete. A formal oral defence
is generally not part of the examination of the thesis, largely
because of the distances that would need to be travelled by the
overseas examiners; however, since 2016, some there is a trend toward
implementing this in many Australian universities.
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this
section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material
may be challenged and removed. (November 2017) (Learn how and when to
remove this template message)
Admission to a doctoral programme at a Canadian university usually
requires completion of a
Master's degree in a related field, with
sufficiently high grades and proven research ability. In some cases, a
student may progress directly from an Honours
Bachelor's degree to a
Ph.D. program; other programs allow a student to fast-track to a
doctoral program after one year of outstanding work in a Master's
program (without having to complete the Master's).
An application package typically includes a research proposal, letters
of reference, transcripts, and in some cases, a writing sample or
Graduate Record Examinations
Graduate Record Examinations scores. A common criterion for
prospective Ph.D. students is the comprehensive or qualifying
examination, a process that often commences in the second year of a
graduate program. Generally, successful completion of the qualifying
exam permits continuance in the graduate program. Formats for this
examination include oral examination by the student's faculty
committee (or a separate qualifying committee), or written tests
designed to demonstrate the student's knowledge in a specialized area
(see below) or both.
At English-speaking universities, a student may also be required to
English language abilities, usually by achieving an
acceptable score on a standard examination (for example the Test of
English as a Foreign Language). Depending on the field, the student
may also be required to demonstrate ability in one or more additional
languages. A prospective student applying to French-speaking
universities may also have to demonstrate some English language
While some students work outside the university (or at student jobs
within the university), in some programs students are advised (or must
agree) not to devote more than ten hours per week to activities (e.g.,
employment) outside of their studies, particularly if they have been
given funding. For large and prestigious scholarships, such as those
NSERC and Fonds québécois de la recherche sur la nature et les
technologies, this is an absolute requirement.
At some Canadian universities, most Ph.D. students receive an award
equivalent to part or all of the tuition amount for the first four
years (this is sometimes called a tuition deferral or tuition waiver).
Other sources of funding include teaching assistantships and research
assistantships; experience as a teaching assistant is encouraged but
not requisite in many programs. Some programs may require all Ph.D.
candidates to teach, which may be done under the supervision of their
supervisor or regular faculty. Besides these sources of funding, there
are also various competitive scholarships, bursaries, and awards
available, such as those offered by the federal government via NSERC,
CIHR, or SSHRC.
Requirements for completion
In general, the first two years of study are devoted to completion of
coursework and the comprehensive examinations. At this stage, the
student is known as a "Ph.D. student" or "doctoral student". It is
usually expected that the student will have completed most of his or
her required coursework by the end of this stage. Furthermore, it is
usually required that by the end of eighteen to thirty-six months
after the first registration, the student will have successfully
completed the comprehensive exams.
Upon successful completion of the comprehensive exams, the student
becomes known as a "Ph.D. candidate". From this stage on, the bulk of
the student's time will be devoted to his or her own research,
culminating in the completion of a Ph.D. thesis or dissertation. The
final requirement is an oral defense of the thesis, which is open to
the public in some, but not all, universities. At most Canadian
universities, the time needed to complete a Ph.D. degree typically
ranges from four to six years. It is, however, not
uncommon for students to be unable to complete all the requirements
within six years, particularly given that funding packages often
support students for only two to four years; many departments will
allow program extensions at the discretion of the thesis supervisor
and/or department chair. Alternate arrangements exist whereby a
student is allowed to let their registration in the program lapse at
the end of six years and re-register once the thesis is completed in
draft form. The general rule is that graduate students are obligated
to pay tuition until the initial thesis submission has been received
by the thesis office. In other words, if a Ph.D. student defers or
delays the initial submission of their thesis they remain obligated to
pay fees until such time that the thesis has been received in good
In Colombia, the Ph.D. course admission may require a master's degree
(Magíster) in some universities, specially public universities.
However, it could also be applied for a direct doctorate in specific
cases, according to the jury's recommendations on the thesis proposal.
Most of postgraduate students in Colombia must finance their tuition
fees by means of teaching assistant seats or research works. Some
institutions such as Colciencias, Colfuturo, and Icetex grant
scholarships or provide awards in the form of forgivable loans.
Requirements for completion
After two or two and a half years it is expected the research work of
the doctoral candidate to be submitted in the form of oral
qualification, where suggestions and corrections about the research
hypothesis and methodology, as well as on the course of the research
work are performed. The Ph.D. degree is only received after a
successful defense of the candidate's thesis is performed (four or
five years after the enrollment), and most of the times also requiring
the most important results having been published in at least one
peer-reviewed high impact international journal.
In Finland, the degree of filosofian tohtori (abbreviated FT) is
awarded by traditional universities, such as University of Helsinki. A
Master's degree is required, and the doctorate combines approximately
4–5 years of research (amounting to 3–5 scientific articles, some
of which must be first-author) and 60 ECTS points of studies.
Other universities such as
Aalto University award degrees such as
tekniikan tohtori (TkT, engineering), taiteen tohtori (TaT, art),
etc., which are translated in English to
Doctor of Science (D.Sc.),
and they are formally equivalent. The licentiate (filosofian
lisensiaatti or FL) requires only 2–3 years of research and is
sometimes done before an FT.
Doctorate § France
Before 1984 three research doctorates existed in France: the State
doctorate (doctorat d'État, the old doctorate introduced in 1808),
the third cycle doctorate (doctorat de troisième cycle, created in
1954 and shorter than the State doctorate) and the diploma of
doctor-engineer (diplôme de docteur-ingénieur created in 1923), for
technical research. After 1984, only one type of doctoral degree
remained, called "doctorate" (Doctorat). The latter is equivalent to
Students pursuing the Ph.D. degree must first complete a master's
degree program, which takes two years after graduation with a
bachelor's degree (five years in total). The candidate must find
funding and a formal doctoral advisor (Directeur de thèse) with an
habilitation throughout the doctoral program.
The Ph.D. admission is granted by a graduate school (in French,
"école doctorale"). A Ph.D. candidate can follow some in-service
training offered by the graduate school while continuing his or her
research at laboratory. His or her research may be carried out in a
laboratory, at a university, or in a company. In the last case, the
company hires the candidate and he or she is supervised by both the
company's tutor and a labs' professor. The validation of the Ph.D.
degree requires generally 3 to 4 years after the master's degree.
