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The Info List - Pete Townshend





Peter Dennis Blandford Townshend (born 19 May 1945) is an English musician, singer, songwriter, and multi-instrumentalist, best known as the lead guitarist, backing vocalist, and principal songwriter for the rock band the Who. His career with the Who spans over 50 years, during which time the band grew to be considered one of the most influential bands of the 20th century.[2][3] Townshend is the main songwriter for the Who, having written well over 100 songs for the band's 11 studio albums, including concept albums and the rock operas Tommy and Quadrophenia, plus popular rock radio staples such as Who's Next, and dozens more that appeared as non-album singles, bonus tracks on reissues, and tracks on rarities compilations such as Odds & Sods (1974). He has also written more than 100 songs that have appeared on his solo albums, as well as radio jingles and television theme songs. Although known primarily as a guitarist, he also plays keyboards, banjo, accordion, harmonica, ukulele, mandolin, violin, synthesiser, bass guitar, and drums, on his own solo albums, several Who albums and as a guest contributor to an array of other artists' recordings. He is self-taught on all of the instruments he plays and has never had any formal training. Townshend has also contributed to and authored many newspaper and magazine articles, book reviews, essays, books, and scripts, and he has collaborated as a lyricist and composer for many other musical acts. Due to his aggressive playing style and innovative songwriting techniques, Townshend's works with the Who and in other projects have earned him critical acclaim. He was ranked No. 3 in Dave Marsh's list of Best Guitarists in The New Book of Rock Lists,[4] No. 10 in Gibson.com's list of the top 50 guitarists,[5] and No. 10 again in Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
magazine's updated 2011 list of the 100 greatest guitarists of all time.[6] In 1983, Townshend received the Brit Award for Lifetime Achievement, in 1990 was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of the Who, in 2001 received a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award as a member of the Who, and in 2008 received Kennedy Center Honors. He and Daltrey received The George and Ira Gershwin Award for Lifetime Musical Achievement at UCLA
UCLA
on 21 May 2016.[7][8]

Contents

1 Early life and education 2 Musical career

2.1 1961–1964: the Detours 2.2 1964–1982: The Who 2.3 1972–present: solo career 2.4 1996–present: latest Who work

3 Musical influences 4 Musicianship

4.1 Guitar 4.2 Keyboards

5 Literary work 6 Spirituality 7 Personal life

7.1 Relationships 7.2 Sexuality 7.3 Legal troubles 7.4 Hearing loss 7.5 Political views

8 Charity work

8.1 Children's charities 8.2 Drug rehabilitation 8.3 Amnesty International

9 Discography

9.1 Solo albums 9.2 Guest appearances

10 Bibliography 11 Awards 12 Other lifetime honours 13 See also 14 Notes 15 References 16 Further reading 17 External links

Early life and education[edit] Townshend was born on 19 May 1945, at Chiswick
Chiswick
Hospital, Middlesex (now west London). He came from a musical family: his father, Cliff Townshend, was a professional alto saxophonist in the Royal Air Force's dance band The Squadronaires and his mother, Betty (née Dennis), was a singer with the Sydney Torch and Les Douglass Orchestras.[9] The Townshends had a volatile marriage, as both drank heavily and possessed fiery tempers. Cliff Townshend was often away from his family touring with his band while Betty carried on affairs with other men. The two split when Townshend was a toddler and he was sent to live with his maternal grandmother Emma Dennis, whom Pete later described as "clinically insane". The two-year separation ended when Cliff and Betty purchased a house together on Woodgrange Avenue in middle-class Acton, and the young Pete was happily reunited with his parents.[10] Townshend says he did not have many friends growing up, so he spent much of his boyhood reading adventure novels like Gulliver's Travels and Treasure Island.[11] He enjoyed his family's frequent excursions to the seaside and the Isle of Man. It was on one of these trips in the summer of 1956 that he repeatedly watched the 1956 film Rock Around the Clock, sparking his fascination with American rock and roll.[12] Not long thereafter, he went to see Bill Haley
Bill Haley
perform in London, Townshend's first concert.[13] At the time, he did not see himself pursuing a career as a professional musician; instead, he wanted to become a journalist.[14] Upon passing the eleven-plus exam, Townshend was enrolled at Acton County Grammar School.[15] At Acton County, he was frequently bullied because he had a large nose, an experience that profoundly affected him.[16] His grandmother Emma purchased his first guitar for Christmas in 1956, an inexpensive Spanish model.[17] Though his father taught him a couple of chords, Townshend was largely self-taught on the instrument and never learned to read music.[18] Townshend and school friend John Entwistle
John Entwistle
formed a short-lived trad jazz group, the Confederates, featuring Townshend on banjo and Entwistle on horns.[19] The Confederates played gigs at the Congo Club, a youth club run by the Acton Congregational Church, and covered Acker Bilk, Kenny Ball, and Lonnie Donegan.[20] However, both became influenced by the increasing popularity of rock 'n' roll, with Townshend particularly admiring Cliff Richard's debut single, "Move It".[21] Townshend left the Confederates after getting into a fight with the group's drummer, Chris Sherwin, and purchased a "reasonably good Czechoslovakian guitar" at his mother's antique shop.[22] Townshend's brothers Paul and Simon were born in 1957 and 1960, respectively.[23] Lacking the requisite test scores to attend university, Pete was faced with the decision of art school, music school, or getting a job.[24] He ultimately chose to study graphic design at Ealing Art College, enrolling in 1961. At Ealing, Townshend studied alongside future Rolling Stones guitarist Ronnie Wood
Ronnie Wood
and future Queen lead singer Freddie Mercury. Notable artists and designers gave lectures at the college such as auto-destructive art pioneer Gustav Metzger.[25] Townshend dropped out in 1964 to focus on music full-time.[26] Musical career[edit] 1961–1964: the Detours[edit] In late 1961, Entwistle joined the Detours, a skiffle/rock and roll band, led by Roger Daltrey. The new bass player then suggested Townshend to join as an additional guitarist.[27] In the early days of the Detours, the band's repertoire consisted of instrumentals by the Shadows and the Ventures, as well as pop and trad jazz covers. Their line-up coalesced around Roger Daltrey
Roger Daltrey
on lead guitar, Townshend on rhythm guitar, Entwistle on bass, Doug Sandom on drums and Colin Dawson as vocalist.[28] Daltrey was considered the leader of the group and, according to Townshend, "ran things the way he wanted them."[29] Dawson quit in 1962 after arguing too much with Daltrey, who subsequently moved to lead vocalist. As a result, Townshend, with Entwistle's encouragement, became the sole guitarist. Through Townshend's mother, the group obtained a management contract with local promoter Robert Druce,[30] who started booking the band as a support act for bands like Screaming Lord Sutch, Cliff Bennett and the Rebel Rousers, Shane Fenton and the Fentones, and Johnny Kidd and the Pirates.[31] In 1963, Townshend's father arranged an amateur recording of "It Was You", the first song his son ever wrote.[32] The Detours became aware of a group of the same name in February 1964, forcing them to change their name.[33] Townshend's roommate Richard Barnes came up with "The Who", and Daltrey decided it was the best choice.[34] 1964–1982: The Who[edit] Main article: The Who

Townshend (with Moon, rear right) backstage before a gig in Ludwigshafen, Germany in 1967

Not long after the name change, drummer Doug Sandom was replaced by Keith Moon, who had been drumming semi-professionally with the Beachcombers for several years.[35] The band was soon taken on by a mod publicist named Peter Meaden who convinced them to change their name to the High Numbers to give the band more of a mod feel. After bringing out one failed single ("I'm the Face/Zoot Suit"), they dropped Meaden and were signed on by two new managers, Chris Stamp and Kit Lambert, who had paired up with the intention of finding new talent and creating a documentary about them.[36] The band anguished over a name that all felt represented the band best, and dropped the High Numbers name, reverting to the Who.[37] In June 1964, during a performance at the Railway Tavern, Townshend accidentally broke the top of his guitar on the low ceiling and proceeded to destroy the entire instrument.[38] The on-stage destruction of instruments soon became a regular part of the Who's live shows.[39] With the assistance of Lambert, the Who caught the ear of American record producer Shel Talmy, who had the band signed to a record contract. Townshend wrote a song, "I Can't Explain", as a deliberate sound-alike of the Kinks, another group Talmy produced. Released as a single in January 1965, "I Can't Explain" was the Who's first hit, reaching number eight on the British charts.[40] A follow-up single ("Anyway, Anyhow, Anywhere"), credited to both Townshend and Daltrey, also reached the top 10 in the UK.[41] However, it was the release of the Who's third single, "My Generation", in November that, according to Who biographer Mark Wilkerson, "cemented their reputation as a hard-nosed band who reflected the feelings of thousands of pissed-off adolescents at the time.[42] The Townshend-penned single reached number two on the UK charts, becoming the Who's biggest hit. The song and its famous line "I hope I die before I get old" was "very much about trying to find a place in society," Townshend stated in an interview with David Fricke.[43] To capitalise on their recent single success, the Who's debut album My Generation ( The Who
The Who
Sings My Generation
My Generation
in the US) was released in late 1965, containing original material written by Townshend and several James Brown
James Brown
covers that Daltrey favoured.[44] Townshend continued to write several successful singles for the band, including "Pictures of Lily", "Substitute", "I'm a Boy", and "Happy Jack".[45] Lambert encouraged Townshend to write longer pieces of music for the next album, which became the "A Quick One, While He's Away". The album was subsequently titled A Quick One[46] and reached number 4 in the charts upon its release in December 1966.[47] In their stage shows, Townshend developed a guitar stunt in which he would swing his right arm against the guitar strings in a style reminiscent of the vanes of a windmill.[48] He developed this style after watching Rolling Stones guitarist Keith Richards
Keith Richards
warm up before a show.[49]

Townshend's "windmill" technique

The Who
The Who
commenced their first US tour on 22 March 1967.[50] It did not start well, as Townshend and Daltrey were briefly jailed for assaulting a police officer they mistook for a heckler. Townshend took to trashing his hotel suites, though not to the extent of his bandmate Moon.[51] He also began experimenting with LSD, though stopped taking the drug after receiving a potent hit after the Monterey Pop Festival on 18 June.[52] Released in December, their next album was The Who Sell Out—a concept album based on pirate radio, which had been instrumental in raising the Who's popularity. It included several humorous jingles and mock commercials between songs,[53] and the Who's biggest US single, "I Can See for Miles".[54] Despite the success of "I Can See for Miles", which reached number 9 on the American charts, Townshend was surprised it was not a smash hit, as he considered it the best song he'd written up to that point.[55] By 1968, Townshend became interested in the teachings of Meher Baba.[56] He began to develop a musical piece about a deaf, dumb, and blind boy who would experience sensations musically.[57] The piece would explore the tenets of Baba's philosophy.[58] The result was the rock opera Tommy, released on 23 May 1969 to critical and commercial success. Leonard Bernstein
Leonard Bernstein
praised the album, saying its "sheer power, invention and brilliance of performance outstrips anything which has ever come out of a recording studio."[59] In support of Tommy, the Who launched a tour that included a memorable appearance at the Woodstock Festival on 17 August. While the Who were playing, Yippie leader Abbie Hoffman jumped the stage to complain about the arrest of John Sinclair. Townshend promptly knocked him offstage with his guitar, shouting "Fuck off my fucking stage!"[60] In 1970, the Who released Live
Live
at Leeds, which several music critics cite as the best live album of all time.[61] Townshend began writing material for another rock opera. Dubbed Lifehouse, it was designed to be a multi-media project that symbolised the relationship between a musician and his audience.[62] The rest of the band were confused by its convoluted plot and simply wanted another album. Townshend began to feel alienated, and the project was abandoned after he suffered a nervous breakdown.[63] Much of the material for Lifehouse was released as a traditional studio album, Who's Next. It became a commercial smash, reaching number one in the UK, and spawned two successful hit singles, "Baba O'Riley" and "Won't Get Fooled Again", that featured pioneering use of the synthesizer.[64] "Baba O'Riley" in particular was written as Townshend's ode to his two heroes at the time, Meher Baba and composer Terry Riley.[65]

Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
performing in Hamburg, Germany in August 1972

Townshend began writing songs for another rock opera in 1973. He decided it would explore the mod subculture and its clashes with Rockers in the early 1960s in the UK.[66] Entitled Quadrophenia, it was the only Who album written entirely by Townshend, and he produced the album as well due to the souring of relations with Lambert.[67] It was released in November, and became their highest charting cross-Atlantic success, reaching number two in the UK and US.[68] NME reviewer Charles Shaar Murray called it "prime cut Who" and "the most rewarding musical experience of the year."[69] On tour, the band played the album along to pre-recorded backing tapes, causing much friction. The tapes malfunctioned during a performance in Newcastle, prompting Townshend to drag soundman Bob Pridden onstage, scream at him, kick over all the amplifiers and partially destroyed the malfunctioning tapes.[70] On 14 April 1974, Townshend played his first solo concert, a benefit to raise funds for a London
London
community centre.[71] A film version of Tommy, starring Ann-Margret, Tina Turner, Elton John, and Oliver Reed, premiered on 18 March 1975.[72][73] Townshend was nominated for an Academy Award for scoring and adapting the music in the film.[74] The Who
The Who
by Numbers came out in November of that year and peaked at number seven in the UK and eight in the US. It featured introspective songs, often with a negative slant.[75] The album spawned one hit single, "Squeeze Box", that was written after Townshend learned how to play the accordion.[75] After a 1976 tour, Townshend took a year-long break from the band to focus on spending time with his family.[76] The Who
The Who
thrived, and continue to thrive, despite the deaths of two of the original members. They are regarded by many rock critics as one of the best[77][78] live bands[79][80] from a period of time that stretched from the mid-1960s to the 2000s, the result of a unique combination of high volume, showmanship, a wide variety of rock beats, and a high-energy sound that alternated between tight and free-form. The Who
The Who
continue to perform critically acclaimed sets in the 21st century, including highly regarded performances at The Concert For New York City in 2001, the 2004 Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight
Festival, Live 8
Live 8
in 2005 and the 2007 Glastonbury Festival. Townshend remained the primary songwriter and leader of the group, writing over one hundred songs which appeared on the band's eleven studio albums. Among his most well-known accomplishments are the creation of a second pioneering rock opera, Quadrophenia; his dramatic stage persona; his use of guitar feedback as sonic technique; and the introduction of the synthesiser as a rock instrument. Townshend revisited album-length storytelling throughout his career and remains the musician most associated with the rock opera form. Many studio recordings also feature Townshend on piano or keyboards, though keyboard-heavy tracks increasingly featured guest artists in the studio, such as Nicky Hopkins, John Bundrick
John Bundrick
or Chris Stainton.[81] Townshend is one of the key figures in the development of feedback in rock guitar. When asked who first used feedback, Deep Purple
Deep Purple
guitarist Ritchie Blackmore
Ritchie Blackmore
said:

Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
was definitely the first. But not being that good a guitarist, he used to just sort of crash chords and let the guitar feedback. He didn't get into twiddling with the dials on the amplifier until much later. He's overrated in England, but at the same time you find a lot of people like Jeff Beck
Jeff Beck
and Hendrix getting credit for things he started. Townshend was the first to break his guitar, and he was the first to do a lot of things. He's very good at his chord scene, too.[82] ”

Similarly, when Jimmy Page
Jimmy Page
was asked about the development of guitar feedback, he said:

“ I don't know who really did feedback first; it just sort of happened. I don't think anybody consciously nicked it from anybody else. It was just going on. But Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
obviously was the one, through the music of his group, who made the use of feedback more his style, and so it's related to him. Whereas the other players like Jeff Beck
Jeff Beck
and myself were playing more single note things than chords.[83] ”

Many rock guitarists have cited Townshend as an influence, among them Slash,[84] Alex Lifeson[85] and Steve Jones.[86] 1972–present: solo career[edit] In addition to his work with the Who, Townshend has been sporadically active as a solo recording artist. Between 1969 and 1971 Townshend, along with other devotees to Meher Baba, recorded a trio of albums devoted to his teachings: Happy Birthday, I Am, and With Love. In response to bootlegging of these, he compiled his personal highlights (and "Evolution", a collaboration with Ronnie Lane), and released his first major-label solo title, 1972's Who Came First. It was a moderate success and featured demos of Who songs as well as a showcase of his acoustic guitar talents. He collaborated with The Faces' bassist and fellow Meher Baba
Meher Baba
devotee Ronnie Lane
Ronnie Lane
on a duet album (1977's Rough Mix). Townshend's solo breakthrough, following the death of Who drummer Keith Moon, was the 1980 release Empty Glass, which included a top-10 single, "Let My Love Open the Door" and "Rough Boys". This release was followed in 1982 by All the Best Cowboys Have Chinese Eyes, which included the popular radio track "Slit Skirts". While not a huge commercial success, noted music critic Timothy Duggan listed it as "Townshend's most honest and introspective work since Quadrophenia." Through the rest of the 1980s and early 1990s Townshend would again experiment with the rock opera and related formats, releasing several story-based albums including White City: A Novel (1985), The Iron Man: A Musical (1989), and Psychoderelict
Psychoderelict
(1993). Townshend also got the chance to play with his hero Hank Marvin for Paul McCartney's "Rockestra" sessions, along with other respected rock musicians such as David Gilmour, John Bonham
John Bonham
and Ronnie Lane.

Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
in concert, 2008.