The financing of Ph.D. research comes mainly from funds for research
of the French Ministry of Higher Education and Research. The most
common procedure is a short-term employment contract called doctoral
contract: the institution of higher education is the employer and the
Ph.D. candidate the employee. However, the candidate can apply for
funds from a company who can host him or her at its premises (as in
the case where Ph.D. candidates do their research in a company). As
another encountered situation, the company and the institute can sign
together a funding agreement so that the candidate still has a public
doctoral contract, but is daily located in the company (for example,
it is particularly the case of (French) Scientific Cooperation
Foundation). Many other resources come from some regional/city
projects, some associations, etc.
In India, generally, a master's degree is required to gain admission
to a doctoral program. Direct admission to a Ph.D. programme after
bachelors is also offered by the IITs, the IIITs, the NITs and the
Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research. In some subjects, doing
a Masters in
Philosophy (M.Phil.) is a prerequisite to starting a
Ph.D. For funding/fellowship, it is required to qualify for the
National Eligibility Test for Lectureship and Junior Research
fellowship (NET for LS and JRF) conducted by the federal research
organisation Council of Scientific and Industrial
Research (CSIR) and
University Grants Commission (UGC).
In the last few years, there have been many changes in the rules
relating to a Ph.D. in India. According to the new
rules described by UGC, universities must have to conduct entrance
exams in general ability and the selected subject. After clearing
these tests, the shortlisted candidates need to appear for an
interview by the available supervisor/guide. After successful
completion of the coursework, the students are required to give
presentations of the research proposal (plan of work or synopsis) at
the beginning, submit progress reports, give a pre-submission
presentation and finally defend the thesis in an open defence
See also: Education in Germany
In Germany, admission to a doctoral program is generally on the basis
of having an advanced degree (i.e., a master's degree, diplom,
magister, or staatsexamen), mostly in a related field and having
above-average grades. A candidate must also find a tenured professor
from a university to serve as the formal advisor and supervisor
(Betreuer) of the dissertation throughout the doctoral program called
Promotion. This supervisor is informally referred to as Doktorvater or
Doktormutter, which literally translate to "doctor's father" and
"doctor's mother" respectively.
While most German doctorates are considered equivalent to the PhD, an
exception is the medical doctorate, where "doctoral" dissertations are
often written alongside undergraduate study. The European Research
Council decided in 2010 that those doctorates do not meet the
international standards of a PhD research degree. There are
different forms of university-level institution in Germany, but only
professors from "Universities" (Univ.-Prof.) can serve as doctoral
supervisors – "Universities of Applied Sciences" (Fachhochschulen)
are not entitled to award doctorates, although some exceptions
apply to this rule.
Depending on the university, doctoral students (Doktoranden) can be
required to attend formal classes or lectures, some of them also
including exams or other scientific assignments, in order to get one
or more certificates of qualification (Qualifikationsnachweise).
Depending on the doctoral regulations (Promotionsordnung) of the
university and sometimes on the status of the doctoral student, such
certificates may not be required. Usually, former students, research
assistants or lecturers from the same university, may be spared from
attending extra classes. Instead, under the tutelage of a single
professor or advisory committee, they are expected to conduct
independent research. In addition to doctoral studies, many doctoral
candidates work as teaching assistants, research assistants, or
Many universities have established research-intensive
Graduiertenkollegs ("graduate colleges"), which are graduate schools
that provide funding for doctoral studies.
The usual duration of a doctoral program largely depends on the
subject and area of research; but, often three to five years of
full-time research work are required.
In 2014, the median age of new Ph.D. graduates was 30.4 years of
USSR, Russian Federation and former Soviet Republics
The examples and perspective in this article or section might have an
extensive bias or disproportional coverage towards one or more
specific regions. Please improve this article or discuss the issue on
the talk page. (November 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this
The degree of
Candidate of Sciences
Candidate of Sciences (Russian: кандидат
наук, Kandidat Nauk) was the first advanced research qualification
in the former USSR (it was introduced there in 1934) and some Eastern
Bloc countries (Czechoslovakia, Hungary) and is still awarded in some
post-Soviet states (Russian Federation, Belarus, and others).
According to "Guidelines for the recognition of Russian qualifications
in the other countries", in countries with a two-tier system of
doctoral degrees (like Russian Federation, some post-Soviet states,
Germany, Poland, Austria and Switzerland), should be considered for
recognition at the level of the first doctoral degree, and in
countries with only one doctoral degree, the degree of Kandidat Nauk
should be considered for recognition as equivalent to this Ph.D.
As most education systems only have one advanced research
qualification granting doctoral degrees or equivalent qualifications
ISCED 2011, par.270), the degree of Candidate of Sciences
(Kandidat Nauk) of the former USSR counties is usually considered at
the same level as the doctorate or Ph.D. degrees of those
According to the Joint Statement by the Permanent Conference of the
Ministers for Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder of the
Federal Republic of Germany (Kultusministerkonferenz, KMK), German
Rectors' Conference (HRK) and the Ministry of General and Professional
Education of the Russian Federation, the degree of Kandidat Nauk is
recognised in Germany at the level of the German degree of Doktor and
the degree of
Doktor Nauk at the level of German Habilitation.
The Russian degree of Kandidat Nauk is also officially recognised by
the Government of the
French Republic as equivalent to French
According to the International Standard Classification of Education
(ISCED) 2011, for purposes of international educational statistics,
Kandidat Nauk (Candidate of Sciences) belongs to
ISCED level 8, or
"doctoral or equivalent", together with Ph.D., D.Phil., D.Litt.,
Doctorate or similar. It is mentioned in the Russian
ISCED 2011 (par.262) on the
UNESCO website as an equivalent
to Ph.D. belonging to this level. In the same way as Ph.D. degrees
awarded in many English-speaking countries, Kandidat Nauk (Candidate
of Sciences) allows its holders to reach the level of the Docent.
The second doctorate (or post-doctoral degree) in some
post-Soviet states called
Doctor of Sciences (Russian: доктор
наук, Doktor Nauk) is given as an example of second advanced
research qualifications or higher doctorates in
(par.270) and is similar to
Habilitation in Germany, Poland and
several other countries. It constitutes a higher qualification
compared to Ph.D. as against the European Qualifications Framework
(EQF) or Dublin Descriptors.
About 88% of Russian students studying at state universities study at
the expense of budget funds. The average stipend in Russia (as of
August 2011) is $430 a year ($35/month). The average tuition fee
in graduate school is $2,000 per year.
Dottorato di ricerca (research doctorate), abbreviated to "Dott.
Ric." or "Ph.D.", is an academic title awarded at the end of a course
of not less than three years, admission to which is based on entrance
examinations and academic rankings in the
Bachelor of Arts ("Laurea
Master of Arts ("
Laurea Magistrale" or "Laurea
Specialistica"). While the standard Ph.D. follows the Bologna process,
M.D.-Ph.D. programme may be completed in two years.