Townshend has also recorded several concert albums, including one featuring a supergroup he assembled called Deep End, who performed just three concerts and a television show session for The Tube, to raise money for a charity supporting drug addicts. In 1993 he and Des McAnuff wrote and directed the Broadway adaptation of the Who album Tommy, as well as a less successful stage musical based on his solo album The Iron Man, based upon the book by Ted Hughes. McAnuff and Townshend later co-produced the animated film The Iron Giant, also based on the Hughes story. A production described as a Townshend rock opera and titled The Boy Who Heard Music debuted as part of Vassar College's Powerhouse Summer Theater program in July 2007. On 2 September 2017 in Lenox, Massachusetts, Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
embarked with fellow singer and musician Billy Idol, tenor Alfie Boeon and an orchestra on a short (5-date) "Classic Quadrophenia" US tour which ended on 16 September 2017 in Los Angeles, California.[87][88] 1996–present: latest Who work[edit] From the mid-1990s through the present, Townshend has participated in a series of tours with the surviving members of the Who, including a 2002 tour that continued despite Entwistle's death.[89] In February 2006, a major world tour by the Who was announced to promote their first new album since 1982. Townshend published a semi-autobiographical story The Boy Who Heard Music
The Boy Who Heard Music
as a serial on a blog beginning in September 2005.[90] The blog closed in October 2006, as noted on Townshend's website. It is now owned by a different user and does not relate to Townshend's work in any way. On 25 February 2006, he announced the issue of a mini-opera inspired by the novella for June 2006. In October 2006 the Who released their first album in 26 years, Endless Wire. The Who
The Who
performed at the Super Bowl XLIV
Super Bowl XLIV
half-time show on 7 February 2010, playing a medley of songs that included "Pinball Wizard", "Who Are You", "Baba O'Riley", "See Me Feel Me" and "Won't Get Fooled Again".[91] In 2012, the Who announced they would tour the rock opera Quadrophenia. The Who
The Who
were the final performers at the 2012 Summer Olympics closing ceremony in London, performing a medley of "Baba O'Riley", "See Me, Feel Me" and "My Generation".[92] On 22 March 2018, Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
stated that that a new Who album should feature original songs by Roger Daltrey
Roger Daltrey
as well as him.[93] Musical influences[edit] Townshend was born ten days after Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
surrendered in the Second World War and grew up in the shadow of reconstruction in and around London. According to Townshend, postwar trauma was the driving force behind the rock music revolution in the UK. "Trauma is passed from generation to generation," he said, "I've unwittingly inherited what my father experienced."[94] Townshend notes that growing up in this period produced the narrative that runs through his music of a boy lost in the stresses and pressures of postwar life.[95] In his autobiography, he wrote:

“ I wasn't trying to play beautiful music. I was confronting my audience with the awful, visceral sound of what we all knew was the single absolute of our frail existence–one day an aeroplane would carry the bomb that would destroy us all in a flash. It could happen at any time.[96] ”

Although he grew up in a household with jazz musicians, Townshend absorbed many of his ideas about performance and rock music themes during art school. Townshend's roommate at Ealing Art College, Tom Wright, had a large record collection, and Townshend listened to and became influenced by R&B and rock & roll artists like Howlin' Wolf, John Lee Hooker, Bo Diddley, Booker T. & the MGs, Little Walter, and Chuck Berry.[97] He was also strongly influenced by cellist Malcolm Cecil, who often damaged his cello during performances, along with Gustav Metzger, pioneer of auto-destructive art. In light of these influences, guitar smashing became not just an expression of youthful angst, but also a means of conveying ideas through musical performance. "We advanced a new concept," he writes. "Destruction is art when set to music."[96] Musicianship[edit]

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See also: The Who's musical equipment Guitar[edit]

Townshend leaping into air in concert

Throughout his solo career and his career with the Who, Townshend has played a large variety of guitars – mostly various Gibson and Fender and Rickenbacker
Rickenbacker
models. He has also used Guild, Takamine and Gibson J-200
Gibson J-200
acoustic models, with the J-200 providing his signature recorded acoustic sound in such songs as "Pinball Wizard". In the early days with the Who, Townshend played an Emile Grimshaw SS De Luxe and 6-string and 12-string Rickenbacker
Rickenbacker
semi-hollow electric guitars primarily (particularly the Rose-Morris UK-imported models with special f-holes). However, as instrument-smashing became increasingly integrated into the Who's concert sets, he switched to more durable and resilient (and sometimes cheaper) guitars for smashing, such as the Fender Stratocaster, Fender Telecaster
Fender Telecaster
and various Danelectro
Danelectro
models. On the Who's The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour appearance in 1967, Townshend used a Vox Cheetah guitar, which he only used for that performance; and the guitar was destroyed by Townshend and Moon's drum explosion. In the late 1960s, Townshend began playing Gibson SG
Gibson SG
Special
Special
models almost exclusively. He used this guitar at the Woodstock
Woodstock
and Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight
shows in 1969 and 1970, as well as the Live at Leeds
Live at Leeds
performance in 1970. By 1970 Gibson changed the design of the SG Special
Special
which Townshend had been using previously, and he began using other guitars. For much of the 1970s, he used a Gibson Les Paul Deluxe, some with only two mini-humbucker pick-ups and others modified with a third pick-up in the "middle position" (a DiMarzio Superdistortion / Dual Sound). He can be seen using several of these guitars in the documentary The Kids Are Alright, although in the studio he often played a '59 Gretsch 6120 guitar (given to him by Joe Walsh), most notably on the albums Who's Next and Quadrophenia. During the 1980s, Townshend mainly used Fenders, Rickenbackers and Telecaster-style models built for him by Schecter and various other luthiers. Since the late-1980s, Townshend has used the Fender Eric Clapton Signature Stratocaster, with Lace Sensor
Lace Sensor
pick-ups, both in the studio and on tour. Some of his Stratocaster guitars feature a Fishman PowerBridge piezo pick-up system to simulate acoustic guitar tones. This piezo system is controlled by an extra volume control behind the guitar's bridge. During the Who's 1989 Tour Townshend played a Rickenbacker
Rickenbacker
guitar that was ironically smashed accidentally when he tripped over it. Instead of throwing the smashed parts away, Townshend reassembled the pieces as a sculpture. The sculpture was featured at the Rock Stars, Cars And Guitars 2 exhibit during the summer of 2009 at The Henry Ford
The Henry Ford
museum.

Townshend playing a Fender Eric Clapton
Eric Clapton
Signature Stratocaster.

There are several Gibson Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
signature guitars, such as the Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
SG, the Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
J-200, and three different Pete Townshend Les Paul Deluxes. The SG was clearly marked as a Pete Townshend limited edition model and came with a special case and certificate of authenticity, signed by Townshend himself. There has also been a Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
signature Rickenbacker
Rickenbacker
limited edition guitar of the model 1998, which was his main 6-string guitar in the Who's early days. The run featured 250 guitars which were made between July 1987 – March 1988, and according to Rickenbacker
Rickenbacker
CEO John Hall, the entire run sold out before serious advertising could be done. He also used the Gibson ES-335, one of which he donated to the Hard Rock Cafe. Townshend also used a Gibson EDS-1275
Gibson EDS-1275
double neck very briefly circa late 1967, and both a Harmony
Harmony
Sovereign H1270[98] and a Fender Electric XII
Fender Electric XII
for the studio sessions for Tommy for the 12-string guitar parts. He also occasionally used Fender Jazzmasters on stage in 1967 and 1968 and in the studio for Tommy. In 2006 Townshend had a pedal board designed by long-time gear guru Pete Cornish. The board apparently is composed with a compressor, an old Boss OD-1 overdrive pedal, as well as a T-Rex Replica delay pedal. Over the years, Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
has used many types of amplifiers, including Vox, Selmer, Fender, Marshall, Hiwatt
Hiwatt
etc., sticking to using Hiwatt
Hiwatt
amps for most of four decades. Around the time of Who's Next, he used a tweed Fender Bandmaster
Fender Bandmaster
amp (also given to him by Joe Walsh in 1970[99]), which he also used for Quadrophenia
Quadrophenia
and The Who
The Who
by Numbers. While recording Face Dances
Face Dances
and the collaborative album Rough Mix, Townshend made use of a Peavey Vintage 4X10 amplifier in the studio. Since 1989, his rig consisted of four Fender Vibro-King stacks and a Hiwatt
Hiwatt
head driving two custom made 2x12" Hiwatt/Mesa Boogie speaker cabinets. However, since 2006, he has only three Vibro-King stacks, one of which is a backup. Townshend figured prominently in the development of what is widely known in rock circles as the "Marshall Stack". It has been recounted by others during the start of popularity of Jim Marshall's guitar amplifiers, that Townshend became a user of these amps. He also ordered several speaker cabinets that contained eight speakers in a housing standing nearly six feet in height with the top half of the cabinet slanted slightly upward. These became hard to move and were incredibly heavy. Jim Marshall then cut the massive speaker cabinet into two separate speaker cabinets, at the suggestion of Townshend, with each cabinet containing four 12-inch speakers. One of the cabinets had half of the speaker baffle slanted upwards and Marshall made these two cabinets stackable. The Marshall stack was born, and Townshend used these as well as Hiwatt
Hiwatt
stacks. He has always regarded his instruments as being merely tools of the trade and has, in latter years, kept his most prized instruments well away from the concert stage. These instruments include a few vintage and reissue Rickenbackers, the Gretsch 6120, an original 1952 Fender Telecaster, Gibson Custom Shop's artist limited edition reissues of Townshend's Les Paul DeLuxe models 1, 3 and 9 as well his signature SG Special
Special
reissue. Keyboards[edit] Townshend played keyboards on several Who songs. On Who's Next, he began to work with analogue synthesizers, using the ARP 2600
ARP 2600
model that he first encountered at Cambridge University.[100] He had this to say about the instrument: "I like synthesizers because they bring into my hands things that aren't in my hands: the sound of an orchestra, French horns, strings. There are gadgets on synthesizers that enable one to become a virtuoso on the keyboard. You can play something slowly and you press a switch and it plays it back at double speed. Whereas on the guitar you're stuck with as fast as you can play and I don't play fast, I just play hard. So when it goes to playing something fast I go to the synth."[101] The synths Townshend was referring to include the EMS VCS3, the ARP Instruments, Inc. ARP 2600, some of which modified a Lowrey TBO Berkshire organ. Current photos of his home studio also show an ARP 2500. Townshend was featured in ARP promotional materials in the early 1970s. Since the late 1980s Townshend has predominantly used Synclavier Digital Audio systems for keyboard composition, particularly solo albums and projects. He currently owns three systems, one large Synclavier
Synclavier
9600 Tapeless Studio system, originally installed in his riverside Oceanic Studio, later transferred to a seagoing barge moored alongside the studio on the River Thames, and currently based in his home studio. He also uses a special adapted smaller Synclavier
Synclavier
3200 system which can be transported, enabling him to carry on working away from his main studio. This 3200 system was modified to be of similar specification to the 9600, including the addition internally of FM voices, stereo Poly voices and with the large VPK keyboard. This is the only Synclavier
Synclavier
3200 system of this specification in existence, custom designed and built for Townshend by Steve Hills. The third system Townshend owns is one of the first Synclavier
Synclavier
II systems ever built. The ORK (original smaller) keyboard of which is on display in his company's head office alongside a pink Vespa
Vespa
scooter. Literary work[edit] Although known for his musical compositions and musicianship, Townshend has been extensively involved in the literary world for more than three decades, writing newspaper and magazine articles, book reviews, essays, books, and scripts. An early example of Townshend's writing came in August 1970 with the first of nine installments of "The Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
Page", a monthly column written by Townshend for the British music paper Melody Maker. The column provided Townshend's perspective on an array of subjects, such as the media and the state of US concert halls and public address systems, as well as providing valuable insight into Townshend's mindset during the evolution of his Lifehouse project. Townshend also wrote three sizeable essays for Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
magazine, the first of which appeared in November 1970. In Love With Meher Baba described Townshend's spiritual leanings. "Meaty, Beaty, Big and Bouncy", a blow-by-blow account of the Who compilation album of the same name, followed in December 1971. The third article, "The Punk Meets the Godmother", appeared in November 1977. Also in 1977, Townshend founded Eel Pie Publishing, which specialised in children's titles, music books, and several Meher Baba-related publications. He also opened a bookstore named Magic Bus (after the popular Who song) in London. The Story of Tommy, a book written by Townshend and his art school friend Richard Barnes (now the Who's official biographer) about the writing of Townshend's 1969 rock opera and the making of the 1975 Ken Russell-directed film, was published by Eel Pie the same year. In July 1983, Townshend took a position as an acquisitions editor for London
London
publisher Faber and Faber. Notable projects included editing Animals frontman Eric Burdon's autobiography, Charles Shaar Murray's award-winning Crosstown Traffic: Jimi Hendrix
Jimi Hendrix
and Post-War Pop, Brian Eno and Russell Mills's More Dark Than Shark, and working with Prince Charles on a volume of his collected speeches. Townshend commissioned Dave Rimmer's Like Punk Never Happened, and was commissioning editor for radical playwright Steven Berkoff. Two years after joining Faber and Faber, Townshend decided to publish a book of his own. Horse's Neck, issued in May 1985, was a collection of short stories he'd written between 1979 and 1984, tackling subjects such as childhood, stardom and spirituality. As a result of his position with Faber and Faber, Townshend developed friendships with both Nobel prize-winning author of Lord of the Flies, Sir William Golding, and British Poet Laureate
Poet Laureate
Ted Hughes. His friendship with Hughes led to Townshend's musical interpretation of Hughes's children's story The Iron Man, six years later, as The Iron Man: The Musical by Pete Townshend, released in 1989. Townshend has written several scripts spanning the breadth of his career, including numerous drafts of his elusive Lifehouse project, the last of which, co-written with radio playwright Jeff Young, was published in 1999. In 1978, Townshend wrote a script for Fish Shop, a play commissioned but not completed by London
London
Weekend Television, and in mid-1984 he wrote a script for White City: A Novel which led to a short film. In 1989 Townshend began work on a novel entitled Ray High & The Glass Household, a draft of which was later submitted to his editor. While the original novel remains unpublished, elements from this story were used in Townshend's 1993 solo album Psychoderelict. In 1993, Townshend authored another book, The Who's Tommy, a chronicle of the development of the award-winning Broadway version of his rock opera. The opening of his personal website and his commerce site Eelpie.com, both in 2000, gave Townshend another outlet for literary work. Several of Townshend's essays have been posted online, including "Meher Baba—The Silent Master: My Own Silence" in 2001, and "A Different Bomb", an indictment of the child pornography industry, the following year. In September 2005, Townshend began posting a novella online entitled The Boy Who Heard Music
The Boy Who Heard Music
as background for a musical of the same name. He posted a chapter each week until it was completed, and novella was available to read at his website for several months. Like Psychoderelict, it was yet another extrapolation of Lifehouse and Ray High & The Glass Household. In 1997 Townshend signed a deal with Little, Brown and Company publishing to write his autobiography, reportedly titled Pete Townshend: Who He? Townshend's creative vagaries and conceptual machinations have been chronicled by Larry David Smith in his book The Minstrel's Dilemma (Praeger 1999). After a lengthy delay, Townshend's autobiography, now titled Who I Am, was released 8 October 2012.[102] The book ranked in the top 5 of the New York Times
New York Times
best seller list in October 2012.[103] Spirituality[edit]