The first institution in Italy to create a doctoral program (Ph.D.)
Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa
Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa in 1927 under the historic name
Diploma di Perfezionamento". Further, the research doctorates
or Ph.D. (Dottorato di ricerca) in Italy were introduced by law and
Presidential Decree in 1980, referring to the reform of
academic teaching, training and experimentation in organisation and
Hence, the Superior Graduate Schools in Italy (Scuola Superiore
Universitaria), also called Schools of Excellence (Scuole di
Eccellenza) such as
Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa
Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa and
Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies
Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies still keep their reputed
Diploma di Perfezionamento" Ph.D. title by law and
Doctorate courses are open, without age or citizenship limits, to all
those who already hold a "laurea magistrale" (master degree) or
similar academic title awarded abroad which has been recognised as
equivalent to an Italian degree by the Committee responsible for the
The number of places on offer each year and details of the entrance
examinations are set out in the examination announcement.
A doctoral degree (Pol. doktor), abbreviated to Ph.D. (Pol. dr) is an
advanced academic degree awarded by universities in most
fields as well as by the Polish Academy of
Sciences, regulated by the
Polish parliament acts and the
government orders, in particular by the Ministry of Science and Higher
Education of the Republic of Poland. Commonly, students with a
master's degree or equivalent are accepted to a doctoral entrance
exam. The title of Ph.D. is awarded to a scientist who 1) completed a
minimum of 3 years of Ph.D. studies (Pol. studia doktoranckie; not
required to obtain Ph.D.), 2) finished his/her theoretical and/or
laboratory's scientific work, 3) passed all Ph.D. examinations, 4)
submitted his/her dissertation, a document presenting the author's
research and findings, 5) successfully defended his/her doctoral
thesis. Typically, upon completion, the candidate undergoes an oral
examination, always public, by his/her supervisory committee with
expertise in the given discipline.
Starting in 2016, in Ukraine Doctor of
Philosophy (PhD, Ukrainian:
Доктор філософії) is the highest education level and
the first science degree. PhD is awarded in recognition of a
substantial contribution to scientific knowledge, origination of new
directions and visions in science. A PhD degree is a prerequisite for
heading a university department in Ukraine. Upon completion of a PhD,
a PhD holder can elect to continue his studies and get a post-doctoral
degree called "Doctor of Sciences" (DSc. Ukrainian: Доктор
наук), which is the second and the highest science degree in
The doctorate was introduced in Sweden in 1477 and in Denmark-Norway
in 1479 and awarded in theology, law, and medicine, while the
magister's degree was the highest degree at the Faculty of Philosophy,
equivalent to the doctorate.
Scandinavian countries were among the early adopters of a degree known
as a doctorate of philosophy, based upon the German model. Denmark and
Norway both introduced the Dr. Phil(os). degree in 1824, replacing the
Magister's degree as the highest degree, while
Uppsala University of
Sweden renamed its Magister's degree Filosofie Doktor (fil. dr) in
1863. These degrees, however, became comparable to the German
Habilitation rather than the doctorate, as Scandinavian countries did
not have a separate Habilitation.
The degrees were uncommon and not a prerequisite for employment as a
professor; rather, they were seen as distinctions similar to the
British (higher) doctorates (D.Litt., D.Sc.). Denmark introduced an
American-style Ph.D. in 1989; it formally replaced the Licentiate's
degree and is considered a lower degree than the dr. phil. degree;
officially, the ph.d. is not considered a doctorate, but unofficially,
it is referred to as "the smaller doctorate", as opposed to the dr.
phil., "the grand doctorate". Holders of a ph.d. degree are not
entitled to style themselves as "Dr." Currently Denmark
distinctions between the dr. phil. as the proper doctorate and a
higher degree than the ph.d., whereas in Norway, the historically
analogous dr. philos. degree is officially regarded as equivalent to
the new ph.d.
In Sweden, the doctorate of philosophy was introduced at Uppsala
University's Faculty of
Philosophy in 1863. In Sweden, the
is officially translated into Swedish filosofie doktor and commonly
abbreviated fil. dr or FD. The degree represents the traditional
Philosophy and encompasses subjects from biology, physics,
and chemistry, to languages, history, and social sciences, being the
highest degree in these disciplines. Sweden currently has two
research-level degrees, the Licentiate's degree, which is comparable
to the Danish degree formerly known as the Licentiate's degree and now
as the ph.d., and the higher doctorate of philosophy, Filosofie
Doktor. Some universities in Sweden also use the term teknologie
doktor for doctorates awarded by institutes of technology (for
doctorates in engineering or natural science related subjects such as
materials science, molecular biology, computer science etc.). The
Swedish term fil. dr is often also used as a translation of
corresponding degrees from e.g. Denmark and Norway.
Singapore has six universities offering doctoral study opportunities:
National University of Singapore, Nanyang Technological University,
Singapore Management University, Singapore Institute of Technology,
Singapore University of Technology and Design, and Singapore
University of Social Sciences.
Doctoral degrees are regulated by Real Decreto (Royal Decree in
Spanish) 99/2011 from the 2014/2015 academic year. They are
granted by a university on behalf of the King, and its diploma has the
force of a public document. The Ministry of Science keeps a National
Registry of Theses called TESEO.
All doctoral programs are of a research nature. A minimum of three
years of study are required, in one stage only:
A 3-year (or longer) period of research. Extensions may be requested
for maximum 5 years. The student must write his thesis presenting a
new discovery or original contribution to science. If approved by her
or his "thesis director (or directors)", the study will be presented
to a panel of 5 distinguished scholars. Any doctor attending the
public presentations is allowed to challenge the candidate with
questions on his research. If approved, he will receive the doctorate.
Four marks can be granted: Unsatisfactory, Pass, Satisfactory, and
Excellent. "Cum laude" (with all honours, in Latin) denomination can
be added to the Excellent ones if all five members of the tribunal
A doctoral degree is required to apply to a long-term teaching
position at a university.
The social standing of doctors in Spain is evidenced by the fact that
only Ph.D. holders,
Grandees and Dukes can take seat and cover their
heads in the presence of the King. All Doctor Degree holders are
reciprocally recognized as equivalent in Germany and Spain ("Bonn
Agreement of November 14, 1994").
See also: Doctorates in the United Kingdom
Universities admit applicants to Ph.D. programs on a case-by-case
basis; depending on the university, admission is typically conditional
on the prospective student having completed an undergraduate degree
with at least upper second-class honours or a postgraduate master's
degree but requirements can vary.
In the case of the University of Oxford, for example, "The one
essential condition of being accepted … is evidence of previous
academic excellence, and of future potential." Some UK
universities (e.g. Oxford) abbreviate their Doctor of Philosophy
degree as "DPhil", while most use the abbreviation "PhD"; these are in
all other respects equivalent. Commonly, students are first accepted
MRes programme and may transfer to Ph.D. regulations
upon satisfactory progress, this is sometimes referred to as APG
(Advanced Postgraduate) status. This is typically done after one or
two years and the research work done may count towards the Ph.D.
degree. If a student fails to make satisfactory progress, he or she
may be offered the opportunity to write up and submit for an MPhil
degree as is the case at the
King's College London
King's College London and University of
Manchester. In many universities, the
MPhil is also offered as a
stand-alone research degree.
Ph.D. students from countries outside the EU/EFTA area are required to
comply with the
Academic Technology Approval Scheme (ATAS), which
involves undergoing a security clearance process with the Foreign
Office for certain courses in medicine, mathematics, engineering and
material sciences. This requirement was introduced in 2007
due to concerns about overseas terrorism and weapons
In the United Kingdom, funding for Ph.D. students is sometimes
provided by government-funded
Research Councils or the European Social
Fund, usually in the form of a tax-free bursary which consists of
tuition fees together with a stipend.
Tuition fees are charged at
different rates for "Home/EU" and "Overseas" students, generally
£3,000–£6,000 per year for the former and £9,000–14,500 for the
latter (which includes EU citizens who have not been normally resident
in the EEA for the last three years), although this can rise to over
£16,000 at elite institutions. Higher fees are often charged for
The stipend is around £13,000 per year for three years,
(sometimes higher by £2,000–3,000 in London), whether or not the
degree continues for longer (within the usual four-year span). This
implies that the fourth year of Ph.D. work is often unfunded. A very
small number of scientific studentships are sometimes paid at a higher
rate - for example, in London, Cancer
Research UK, the ICR and the
Wellcome Trust stipend rates start at around £19,000 and progress
annually to around £23,000 a year; an amount that is tax and national
Research Council funding is sometimes 'earmarked' for
a particular department or research group, who then allocate it to a
chosen student, although in doing so they are generally expected to
abide by the usual minimum entry requirements (typically a first
degree with upper second class honours, although successful completion
of a postgraduate master's degree is usually counted as raising the
class of the first degree by one division for these purposes). The
availability of funding in many disciplines (especially humanities,
social studies and pure science subjects) means that
in practice only those with the best research proposals, references
and backgrounds are likely to be awarded a studentship. The ESRC
(Economic and Social Science
Research Council) explicitly state that a
2.1 minimum (or 2.2 plus additional master's degree) is required—no
additional marks are given for students with a first class honours or
a distinction at masters level. Since 2002, there has been a move by
research councils to fund interdisciplinary doctoral training centres
which concentrate resources on fewer higher quality centres.
Many students who are not in receipt of external funding may choose to
undertake the degree part-time, thus reducing the tuition fees, as
well as creating free time in which to earn money for subsistence.
Students may also take part in tutoring, work as research assistants,
or (occasionally) deliver lectures, at a rate of typically £12-14 per
hour, either to supplement existing low income or as a sole means of
Ph.D. gown, University of Cambridge
There is usually a preliminary assessment to remain in the program and
the thesis is submitted at the end of a three- to four-year program.
These periods are usually extended pro rata for part-time students.
With special dispensation, the final date for the thesis can be
extended for up to four additional years, for a total of seven, but
this is rare. For full-time Ph.D.s, a 4-year time limit has now
been fixed and students must apply for an extension to submit a thesis
past this point. Since the early 1990s, British funding councils have
adopted a policy of penalising departments where large proportions of
students fail to submit their theses in four years after achieving
Ph.D.-student status (or pro rata equivalent) by reducing the number
of funded places in subsequent years. Inadvertently, this leads
to significant pressure on the candidate to minimise the scope of
projects with a view on thesis submission, regardless of quality, and
discourage time spent on activities that would otherwise further the
impact of the research on the community (e.g. publications in high
impact journals, seminars, workshops). Furthermore, supervising staff
are encouraged in their career progression to ensure that the Ph.D.
students under their supervision finalise the projects in three rather
than the four years that the program is permitted to cover. These
issues contribute to an overall discrepancy between supervisors and
Ph.D. candidates in the priority they assign to the quality and impact
of the research contained in a Ph.D. project, the former favouring
quick Ph.D. projects over several students and the latter favouring a
larger scope for their own ambitious project, training, and
There has recently been an increase in the number of Integrated Ph.D.
programs available, such as at the University of Southampton. These
courses include a Master of
Research (MRes) in the first year, which
consists of a taught component as well as laboratory rotation
projects. The Ph.D. must then be completed within the next 3 years. As
this includes the
MRes all deadlines and timeframes are brought
forward to encourage completion of both
MRes and Ph.D. within 4 years
from commencement. These programs are designed to provide students
with a greater range of skills than a standard Ph.D., and for the
university, they are a means of gaining an extra years' fees from
In the United Kingdom, Ph.D. degrees are distinct from other
doctorates, most notably the higher doctorates such as
of Letters) or
D.Sc. (Doctor of Science), which may be granted on the
recommendation of a committee of examiners on the basis of a
substantial portfolio of submitted (and usually published) research.
However, some UK universities still maintain the option of submitting
a thesis for the award of a higher doctorate.
Recent years have seen the introduction of professional doctorates
(D.Prof or ProfD), which are the same level as Ph.D.s but more
specific in their field. These tend not to be solely academic,
but combine academic research, a taught component and a professional
qualification. These are most notably in the fields of engineering
(Eng.D.), education (Ed.D.), educational psychology (D.Ed.Psych),
occupational psychology (D.Occ Psych.) clinical psychology
(D.Clin.Psych.), health psychology (DHealthPsy), social work (DSW),
nursing (DNP), public administration (DPA), business administration
(DBA), and music (DMA). These typically have a more formal taught
component consisting of smaller research projects, as well as a
40,000–60,000-word thesis component, which together are officially
considered equivalent to a Ph.D. degree.
Main article: Graduate science education in the United States
Doctorate § United States
In the United States, the Ph.D. degree is the highest academic degree
awarded by universities in most fields of study. There are 282
universities in the United States that award the Ph.D. degree, and
those universities vary widely in their criteria for admission, as
well as the rigor of their academic programs.