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Townshend showed no predilection for religious belief in the first years of the Who's career. By the beginning of 1968, however, Townshend had begun to explore spiritual ideas. In January 1968, the Who recorded his song "Faith in Something Bigger" (Odds & Sods). Townshend's art school friend Mike McInnerney gave him a copy of C. B. Purdom's book The God-Man, introducing him to the writings of the Indian "perfect master" Meher Baba, who blended elements of Vedantic, Sufi, and Mystic schools.[citation needed] Townshend swiftly absorbed all of Baba's writings that he could find; by April 1968, he announced himself Baba's disciple. At about this time, Townshend, who had been searching the past two years for a basis for a rock opera, created a story inspired by the teachings of Baba and other writings and expressing the enlightenment he believed that he had received from them, which ultimately became Tommy.[104] Tommy did more than revitalise the Who's career (which was moderately successful at this point but had reached a plateau); it also marked a renewal of Townshend's songwriting and his spiritual studies infused most of his work from Tommy forward, including the unfinished Who project Lifehouse. The Who
The Who
song "Baba O'Riley", written for Lifehouse and eventually appearing on the album Who's Next, was named for Meher Baba and minimalist composer Terry Riley. His newfound passion was not shared by his bandmates, whose attitude was tolerant, but who were unwilling to become the spokesmen for a particular religion. Few of the thousands of fans who packed stadiums across Europe and the US to see the Who noticed the religious message in the songs: that "Bargain" and the middle section of "Behind Blue Eyes" from Who's Next
Who's Next
and "Listening To You" from Tommy were all originally written as prayers, that "Drowned" from Quadrophenia
Quadrophenia
and "Don't Let Go The Coat" from Face Dances were based on Baba's sayings, that the "who are you, who, who, who, who" chorus from the song "Who Are You" was based on Sufi
Sufi
chants, or that "Let My Love Open The Door" was not a message from a lover but from God.[citation needed] In interviews Townshend was more open about his beliefs, penning an article on Baba for Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
in 1970 and stating that following Baba's teachings, he was opposed to the use of all psychedelic drugs, making him one of the first rock stars with counterculture credibility to turn against their use.[105] His stardom quickly made him the world's most notable follower of Baba. Having missed out on meeting his guru with Baba's death 31 January 1969 (work on Tommy kept him from making the pilgrimage), Townshend made several trips to visit Baba's tomb in India as well as becoming a frequent visitor to the Meher Baba
Meher Baba
Spiritual Center in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. At home he recorded and released his most overtly spiritual songs on records assembled, pressed and sold by Baba organisations. When these records became widely bootlegged, Townshend put together a selection of the tracks for release as the solo album Who Came First. In 1976 he opened the Oceanic Centre in London, using it as a haven for English Baba followers and Americans making a pilgrimage to Baba's tomb in Meherabad, India as well as a place for small concerts (recordings of which from 1979 and 1980 were released on CD in 2001 as Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
& Raphael Rudd—The Oceanic Concerts) and a repository for films made of Baba.[citation needed] Townshend became a lower-profile follower after 1982, having felt that his former addictions to cocaine and heroin made him a poor candidate for spokesman. Nevertheless, his discipleship continues to the current day.[when?][citation needed] Personal life[edit] Relationships[edit] Townshend met Karen Astley, daughter of film composer Edwin Astley, while in art school. They married on 20 May 1968 and moved into a three-bedroom townhouse in Twickenham
Twickenham
in outer south-west London
London
that overlooked the Thames.[106] They have three children: Emma (born 1969), who is a gardening columnist, Aminta (born 1971), who works in film production, and Joseph (born 1990), who studied graphic design at Central St. Martins.[107] Townshend and his wife separated in 1994 and divorced in 2009.[108][better source needed] Townshend has been in a relationship with arranger and musician Rachel Fuller
Rachel Fuller
for over twenty years. The two were married quietly in December 2016.[109] Townshend currently lives at The Wick, Richmond, London, England. He also owns a house in Churt, Surrey
Surrey
and in 2010 purchased a lease of part of the National Trust property Ashdown House in Oxfordshire.[110] According to The Sunday Times Rich List his assets were worth £40 million as of 2009.[111] Sexuality[edit] In a 1989 interview with radio host Timothy White, Townshend apparently acknowledged his bisexuality, referencing the song "Rough Boys" on his 1980 album, Empty Glass. He called the song a "coming out, an acknowledgment of the fact that I'd had a gay life, and that I understood what gay sex was about."[112] However, in a 1994 interview for Playboy, he said, "I did an interview about it, saying that "Rough Boys" was about being gay, and in the interview I also talked about my "gay life," which—I meant—was actually about the friends I've had who are gay. So the interviewer kind of dotted the t's and crossed the i's and assumed that this was a coming out, which it wasn't at all."[113] Townshend later wrote in his 2012 autobiography Who I Am that he at one point felt as if he was "probably bisexual". Townshend also stated jokingly that he once felt sexually attracted to The Rolling Stones lead singer, Mick Jagger.[114] Legal troubles[edit] Main article: Operation Ore Besides his arrest for assaulting a police officer in 1967 and issues with destruction of property, Townshend was cautioned by British police as part of Operation Ore, a major investigation on child pornography conducted in 2002–2003. Townshend was placed on the sex offenders register for five years in 2003 after admitting he had used his credit card to access a child porn website.[115][116] Later investigation showed that he had visited an ordinary porn site, and not one containing child pornography.[117][not in citation given] Hearing loss[edit] Townshend suffers from partial deafness and tinnitus believed to be the result of noise-induced hearing loss from his extensive exposure to loud music. Some such incidents include a Who concert at the Charlton Athletic Football Club, London, on 31 May 1976 that was listed as the "Loudest Concert Ever" by the Guinness Book of Records, where the volume level was measured at 126 decibels 32 metres from the stage. Townshend has also attributed the start of his hearing loss to Keith Moon's famous exploding drum set during the Who's 1967 appearance on The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour.[118] In 1989, Townshend gave the initial funding to allow the formation of the non-profit hearing advocacy group H.E.A.R. (Hearing Education and Awareness for Rockers). After the Who performed at half-time at the Super Bowl XLIV, Townshend stated that he is concerned that his tinnitus has grown to such a point that he might be forced to discontinue performing with the band altogether. He told Rolling Stone, "If my hearing is going to be a problem, we're not delaying shows. We're finished. I can't really see any way around the issue." Neil Young
Neil Young
introduced him to an audiologist who suggested he use an in-ear monitor, and although they cancelled their spring 2010 touring schedule, Townshend used the device at their one remaining London concert on 30 March 2010, to ascertain the feasibility of Townshend continuing to perform with the Who.[119] In March 2011, Roger Daltrey
Roger Daltrey
said in an interview with the BBC that Townshend had recently experienced gradual but severe hearing loss and was now trying to save what remained of his hearing: "Pete's having terrible trouble with his hearing. He's got really, really bad problems with it...not tinnitus, it's deterioration and he's seriously now worried about actually losing his hearing." Referring to that, in July 2011, Townshend wrote at his blog: "My hearing is actually better than ever because after a feedback scare at the indigO2 in December 2008 I am taking good care of it. I have computer systems in my studio that have helped me do my engineering work on the forthcoming Quadrophenia
Quadrophenia
release. I have had assistance from younger forensic engineers and mastering engineers to help me clean up the high frequencies that are out of my range. The same computer systems work wonderfully well on stage, proving to be perfect for me when the Who performed at the Super Bowl and doing Quadrophenia for TCT at the Royal Albert Hall in 2010. I'm 66, I don't have perfect hearing, and if I listen to loud music or go to gigs I do tend to get tinnitus." Political views[edit] In 1998, Townshend was named in a list of the biggest private financial donors to the UK Labour Party.[120] He refused to let Michael Moore
Michael Moore
use "Won't Get Fooled Again" in Fahrenheit 9/11, saying that he watched Bowling for Columbine
Bowling for Columbine
and was not convinced.[121] In 1961 while in art school, Townshend joined the Young Communist League and was a prominent figure in their 1966 "Trend" recruitment campaign. In a 1974 Penthouse interview he stated that in practice he was a capitalist rewarded well for his work, but his ideals were communist.[122] Charity work[edit]

Townshend performing in Austin, Texas as a supporting guest of friend and former Small Faces/Faces musician, Ian McLagan
Ian McLagan
in 2007

Townshend has woven a long history of involvement with various charities and other philanthropic efforts throughout his career, both as a solo artist and with the Who. His first solo concert, for example, was a 1974 benefit show which was organised to raise funds for the Camden Square Community Play Centre. The earliest public example of Townshend's involvement with charitable causes was in 1968, when Townshend donated the use of his former Wardour Street apartment to the Meher Baba
Meher Baba
Association. The following year, the association was moved to another Townshend-owned apartment, the Eccleston Square former residence of his wife Karen. Townshend sat on a committee which oversaw the operation and finances of the centre. "The committee sees to it that it is open a couple of days a week, and keeps the bills paid and the library full," he wrote in a 1970 Rolling Stone article. In 1969 and 1972, Townshend produced two limited-release albums, Happy Birthday and I Am, for the London-based Baba association. This led to 1972's Who Came First, a more widespread release, 15 percent of the revenue of which went to the Baba association. A further limited release, With Love, was released in 1976. A limited-edition boxed set of all three limited releases on CD, Avatar, was released in 2000, with all profits going to the Avatar Meher Baba
Meher Baba
Trust in India, which provided funds to a dispensary, school, hospital and pilgrimage centre. In July 1976, Townshend opened Meher Baba
Meher Baba
Oceanic, a London
London
activity centre for Baba followers, which featured film dubbing and editing facilities, a cinema and a recording studio. In addition, the centre served as a regular meeting place for Baba followers. Townshend offered very economical (reportedly £1 per night) lodging for American followers who needed an overnight stay on their pilgrimages to India. Townshend wrote in a 1977 Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
article:

“ For a few years, I had toyed with the idea of opening a London
London
house dedicated to Meher Baba. In the eight years I had followed him, I had donated only coppers to foundations set up around the world to carry out the Master's wishes and decided it was about time I put myself on the line. The Who
The Who
had set up a strong charitable trust of its own which appeased, to an extent, the feeling I had that Meher Baba
Meher Baba
would rather have seen me give to the poor than to the establishment of yet another so-called 'spiritual center'. ”

Townshend also embarked on a project dedicated to the collection, restoration and maintenance of Meher Baba-related films. The project was known as MEFA, or Meher Baba
Meher Baba
European Film Archive. Children's charities[edit] Townshend has been an active champion of children's charities. The debut of Pete Townshend's stage version of Tommy took place at San Diego's La Jolla Playhouse
La Jolla Playhouse
in July 1992. The show was earmarked as a benefit for the London-based Nordoff-Robbins Music Therapy Foundation, an organisation which helps children with autism and intellectual disability. Townshend performed at a 1995 benefit organised by Paul Simon
Paul Simon
at Madison Square Garden's Paramount Theatre for the Children's Health Fund. The following year, Townshend performed at a benefit for the annual Bridge School Benefit, a California facility for children with severe speech and physical impairments, with concerts organised by Neil and Pegi Young. In 1997, Townshend established a relationship with Maryville Academy, a Chicago area children's charity. Between 1997 and 2002, Townshend played five benefit shows for Maryville Academy, raising at least $1,600,000. His 1998 album A Benefit for Maryville Academy
Maryville Academy
was made to support their activities and proceeds from the sales of his release were donated to them. As a member of the Who, Townshend has also performed a series of concerts, beginning in 2000 to benefit the Teenage Cancer Trust
Teenage Cancer Trust
in the UK, which raised several million pounds. In 2005, Townshend performed at New York's Gotham Hall
Gotham Hall
for Samsung's Four Seasons of Hope, an annual children's charity fundraiser. In the same year, he donated a smashed guitar to the Pediatric Epilepsy Project.[123] On 4 November 2011, Roger Daltrey
Roger Daltrey
and Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
launched the Daltrey/Townshend Teen and Young Adult Cancer Program at the Ronald Reagan UCLA
UCLA
Medical Center in Los Angeles, to be funded by the Who's charity Who Cares. The launch, followed on 5 November by a fund-raising event, was also attended by Robert Plant
Robert Plant
and Dave Grohl.[124] Drug rehabilitation[edit] Townshend has also advocated for drug rehabilitation. In a 1985 radio interview, he said:

“ What I'm most active in doing is raising money to provide beds in clinics to help people that have become victims of drug abuse. In Britain, the facilities are very, very, very lean indeed ... although we have a national health service, a free medical system, it does nothing particularly for class A drug addicts – cocaine abusers, heroin abusers ... we're making a lot of progress ... the British government embarked on an anti-heroin campaign with advertising, and I was co-opted by them as a kind of figurehead, and then the various other people co-opted me into their own campaigns, but my main work is raising money to try and open a large clinic. ”