U.S. students typically undergo a series of three phases in the course
of their work toward the Ph.D. degree. The first phase consists of
coursework in the student's field of study and requires one to three
years to complete. This often is followed by a preliminary, a
comprehensive examination, or a series of cumulative examinations
where the emphasis is on breadth rather than depth of knowledge. The
student is often later required to pass oral and written examinations
in the field of specialization within the discipline, and here, depth
is emphasized. Some Ph.D. programs require the candidate to
successfully complete requirements in pedagogy (taking courses on
higher level teaching and teaching undergraduate courses) or applied
science (e.g., clinical practice and predoctoral clinical internship
in Ph.D. programs in clinical, counseling, or school
Another two to eight years are usually required for the composition of
a substantial and original contribution to human knowledge in the form
of a written dissertation, which in the social sciences and humanities
typically ranges from 50 to 450 pages. In many cases, depending on the
discipline, a dissertation consists of a comprehensive literature
review, an outline of methodology, and several chapters of scientific,
social, historical, philosophical, or literary analysis. Typically,
upon completion, the candidate undergoes an oral examination,
sometimes public, by his or her supervisory committee with expertise
in the given discipline.
Typically, Ph.D. programs require applicants to have a bachelor's
degree in a relevant field (and, in many cases in the humanities, a
master's degree), reasonably high grades, several letters of
recommendation, relevant academic coursework, a cogent statement of
interest in the field of study, and satisfactory performance on a
graduate-level exam specified by the respective program (e.g., GRE,
Depending on the specific field of study, completion of a Ph.D.
program usually takes four to eight years of study after the
Bachelor's Degree; those students who begin a Ph.D. program with a
master's degree may complete their Ph.D. degree a year or two
sooner. As Ph.D. programs typically lack the formal structure of
undergraduate education, there are significant individual differences
in the time taken to complete the degree. Overall, 57% of students who
begin a Ph.D. program in the US will complete their degree within ten
years, approximately 30% will drop out or be dismissed, and the
remaining 13% of students will continue on past ten years.
The number of Ph.D. diplomas awarded by US universities has risen
nearly every year since 1957, according to data compiled by the US
National Science Foundation. In 1957, US universities awarded 8,611
Ph.D. diplomas; 20,403 in 1967; 31,716 in 1977; 32,365 in 1987; 42,538
in 1997; 48,133 in 2007, and 55,006 in 2015.
Ph.D. students at U.S. universities typically receive a tuition waiver
and some form of annual stipend. Many U.S. Ph.D.
students work as teaching assistants or research assistants. Graduate
schools increasingly encourage their students to seek
outside funding; many are supported by fellowships they obtain for
themselves or by their advisers' research grants from government
agencies such as the
National Science Foundation
National Science Foundation and the National
Institutes of Health. Many
Ivy League and other well-endowed
universities provide funding for the entire duration of the degree
program (if it is short) or for most of it.
Models of supervision
At some universities, there may be training for those wishing to
supervise Ph.D. studies. There is now a lot of literature published
for academics who wish to do this, such as Delamont, Atkinson, and
Parry (1997). Indeed, Dinham and Scott (2001) have argued that the
worldwide growth in research students has been matched by increase in
a number of what they term "how-to" texts for both students and
supervisors, citing examples such as Pugh and Phillips (1987). These
authors report empirical data on the benefits that a Ph.D. candidate
may gain if he or she publishes work, and note that Ph.D. students are
more likely to do this with adequate encouragement from their
Wisker (2005) has noticed how research into this field has
distinguished between two models of supervision: The
technical-rationality model of supervision, emphasising technique; The
negotiated order model, being less mechanistic and emphasising fluid
and dynamic change in the Ph.D. process. These two models were first
distinguished by Acker, Hill and Black (1994; cited in Wisker, 2005).
Considerable literature exists on the expectations that supervisors
may have of their students (Phillips & Pugh, 1987) and the
expectations that students may have of their supervisors (Phillips
& Pugh, 1987; Wilkinson, 2005) in the course of Ph.D. supervision.
Similar expectations are implied by the Quality Assurance Agency's
Code for Supervision (Quality Assurance Agency, 1999; cited in
International PhD equivalent degrees
Albania: Doktorature (Dr.)
Algeria: Doctorat, دكتوراه
Armenia: գիտությունների թեկնածու, դոցենտ
Austria: Doktor (Dr., plural: DDr.)
Azerbaijan: Doktorantura (Dr.)
Belarus: кандидат наук
Belgium (Dutch-speaking): Doctor
Belgium (French-speaking): Doctorat
Bosnia and Herzegovina: Doktor
China: 博士 (Bo-shi)
Costa Rica: Ph.D. or
Czech Republic: CSc. and DrSc. was used till 1998, since 1998 Ph.D.
written as Ph.D. is used
Denmark: Licentiate, Magister, Ph.D. (the doctorates are higher
Dominican Republic: Doctorado
El Salvador: Doctorado
Egypt: Doctorat, دكتوراه
Estonia: Doktor (Dr)
Ethiopia: ዶክተር, Doctor (Ph.D., Dr.)
Finland: Filosofian tohtori and any degree of tohtori
Hong Kong: 博士 (Doctor)
Hungary: Doktor (Dr.)
Iran: دکترا (Doctora)
Iraq: دكتوراه (Duktorah)
Ireland: an Doctúireacht
Israel: דוקטורט ("doctorat")
Italy: Dottorato di ricerca
Japan: 博士 (hakushi)
Jordan: دكتوراه (Doctorah)
Korea: 박사 (baksa)
Kuwait: دكتوراه (Dektoraah)
Kurdistan: دكتوراه (Doctorah)
Latin America: Doctorado/Doctorate
Latvia: Zinātņu doktors
Lebanon: دكتوراه (doktorah)
Macau: 博士 (Doutoramento)
Malaysia: Doktor Falsafah
Mauritius: Doctor of
Nigeria: Doctor of
Norway: Magister, Licentiate, doctorates (traditionally considered
higher degrees), Ph.D.
Palestine: دكتوراه (doktorah)
Paraguay: Ph.D. or
Russia: кандидат наук (PhD junior grade), ru: доктор
наук (PhD senior grade)
Saudi Arabia دكتوراه
Slovakia: Ph.D. or Doctor (Dr.)
Slovenia: Doktor znanosti
Sweden: Filosofie doktor (fil.dr., FD)
Syria: دكتوراه (doktorah)
Taiwan： 博士 (Mandarin: Bo-shi; Taiwanese: Phok-sū)
Tunisia: دكتوراه (doktorah)
United Arab Emirates: ar:دكتوراه (doktorah)
United Kingdom: Doctor of
Philosophy (PhD, doctor, the abbreviation
DPhil is used only by the
University of Oxford
University of Oxford and the University of
United States: Doctor of
Ukraine: uk: Доктор філософії (PhD)
Uzbekistan: Fan nomzodi (CSc.)
Vietnam: Tiến sĩ
History of higher education in the United States#Graduate schools
List of fields of doctoral studies in the United States
PhD in management, a program designed for students interested in
becoming university professors in the field of business
D.P.S., Doctor of Professional Studies
Piled Higher and Deeper, Life (or the lack thereof) in Academia, a
comic strip by Jorge Cham
Terminal degree, the highest degree awarded in a field, usually a PhD
Notes and references
^ a b Dinham, S.; Scott, C. (2001). "The Experience of Disseminating
the Results of Doctoral Research". Journal of Further and Higher
Education. 25: 45–55. doi:10.1080/03098770020030498.
^ Kirsti Koch Christensen (2005). "BOLOGNA SEMINAR: DOCTORAL
PROGRAMMES FOR THE EUROPEAN KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY" (PDF). European
^ Sooyoung Chang, Academic Genealogy of Mathematicians, World
Scientific, 2010, p. 183.
^ "PhD". Oxford Living Dictionaries – British and World English.
Oxford University Press. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
^ "Ph.D." Oxford Living Dictionaries – North American English.
Oxford University Press. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
^ "PhD". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
^ Robert Currie (1994). "The Arts and Social Studies, 1914–1939". In
Brian Harrison. The History of the University of Oxford: The twentieth
century. Clarendon Press. p. 125. ISBN 9780198229742. Very
few persons had received even an honorary DLitt by 1916 when the
Reverend E. M. Walker, Senior Tutor of Queen's, proposed, as the
Oxford Magazine put it, that the University 'should divert the stream'
of American aspirants to the German universities' degree of
philosophiae doctor by opening the DLitt to persons offering a
suitable dissertation nine terms after graduation. Apart from a
successful move led by Sidney Ball, philosophy tutor at St John's, to
distinguish the proposed arrangement from both the DLitt and the
German PhD by adopting the English title 'doctor of philosophy'
(DPhil), the scheme meet with little opposition
^ "What is a DPhil?". University of Oxford,. A DPhil is the Oxford
term for a PhD.
^ Allan Noble, Keith (2001). "Changing doctoral degrees: an
international perspective, Society for
Research into Higher Education,
1994, p. 8; Bourner, T., Bowden, R., & Laing, S. (2001).
"Professional doctorates in England". Studies in Higher Education. 26
(1): 65–88. doi:10.1080/03075070020030724.
^ Pedersen, Olaf (1997). The first universities: Studium generale and
the origins of university education in Europe. Cambridge University
Press. ISBN 978-0-521-59431-8.
^ de Ridder-Symoens, Hilde (2003). A history of the university in
Europe: Universities in the Middle Ages. Cambridge University Press.
^ Rashdall, Hastings (1964). The universities of Europe in the Middle
Ages. Oxford University Press.
^ Park, C. (2007), Redefining the Doctorate, York, UK: The Higher
Education Academy, p. 4.
^ Rüegg, Walter. A History of the University in Europe: Volume 3,
Universities in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries
(1800–1945). Cambridge University Press.
^ R. Steven Turner, "The growth of professorial research in Prussia,
1818 to 1848: Causes and context." Historical studies in the physical
sciences (1971): 137–182. in JSTOR
^ Timothy Lenoir, "Revolution from above: the role of the state in
creating the German research system, 1810–1910." American Economic
Review (1998): 22–27. JSTOR.
^ See, for instance, Rosenberg, R. P. (1962). "Eugene Schuyler's
Philosophy Degree: A Theory Concerning the Dissertation".
The Journal of Higher Education. 33 (7): 381–386.
doi:10.2307/1979947. JSTOR 1979947.
^ Tina Barnes (2013). Higher Doctorates in the UK 2013 (PDF). UK
Council for Graduate Education. p. 6.
ISBN 978-0-9563812-7-9. The UK higher doctorate has a long
history with the first (a DSc) being offered by
Durham University in
^ John Aldrich. "The Mathematics PhD in the United Kingdom: Historical
Notes for the Mathematics Genealogy Projec".
^ Simpson, Renate (June 1983). How the PhD came to Britain: A Century
of Struggle for Postgraduate Education. Open University Press.
^ C. Singer and S.W.F. Holloway, Early Medical Education in England in
Relation to the Pre-History of the University of London, Med Hist.
1960 January; 4(1): 1–17.
^ Carl Diehl, Americans and German scholarship, 1770–1870 (1978).
^ Henry Geitz, Jürgen Heideking, and Jurgen Herbst, eds. German
influences on education in the United States to 1917 (1995).
^ Rosenberg, Ralph P. (1961). "The First American Doctor of Philosophy
Degree: A Centennial Salute to Yale, 1861–1961". Journal of Higher
Education. 32 (7): 387–394. doi:10.2307/1978076.
^ a b John Seiler Brubacher; Willis Rudy (1 January 1997). Higher
Education in Transition: A History of American Colleges and
Universities. Transaction Publishers. p. 192.
^ Roger L. Geiger, "Research, graduate education, and the ecology of
American universities: An interpretive history." in Lester F.
Goodchild and Harold S. Weschler, eds., The History of Higher
Education (2nd ed, 1997), pp 273–89
^ Laurence R. Veysey, The emergence of the American university (1970)
is the standard history; see pp 121–79.
^ a b Lori Thurgood; Mary J. Golladay; Susan T. Hill (October 2006).
"Historical Background". U.S. Doctorates in the 20th Century. National
Science Foundation. Archived from the original on 10 February
2016. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
^ Christopher Jencks and David Riesman. The academic revolution (1968)
^ Indeed there is a 'new route' to the PhD in some UK institutions
where in an individual may complete a series of postgraduate level
taught courses as a part of the doctoral programme. This is called the
'New Route Ph.D.', an integrated PhD that resembles somewhat the
American PhD program. For a list of programmes and institutions
offering the 'new route' see http://www.newroutephd.ac.uk/
^ The term "doctor of philosophy" is not always applied by those
countries to graduates in disciplines other than philosophy itself.
These doctoral degrees, however, are sometimes identified in English
as Ph.D. degrees.
^ Ph.D. Categories, Wageningen University; Ph.D. scholarship
programmes, University of Groningen Faculty of Mathematics and Natural
Science; Sandwich Ph.D., Technissche Universitat Kaiserslautern.
^ "Higher education: Agreement reached with Glasgow for 'sandwich'
Ph.D." Express Tribune. 11 February 2012.
^ 2009 FT rankings table and criteria
^ "The economic contribution of Ph.D.s", Journal of Higher Education
Management and Policy, Volume 31, Issue 3, 2009.