The "large clinic" Townshend was referring to was a plan he and drug rehabilitation experimenter Meg Patterson had devised to open a drug treatment facility in London; however, the plan failed to come to fruition. Two early 1979 concerts by the Who raised £20,000 for Patterson's Pharmakon Clinic in Sussex. Further examples of Townshend's drug rehabilitation activism took place in the form of a 1984 benefit concert (incidentally the first live performance of Manchester band The Stone Roses), an article he wrote a few days later for Britain's Mail on Sunday
Mail on Sunday
urging better care for the nation's growing number of drug addicts, and the formation of a charitable organisation, Double-O Charities, to raise funds for the causes he'd recently championed. Townshend also personally sold fund-raising anti-heroin T-shirts at a series of UK Bruce Springsteen concerts and reportedly financed a trip for former Clash drummer Topper Headon
Topper Headon
to undergo drug rehabilitation treatment. Townshend's 1985–86 band, Deep End, played two benefits at Brixton Academy
Brixton Academy
in 1985 for Double-O Charities. Amnesty International[edit] In 1979 Townshend donated his services to the human rights organisation Amnesty International
Amnesty International
when he performed three songs for its benefit show The Secret Policeman's Ball – performances that were released on record and seen in the film of the show. Townshend's acoustic performances of three of his songs ("Pinball Wizard", "Drowned", and "Won't Get Fooled Again") were subsequently cited as forerunners and inspiration for the "unplugged" phenomenon in the 1990s.[125] Townshend had been invited to perform for Amnesty by Martin Lewis, the producer of The Secret Policeman's Ball, who stated later that Townshend's participation had been the key to his securing the subsequent participation for Amnesty (in the 1981 sequel show) of Sting, Eric Clapton, Jeff Beck, Phil Collins
Phil Collins
and Bob Geldof. Other performers inspired to support Amnesty International
Amnesty International
in future Secret Policeman's Ball shows and other benefits because of Townshend's early commitment to the organisation include Peter Gabriel, Bruce Springsteen, David Gilmour
David Gilmour
and U2's lead singer Bono
Bono
who in 1986 told Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
magazine: "I saw The Secret Policeman's Ball and it became a part of me. It sowed a seed...." Discography[edit] Main article: Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
discography Solo albums[edit]

Who Came First
Who Came First
(1972) Rough Mix
Rough Mix
(1977) (with Ronnie Lane) Empty Glass
Empty Glass
(1980) All the Best Cowboys Have Chinese Eyes
All the Best Cowboys Have Chinese Eyes
(1982) White City: A Novel (1985) The Iron Man: The Musical by Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
(1989) Psychoderelict
Psychoderelict
(1993)

Townshend also released several albums dedicated to his spiritual mentor Meher Baba, listed on the discography page. Guest appearances[edit] In 1968 Townshend helped assemble a band called Thunderclap Newman consisting of three musicians he knew. Pianist Andy Newman (an old art school friend), drummer John "Speedy" Keen (who had written "Armenia City in the Sky" for the Who to record for their 1967 album The Who Sell Out) and teenage guitarist Jimmy McCulloch
Jimmy McCulloch
(later to join Wings). Townshend produced the band and played bass on their recordings under the tongue-in-cheek pseudonym "Bijou Drains". Their first recording was the single "Something in the Air", which became a number one hit in the UK and a substantial hit elsewhere in the world. This was the only number one hit in the UK that Townshend performed on. (The Who had none.)[126] Following this success, Townshend produced their sole album, Hollywood Dream. Townshend also produced "Fire" by The Crazy World of Arthur Brown
The Crazy World of Arthur Brown
in 1968 that was No. 1 in the UK and No. 2 in the US and was also an executive-producer on the band's debut album, also called The Crazy World of Arthur Brown.[126] In 1971 Townshend, along with Keith Moon
Keith Moon
and Ronnie Lane, backed Mike Heron (of the Incredible String Band) on one song "Warm Heart Pastry" from Heron's first solo LP, Smiling Men with Bad Reputations. On the album notes, they are listed as "Tommy and the Bijoux". Also present on the track was John Cale
John Cale
on viola. In 1984 Townshend contributed lyrics to the track "I'm the Answer" on his brother Simon's debut solo album Sweet Sound which was released as a single and features Townshend and Simon on an interview that wrongly names that the track was by "Peter Townshend". In 1984 Townshend contributed lyrics to two songs ("Love on The Air" and "All Lovers are Deranged") on David Gilmour's solo album About Face. Through much of 2005, Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
recorded and performed alongside his girlfriend Rachel Fuller, a classically trained pianist and singer-songwriter. In 2006 Townshend opened a website for implementation of The Lifehouse Method based on his 1971 Lifehouse concept. This website was in collaboration with composer Lawrence Ball
Lawrence Ball
and software developer David Snowden, with instrumentation by Steve Hills. Applicants at the website could input data to compose a musical "portrait" which the musical team could then develop into larger compositions for a planned concert or series of concerts. Other appearances include:

"Because You're Young" with David Bowie
David Bowie
on Scary Monsters (1980) Backing vocals on "Slave" with "The Rolling Stones" Tattoo You
Tattoo You
(1981) Acoustic guitar
Acoustic guitar
on "Ball and Chain" with Elton John
Elton John
on Jump Up! (1982) Backing vocals on "I'm the Answer" with Simon Townshend
Simon Townshend
on Sweet Sound (1983) "Lonely at the Top" and "Hard Women" with Mick Jagger
Mick Jagger
on She's the Boss (1985) Guitar on "Town of Plenty" with Elton John
Elton John
on Reg Strikes Back
Reg Strikes Back
(1988) Acoustic guitar
Acoustic guitar
with Prefab Sprout on "Hey Manhattan!" on From Langley Park to Memphis (1988) "Substitute" with The Ramones
The Ramones
on Acid Eaters
Acid Eaters
(1993) "Joy" and "Gun" with Mick Jagger
Mick Jagger
on Goddess in the Doorway
Goddess in the Doorway
(2001) "Slow Burn" with David Bowie
David Bowie
on Heathen (2002) "Angry" and "Move Over Busker" on Paul McCartney's Press to Play (1986) "Travelator" on Jean Michel Jarre's Electronica 1 - The Time Machine (2015)

Bibliography[edit]

The Story of Tommy (1977, Eel Pie Publishing) – with Richard Barnes Horse's Neck (1985, Faber and Faber) – short story collection The Who's Tommy
The Who's Tommy
(1993, Pantheon Books) The Who: Maximum R&B (2004, Plexus Publishing) – with Richard Barnes Who I Am (2012, HarperCollins) – autobiography

Awards[edit]

BRIT Awards
BRIT Awards
1983 – Life Achievement Award Q Awards 1991 – Merit Award International Rock Awards 1991 – Living Legend Award[127] Tony Award
Tony Award
1993 – Best Original Score (music & lyrics) – The Who's Tommy (tie) Grammy Awards
Grammy Awards
1994 – Best Musical Show Album (as composer and lyricist of The Who's Tommy) Q Awards 1998 – Songwriter Award Grammy Awards
Grammy Awards
2001 – Lifetime Achievement Award Ivor Novello Awards
Ivor Novello Awards
2001 – Lifetime Achievement Award [128] South Bank Show Award
South Bank Show Award
2007 – Lifetime Achievement Award Honorary doctorate from University of West London, 2010[129] MOJO Awards 2008 – Hall of Fame MOJO Awards 2008 – Classic Songwriter Classic Album Award for Quadrophenia
Quadrophenia
from the Classic Rock Roll of Honour Awards at The Roundhouse, 9 November 2011, London, England TEC Awards 2013 – Les Paul Award [130] Stevie Ray Vaughn Award 2015 [131] The George and Ira Gershwin Award 2016 – Lifetime Musical Achievement.[7][8]

Other lifetime honours[edit]

1990 Rock and Roll Hall of Fame 2005 UK Music Hall of Fame 2008 Kennedy Center Honors

See also[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Pete Townshend

Guitar showmanship

Notes[edit]