^ a b "Doctoral degrees: The disposable academic". The Economist.
2010-12-18. Retrieved 25 December 2012.
^ "From Graduate School to Welfare". The Chronicle of Higher
Education. 2012-05-06. Retrieved 2017-11-12.
^ "Even A PhD Couldn't Keep This Man Off Food Stamps". Business
Insider. Retrieved 2017-11-12.
^ Faris Alikhan, "The Peril of Credential Creep in Foreign Policy",
U.S. News, 2 October 2013.
^ Hare, Julie (3 April 2014). "More PhDs enter public service". The
^ Taylor, M. (2011). "Reform the Ph.D. system or close it down".
Nature. 472 (7343): 261–261. doi:10.1038/472261a.
^ Fiske, P. (2011). "What is a Ph.D. really worth?". Nature. 472
(7343): 381–381. doi:10.1038/nj7343-381a.
^ Anon (2011). "Fix the Ph.D.: No longer a guaranteed ticket to an
academic career, the Ph.D. system needs a serious rethink". Nature.
472 (7343): 259–260. doi:10.1038/472259b. PMID 21512527.
^ Cyranoski, D.; Gilbert, N.; Ledford, H.; Nayar, A.; Yahia, M.
(2011). "Education: The Ph.D. factory". Nature. 472 (7343): 276–279.
doi:10.1038/472276a. PMID 21512548.
^ Lin, Thomas (March 26, 2014). "A 'Rebel' Without a Ph.D." Quanta
Magazine. Retrieved 2017-11-11.
^ Albrecht Behmel; Kelly Neudorfer (11 October 2016). The Foreigner's
Guide to German Universities: Origin, Meaning, and Use of Terms and
Expressions in Everyday University Life. Columbia University Press.
p. 42. ISBN 9783838268323.
^ "Paragraph 262 International Standard Classification of Education
^ "Scholarships in Argentina". Spuweb.siu.edu.ar. Archived from the
original on 7 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
^ "GFME: Global Foundation for Management Education" (PDF). Archived
from the original (PDF) on 2006-10-31. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
^ "Comisión Nacional de Evaluación y Acreditación Universitaria"
(in Spanish). Coneau.edu.ar. Archived from the original on 25 August
2010. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
^ "Home, Graduate Research, University of Tasmania, Australia".
Utas.edu.au. Retrieved 2013-07-02.
^ ABC (2008). "Ph.D. students living below poverty line". ABC News.
2008 (April): 1–2.
^ "HEIMSHELP: Information about requirements and procedures for higher
education and VET providers". DEEWR. 2011.
^ Jackson, Denise (22 April 2013). "Completing a PhD by publication: a
review of Australian policy and implications for practice". Higher
Research & Development. 32 (3): 355–368.
doi:10.1080/07294360.2012.692666. Retrieved 20 July 2017.
Colciencias Call for Scholarships in Colombia". Retrieved
^ "Matemaattis-luonnontieteellinen tiedekunta". helsinki.fi.
^ "N E T, Inside H E, University Grants Commission". Ugc.ac.in.
1988-07-22. Retrieved 2010-02-07.
^ Sarah Schmidt (1 October 2015). "Kommt ein Doktor zum Arzt ..."
^ Bernd Kramer (28 September 2015). "Akademische Ramschware". Der
^ "Higher Education in Germany: Hochschulen vs. Universities".
Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. Retrieved 2015-02-10.
^ Bestandene Prüfungen, Statistisches Bundesamt, retrieved
^ a b c "
International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED)
^ a b c UNESCO-IIEP. Varghese, N. V.; Püttmann, V. Trends in
diversification of post-secondary education (IIEP research papers).
Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2011, p. 11–12.
^ Kouptsov, O., ed. "The
Doctorate in the Europe Region". CEPES
Studies in Higher Education. Bucharest: UNESCO, CEPES, 1994, p. 199,
^ "Gemeinsame Erklärungzur gegenseitigen akademischen Anerkennungvon
tudienzeiten und Abschlüssen im Hochschulbereichsowie von Urkunden
über russische wissenschaftliche Gradeund deutsche akademische
Qualifikationen zwischen HRK/" KMK und dem Ministerium für Allgemeine
und Berufliche Bildungder Russischen Föderation 1999.h
^ Совместное заявление о взаимном
академическом признании периодов
обучения в высших учебных заведениях,
документов о высшем образовании,
российских ученых степенях и
^ Décret n° 2003-744 du 1er août 2003 portant publication de
l'accord entre le Gouvernement de la République française et le
Gouvernement de la Fédération de Russie sur la reconnaissance
mutuelle des documents sur les grades et titres universitaires, signé
à Saint-Pétersbourg le 12 mai 2003.
^ Соглашение между Правительством
Российской Федерации и
Республики о взаимном признании
документов об ученых степенях,
Санкт-Петербург, 12 мая 2003 года,
^ Лучук О. Коли ми діждемося
Вашинґтона? Тоді ж і станем
"докторами"! До питання про академічні
посади, наукові ступені та вчені
звання в українському та
американському наукових дискурсах //
Україна: культурна спадщина,
національна свідомість, державність:
Збірник наукових праць. Випуск 21.
Львів: Інститут українознавства ім.
І.Крип'якевича НАН України, 2012,
^ "Study on the organisation of doctoral programmes in EU neighbouring
countries", Technopolis Group, GHK. Ukraine. December 2010.
^ a b c Technopolis Group, GHK. Study on the organisation of doctoral
programmes in EU neighbouring countries. The Russian Federation.
^ Статистика Российского образования
^ http://ria.ru/edu_news/20110804/411919327.html Стипендии
на приоритетных специальностях
составят от 2 до 4 тыс руб // "РИА
^ http://www.careerrussia.ru/detail_new.php?ID=5925 Молодому
специалисту на заметку:
^ Student Guidebook,
Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa
Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa Archived 26
April 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
^ a b "STATUTO DELLA SCUOLA NORMALE SUPERIORE DI PISA (legge 18 giugno
1986, n. 308)" (PDF). sns.it.
Law of February 21, 1980, No. 28". Archived from the original on 4
^ "Presidential Decree No. 382 of 11 July 1980".
Law of 21 February 1980, No. 28 Archived 4 November 2011 at the
^ "Decreto Presidente Repubblica 11 luglio 1980, n. 382".
^ a b "ResearchItaly, Pagina di transizione".
^ Paul Bompard, "Italy's big six form network for elite", Times Higher
Education (THE), 18 February 2000.
^ "Scuole, Scuole di Eccellenza". scuoledieccellenza.it.
^ Article 3 of the
Law of 14 February 1987, No.41 L. 14 febbraio
1987, n. 41 Istituzione della Scuola superiore di studi universitari e
di perfezionamento S. Anna di Pisa
^ Ministry of Education, Universities and
Research (MIUR) Decree
^ Università in Italia, Ministry of Education, Universities and
^ Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education in Warsaw,
^ [http://www.uj.edu.pl/ Over 600 years of
Jagiellonian University in
^ "Energetyka w programach partii – Uniwersytet Warszawski".
^ Warsaw University of Technology Archived 18 October 2010 at the
^ "Polish Academy of Sciences". pan.pl. Archived from the original on
29 September 2010.
^ "The Sejm of the Republic of Poland". sejm.gov.pl.
^ Master A et al. (2010). "Untranslated regions of thyroid hormone
receptor beta 1 mRNA are impaired in human clear cell renal cell
carcinoma". Biochim Biophys Acta. 1802 (11): 995–1005.
doi:10.1016/j.bbadis.2010.07.025. PMID 20691260. CS1 maint:
Uses authors parameter (link)
^ Кабінет Міністрів України. Постанова
від 23 березня 2016 р. № 261 / Cabinet of Ministers of
Ukraine. Decree from 23 March 2016 #261 (in Ukrainian)
^ Dommasnes, Liv Helga; Else Johansen Kleppe; Gro Mandt; Jenny-Rita
Næss (1998). "Women archeologists in retrospect, The Norwegian case".
In Margarita Díaz-Andreu García and Marie Louise Stig Sørensen.
Excavating women: a history of women in European archaeology. London:
Routledge. ISBN 0-415-15760-9. ... a Dr. philos. degree,
which is the highest academic degree in Norway, roughly equivalent to
the German Doktor Habilitation. Traditionally, this degree, which was
considered a prerequisite for obtaining top positions within academia,
was earned rather late in life, often after one had passed 50 years of
^ Elisabeth Vestergaard (2006). Den danske forskeruddannelse.
Rapporter, evalueringer og anbefalinger 1992–2006. Aarhus: Dansk
Center for Forskningsanalyse
^ Mather-L’Huillier, Nathalie. "Why do your PhD in Singapore?".
FindAPhD. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
^ Boletín Oficial del Estado 10/02/2011 (in Spanish)
^ Base de Datos TESEO
^ "Documento BOE-A-2007-18770". BOE.es. Retrieved 2013-07-02.
^ "Raíces de las normas y tradiciones del protocolo y ceremonial
universitario actual: las universidades del Antiguo Régimen y los
actos de colación. Protocolo y Etiqueta" (in Spanish). Protocolo.org.
^ "Boletín Oficial del Estado. Texto del Documento". Boe.es.
1995-05-24. Retrieved 2015-11-11.
^ "University of Oxford". Ox.ac.uk. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
^ FCO Counter terrorism & weapons proliferation staff: Advice for
PHD/doctoral level students applying for an ATAS certificate.
Retrieved 16 September 2008.
^ a b Postgrad checks worry scientists BBC News, 12 March 2007
^ a b Arts and Humanities
Research Council[dead link]
^ "Postgraduate fees in the UK". Postgrad.com. Retrieved 12 April
^ "What is a PhD?". Prospects. Graduate Prospects Ltd. How much does
it cost?. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
^ Bray, M.; Kwok, P. (2003). "Demand for private supplementary
tutoring: Conceptual considerations, and socio-economic patterns in
Hong Kong". Economics of Education Review. 22 (6): 611–620.
^ "The Ph.D. is in need of revision". universityaffairs.ca.
^ "ESRC Society Today" (PDF). ESRC Society Today. Retrieved
^ "Professional Doctorate". Retrieved 2010-04-28.
^ Listing of
Research I Universities, Carnegie Foundation for the
Advancement of Teaching, 282 is the sum of all three categories of
^ "Wharton Doctoral Programs: Application Requirements".
Wharton.upenn.edu. 2009-12-15. Archived from the original on 13 April
2010. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
^ Columbia University in the City of New York Archived 19 October 2007
at the Wayback Machine.
Doctorate Programmes". US Department of Education.
2006-06-18. Archived from the original on 2007-03-03.
^ In humanities, ten years may not be enough to get a Ph.D., "The
Chronicle of Higher Education" 27 July 2007
^ National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics. 2014.
Doctoral Recipients from U.S. Universities, 2012. Survey of Earned
Doctorates. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation
^ PhD programmes:
Doctorate deluge, Nature 547, 483 (27 July 2017)
Delamont, S., Atkinson, P. & Parry, O. (1997). Supervising the
Ph.D.: A guide to success. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Dinham, S. & Scott, C. (2001). The experience of the results of
disseminating the results of doctoral research. Journal of Further and
Higher Education, 25 (1) 45–55. ISSN 1469-9486
Feibelman, Peter J. A Ph.D. Is Not Enough!: A Guide to Survival in
Science (2011) excerpt
Geiger, Roger L. To Advance Knowledge: The Growth of American Research
Universities, 1900–1940. (Oxford University Press, 1986).
Geiger, Roger L.
Research and Relevant Knowledge: American Research
Universities Since World War II (2001).
MacGillivray, Alex; Potts, Gareth; Raymond, Polly. Secrets of Their
Success (London: New Economics Foundation, 2002).
Mewburn, Inger. How To Tame Your Ph.D. (2012) excerpt
Petre, Marian. The Unwritten Rules Of Phd
Research (2010) excerpt
Phillips, E. & Pugh, D.S. How to get a Ph.D. : managing the
peaks and troughs of research. Milton Keynes: Open University Press
1987. ISBN 0-335-15537-5
Simpson, Renate. How the Ph.D. came to Britain: A century of struggle
for postgraduate education, Society for
Research into Higher
Education, Guildford (1983).
Wellington, J. Bathmaker, A._M., Hunt, C., McCullough, G. & Sikes,
P. (2005). Succeeding with your doctorate. London: Sage.
Wilkinson, D. (2005) The essential guide to postgraduate study
London : SAGE ISBN 1-4129-0062-X (hbk.)
Wisker, G. (2005) The Good Supervisor: Supervising Postgraduate and
Research for Doctoral Theses and Dissertations Palgrave
Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-0395-6.
PhDStudent.com, The tools you need to survive and thrive in graduate
Supervision of Ph.D. students (with some focus on disagreements)
Levels of academic degree
ISCED level 5
Higher National Diploma/
Diploma of Higher Education/Certificate of
ISCED level 6
ISCED level 7
ISCED level 8
Candidate of Sciences
No dominant classification
Ad eundem degree