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unveil first new song in eight years". BBC News. 26 September 2014. Retrieved 5 June 2015.  ^ The Who. Encyclopædia Britannica ^ The New Book of Rock Lists page 344. Google Books. Retrieved 15 May 2011.  ^ "Top 50 Guitarists". Gibson.com. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2011.  ^ " Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time".  ^ a b Gershwin Awards 2016 Recipient, Alumni.UCLA.edu, ^ a b Lindsay Weinberg, The Who
The Who
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Pete Townshend
memoir 'Who I Am' gloomy yet addictive". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved 5 March 2014.  ^ Wilkerson 2006, p. 76. ^ Giuliano 2002, p. 76. ^ Giuliano 2002, p. 77. ^ Neill & Kent 2009, p. 148. ^ Neill & Kent 2009, p. 149. ^ Wilkerson 2006, p. 93. ^ Marsh 1983, p. 294. ^ Wilkerson 2006, p. 113. ^ Giuliano 2002, p. 89. ^ Giuliano 2002, p. 90. ^ Neill & Kent 2009, p. 224. ^ "Hope I don't have a heart attack". The Telegraph. 22 June 2006. Retrieved 22 January 2014.  ^ Marsh 1983, p. 368. ^ Marsh 1983, p. 378. ^ Neill & Kent 2009, p. 275. ^ Suddath, Claire (21 October 2011). "'Baba O'Riley'". Time. Retrieved 22 January 2014.  ^ Marsh 1983, p. 412. ^ Wilkerson 2006, p. 211. ^ Neill & Kent 2009, p. 428. ^ Wilkerson 2006, p. 213. ^ Neill & Kent 2009, p. 336. ^ Wilkerson 2006, p. 222. ^ Neill & Kent 2009, p. 369. ^ Marsh 1983, p. 439. ^ Marsh 1983, p. 451. ^ a b Wilkerson 2006, p. 240. ^ Neill & Kent 2009, p. 394. ^ " The Who
The Who
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Live
Music". Vodafonemusic.co.uk. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 15 May 2011.  ^ " The Who
The Who
liner notes". Thewho.net. 16 October 2007. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2011.  ^ " Ritchie Blackmore
Ritchie Blackmore
interview". Thehighwaystar.com. Retrieved 15 May 2011.  ^ "Steven Rosen's Jimmy Page
Jimmy Page
Interview". Zepagain.com. 1977. Archived from the original on 24 January 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2011.  ^ "Slash Interview". Snakepit.org. 2003. Retrieved 15 August 2011.  ^ " Alex Lifeson
Alex Lifeson
interview". Epiphone.com. 29 July 2004. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2011.  ^ The Sex Pistols’ Steve Jones: 'I lost everything, hit bottom, and had to work my way back up' Archived 24 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. Gibson. ^ "Pete Townshend's Classic Quadrophenia
Quadrophenia
With Billy Idol
Billy Idol
Announces U.S. Tour Dates (by Michael Gallucci)". ultimateclassicrock.com. 6 June 2017. Retrieved 8 October 2017.  ^ " Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
Plots Short 'Classic Quadrophenia' Tour – Townshend will revisit the Who's famous double album with an orchestra to reach "classical and pop music lovers alike" (by Elias Leight)". rollingstone.com. 6 June 2017. Retrieved 8 October 2017.  ^ Heath, Chris (July 2002). "Pete Townshend: The Rolling Stone Interview". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 5 May 2009.  ^ " The Who
The Who
Official Band Website – Roger Daltrey, Pete Townshend, John Entwistle, and Keith Moon, Home". Petetownshend.co.uk. Archived from the original on 27 January 2007. Retrieved 15 May 2011.  ^ Belson, Ken (2 February 2010). "The Who, and the Super Bowl's Evolving Halftime Show". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 February 2010.  ^ "Closing Ceremony". London
London
2012. Archived from the original on 18 July 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2012.  ^ " Roger Daltrey
Roger Daltrey
should write songs for next Who album". kshe95. 21 March 2018. Retrieved 22 March 2018.  ^ Kelts, Roland (9 October 2012), "Pete Townshend's War", The New Yorker, retrieved 20 August 2015  ^ Victoriano, Camila (16 October 2012), "Townshend Talks Postwar Lyricism", The Harvard Crimson, retrieved 20 August 2015  ^ a b Deusner, Stephen (19 October 2012), "Pete Townshend: "I wasn't trying to make beautiful music"", Salon, retrieved 20 August 2014  ^ Wilkerson 2006, p. 16. ^ "Pete's Equipment, Harmony
Harmony
Sovereign H-1270 12-string acoustic guitar, Whotabs, Pete Townshend". Thewho.net. Retrieved 15 May 2011.  ^ "Pete's Gear: 1959 Fender Bandmaster
Fender Bandmaster
Amplifier". Retrieved 4 January 2016.  ^ Giuliano 2002, p. 95. ^ Giuliano 2002, p. 96. ^ Townshend, Pete. (2012) Who I Am: A Memoir, New York City: Harper Collins Publishers. ISBN 978-0-06-212724-2 ^ "Best Sellers". The New York Times. 28 October 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2013.  ^ Barnes, Richard. Liner notes from 1996 CD release. ^ Townshend, Pete (26 November 1970). "In Love With Meher Baba". Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
(71).  ^ Giuliano 1983, p. 81. ^ Seigel, Jessica (2 October 1994). "Pete Townshend: So Why Did a Guy Who Hates Pinball Write A Rock Opera About it?". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 12 March 2013.  ^ McKinney, K. (7 April 2009). " Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
to Divorce 15 Years After Separation". MyFamilyLaw. Retrieved 13 August 2011.  ^ Smith, Ryan (22 September 2017). "'This is a very happy thing for both of us!' Rocker Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
reveals he secretly got married to his long-term partner Rachel Fuller
Rachel Fuller
in DECEMBER after more than two decades together". Daily Mail. Retrieved 23 September 2017.  ^ Mikhailova, Anna (30 May 2010). "Talkin' 'bout my National Trust generation". The Times. London. Retrieved 4 June 2010.  ^ "Rich List 2009". The Times. London. Retrieved 22 May 2010. [dead link] ^ " Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
Says He Is Bisexual". Orlando Sentinel. 8 November 1990. Retrieved 3 December 2012.  ^ Sheff, David (1994), "Interview: Pete Townshend", Playboy  ^ Lynskey, Dorian (9 October 2012). "Who I Am: A Memoir by Pete Townshend". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 January 2013.  ^ Wilson, Jamie (8 May 2003). " Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
put on sex offenders register". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 22 May 2010.  ^ " Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
says court 'would have destroyed me'". BBC News. 9 October 2012. Retrieved 29 September 2014.  ^ Campbell, Duncan (June 2007). "Sex, Lies and the Missing Videotape" (PDF). PC Pro Magazine. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 December 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2014.  ^ Grow, Kory (March 4, 2016). "Flashback: Watch the Who Blow Up 'Smothers Brothers' in Primetime". Rolling Stone. Retrieved August 15, 2016.  ^ Kreps, Daniel (8 February 2010). "The Who's Future Uncertain as Townshend's Tinnitus
Tinnitus
Returns". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 21 February 2010.  ^ "'Luvvies' for Labour". BBC News. 30 August 1998. Retrieved 22 May 2010.  ^ Rashbaum, Alyssa (13 July 2004). " Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
Says Don't Be 'Fooled' By Michael Moore". MTV. Retrieved 8 December 2012.  ^ "The Hypertext Who › Article Archive › Penthouse Interview (1974)". Thewho.net. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2014.  ^ " Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
Smashes Guitar... for Charity". Modern Guitars. 12 August 2005. Archived from the original on 19 November 2005.  ^ " The Who
The Who
launch teen cancer program at LA hospital". The Sacramento Bee. 4 November 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2011. [dead link] ^ "The Secret Policeman's Film Festival". 2009. Archived from the original on 18 June 2009.  ^ a b "Something in the Air by Thunderclap Newman Songfacts". Songfacts.com. Retrieved 15 May 2011.  ^ Video on YouTube ^ "Pete Townshend". Myguitarsolo.com. Retrieved 29 September 2014.  ^ Townshend, Pete (31 October 2011). Can John Peelism Survive The Internet? (Speech). BBC Radio 6 Inaugural John Peel Lecture. Radio Academy Radio Festival, Salford's Lowry Theatre, Manchester.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Gardner, Elysa; Gundersen, Edna (27 January 2013). "Pete Townshend receives Les Paul Award". USA Today. Retrieved 29 September 2014.  ^ Blistein, Joan (23 April 2015). " Bruce Springsteen
Bruce Springsteen
to Honor Pete Townshend for Addiction Charity Work". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 14 August 2015. 

References[edit]

Giuliano, Geoffrey (2002). Behind Blue Eyes: The Life of Pete Townshend. Cooper Square Press. ISBN 978-1-46173-196-2.  Howard, David (2004). Sonic Alchemy: Visionary Music Producers and Their Maverick Recordings. Hal Leonard Corporation. ISBN 978-0-634-05560-7.  Marsh, Dave (1983). Before I Get Old: The Story of The Who. Plexus Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-0-85965-083-0.  Neill, Andrew; Kent, Matthew (2009). Anyway Anyhow Anywhere: The Complete Chronicle of The Who
The Who
1958–1978. Sterling Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7535-1217-3.  Wilkerson, Mark (2006). Amazing Journey: The Life of Pete Townshend. Lulu.com. ISBN 978-1-411-67700-5.  Wooldridge, Max (2002). Rock 'n' Roll London. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-30442-3. 

Further reading[edit]

Horses Neck by Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
Mariner Books 1985, new edition, (21 May 1998) ISBN 0-395-90559-1 ISBN 978-0-395-90559-3 The Who: Maximum R&B by Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
and Richard Barnes Plexus Publishing; 5th edition (27 September 2004) ISBN 0-85965-351-X ISBN 978-0-85965-351-0 Pete Townshend: A Minstrel's Dilemma by Larry David Smith Praeger Publishers (30 March 1999) ISBN 0-275-96472-8, ISBN 978-0-275-96472-6 Who Are You: The Life of Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
by Mark Ian Wilkerson Omnibus Press; 1st edition (30 November 2008) ISBN 1-84772-243-1 ISBN 978-1-84772-243-0

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pete Townshend.

The Who's official web site Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
on IMDb Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
at the Internet Broadway Database
Internet Broadway Database
Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
at AllMusic Pete Townshend's commercial Eelpie web site Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
interviewed on the Pop Chronicles
Pop Chronicles
(1970) In Love With Meher Baba
Meher Baba
(Townshend's 1970 Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
article) video of Townshend's 1996 Fillmore West performance of his song "Parvardigar" Cliff and Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
play jazz, Parkinson show, 1981 Townshend smashes a guitar, 1989

v t e

Pete Townshend

Discography

Studio albums

Who Came First Rough Mix
Rough Mix
(w/ Ronnie Lane) Empty Glass All the Best Cowboys Have Chinese Eyes White City: A Novel The Iron Man: A Musical Psychoderelict Classic Quadrophenia

Meher Baba
Meher Baba
tribute albums (w/ Ronnie Lane
Ronnie Lane
et al.)

Happy Birthday I Am With Love O' Parvardigar

Live
Live
albums

Deep End Live!
Deep End Live!
(w/ Deep End) A Benefit for Maryville Academy Live: The Empire Live: Sadler's Wells Live: The Fillmore The Oceanic Concerts (w/ Raphael Rudd) Live: La Jolla Playhouse
La Jolla Playhouse
2001 Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
Live
Live
BAM 1993 Live: Brixton Academy
Brixton Academy
'85

Compilations

Scoop Another Scoop The Best of Pete Townshend Scoop 3 Scooped Lifehouse Chronicles Lifehouse Elements Anthology Truancy: The Very Best of Pete Townshend

Singles

"Let My Love Open the Door" "Rough Boys" "A Little Is Enough" "Keep on Working" "Face Dances, Pt. 2" "Face the Face" "Give Blood" "English Boy"

Other Songs

"Parvardigar" "Somebody Saved Me" "Slit Skirts" " White City Fighting" "Fire"

DVDs

Lifehouse (video) Live
Live
In New York Feat. Psychoderelict O Parvardigar

Related articles

Songs Songs Written Albums Peter Meaden The Who Deep End Tommy (film) The Who's Tommy Tommy (EP) Tommy (soundtrack) The Boy Who Heard Music Quadrophenia
Quadrophenia
(musical) Quadrophenia
Quadrophenia
(film) Quadrophenia
Quadrophenia
(soundtrack) The Lifehouse Method Horse's Neck Who I Am Eel Pie Publishing Eel Pie Studios Double O Cliff Townshend Emma Townshend Simon Townshend The Wick Ashdown House, Oxfordshire The Boathouse, Twickenham Chapel House, Twickenham

v t e

The Who

Roger Daltrey Pete Townshend

Former members John Entwistle Keith Moon Doug Sandom Kenney Jones

Touring members Zak Starkey Pino Palladino Simon Townshend Loren Gold Frank Simes John Corey

Studio albums

My Generation A Quick One The Who
The Who
Sell Out Tommy Who's Next Quadrophenia The Who
The Who
by Numbers Who Are You Face Dances It's Hard Endless Wire

Extended plays

Ready Steady Who Won't Get Fooled Again Wire & Glass

Live
Live
albums

Live
Live
at Leeds Who's Last Join Together Live
Live
at the Isle of Wight Festival
Isle of Wight Festival
1970 BBC Sessions Blues to the Bush Live
Live
at the Royal Albert Hall Live
Live
from Toronto View from a Backstage Pass Greatest Hits Live Live
Live
at Hull 1970 Quadrophenia
Quadrophenia
Live
Live
in London

Compilations

Magic Bus: The Who
The Who
on Tour Direct Hits Meaty Beaty Big and Bouncy Odds & Sods The Story of The Who Phases Hooligans Who's Greatest Hits Rarities Volume I & Volume II The Singles The Who
The Who
Collection Who's Missing Two's Missing Who's Better, Who's Best Thirty Years of Maximum R&B My Generation: The Very Best of The Who Encore Series The Ultimate Collection Then and Now The 1st Singles Box Greatest Hits The Who
The Who
Hits 50!

Soundtracks

Tommy The Kids Are Alright Quadrophenia Amazing Journey: The Story of The Who

Filmography

Tommy The Kids Are Alright Quadrophenia Who's Better, Who's Best Thirty Years of Maximum R&B Live Live
Live
at the Isle of Wight Festival
Isle of Wight Festival
1970 The Who
The Who
& Special
Special
Guests: Live
Live
at the Royal Albert Hall The Who
The Who
Special
Special
Edition EP Live
Live
in Boston Tommy and Quadrophenia
Quadrophenia
Live The Vegas Job Amazing Journey: The Story of The Who The Who
The Who
at Kilburn: 1977 Quadrophenia
Quadrophenia
Live
Live
in London Lambert & Stamp

Discographies

The Who
The Who
discography Roger Daltrey
Roger Daltrey
discography Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
discography John Entwistle
John Entwistle
discography Keith Moon
Keith Moon
discography

Performances

1962–1963 performances 1964 performances 1965 tour 1966 tour 1967 tour 1968 tour 1969 tour 1970 tour 1971 tour 1972 tour 1973 tour 1974 tour 1975 tour 1976 tour 1977–1978 performances 1979 tour 1980 tour 1981 tour 1982 tour 1985 and 1988 reunions 1989 tour 1996–1997 tour 1999 performances 2000 tour 2001 The Concert for New York City
The Concert for New York City
appearance 2002 tour 2003 The 46664
46664
Concert appearance 2004 tour The Who
The Who
2005 performances 2006–2007 tour 2008–2009 tour 2010 performances 2011 performances Quadrophenia
Quadrophenia
and More The Who
The Who
Hits 50! Back to the Who Tour 51! 2017 Tommy & More The Who
The Who
Tour 2017

Members

Doug Sandom Mitch Mitchell Dave Golding Julian Covey Chris Townson Scot Halpin John "Rabbit" Bundrick Tim Gorman Steve "Boltz" Bolton Simon Phillips Jon Carin Damon Minchella Steve White Brian Kehew J. J. Blair Danny Thompson Jon Button Loren Gold Frank Simes J. Greg Miller Reggie Grisham Morgan Nicholls Chris Stainton Scott Devours

Associated places

Ashdown House, Oxfordshire Chapel House, Twickenham Holmshurst Manor Quarwood Ramport Studios Shepperton Studios Tara, Chertsey The Wick

Related articles

The Boy Who Heard Music Lifehouse The Who's Tommy Rock Is Dead—Long Live
Live
Rock! The Who's Tommy
The Who's Tommy
Pinball Wizard Who Covers Who? "A Tale of Two Springfields" Awards and nominations Musical equipment Double O The Rolling Stones
The Rolling Stones
Rock and Roll Circus No Plan B Kit Lambert Kim McLagan Richard Barnes Dougal Butler Chris Charlesworth Bob Pridden Songs

v t e

Tony Award
Tony Award
for Best Original Score

1947-1975

Street Scene by Kurt Weill
Kurt Weill
(1947) Kiss Me, Kate
Kiss Me, Kate
by Cole Porter
Cole Porter
(1949) South Pacific by Richard Rodgers
Richard Rodgers
(1950) Call Me Madam
Call Me Madam
by Irving Berlin
Irving Berlin
(1951) No Strings
No Strings
by Richard Rodgers
Richard Rodgers
(1962) Oliver!
Oliver!
by Lionel Bart
Lionel Bart
(1963) Hello, Dolly! by Jerry Herman
Jerry Herman
(1964) Fiddler on the Roof
Fiddler on the Roof
by Jerry Bock
Jerry Bock
and Sheldon Harnick
Sheldon Harnick
(1965) Man of La Mancha
Man of La Mancha
by Mitch Leigh
Mitch Leigh
and Joe Darion (1966) Cabaret by John Kander and Fred Ebb
Fred Ebb
(1967) Hallelujah, Baby!
Hallelujah, Baby!
by Jule Styne, Betty Comden, and Adolph Green
Adolph Green
(1968) Company by Stephen Sondheim
Stephen Sondheim
(1971) Follies
Follies
by Stephen Sondheim
Stephen Sondheim
(1972) A Little Night Music
A Little Night Music
by Stephen Sondheim
Stephen Sondheim
(1973) Gigi by Frederick Loewe and Alan Jay Lerner
Alan Jay Lerner
(1974) The Wiz
The Wiz
by Charlie Smalls
Charlie Smalls
(1975)

1976-2000

A Chorus Line
A Chorus Line
by Marvin Hamlisch
Marvin Hamlisch
and Edward Kleban (1976) Annie by Charles Strouse
Charles Strouse
and Martin Charnin (1977) On the Twentieth Century by Cy Coleman, Betty Comden, and Adolph Green (1978) Sweeney Todd
Sweeney Todd
by Stephen Sondheim
Stephen Sondheim
(1979) Evita by Andrew Lloyd Webber
Andrew Lloyd Webber
and Tim Rice
Tim Rice
(1980) Woman of the Year by John Kander and Fred Ebb
Fred Ebb
(1981) Nine by Maury Yeston (1982) Cats by Andrew Lloyd Webber
Andrew Lloyd Webber
and T. S. Eliot
T. S. Eliot
(1983) La Cage aux Folles by Jerry Herman
Jerry Herman
(1984) Big River by Roger Miller
Roger Miller
(1985) Drood
Drood
by Rupert Holmes (1986) Les Misérables by Claude-Michel Schönberg, Herbert Kretzmer, and Alain Boublil (1987) Into the Woods
Into the Woods
by Stephen Sondheim
Stephen Sondheim
(1988) City of Angels by Cy Coleman
Cy Coleman
and David Zippel (1990) The Will Rogers Follies
Follies
by Cy Coleman, Betty Comden, and Adolph Green (1991) Falsettos by William Finn
William Finn
(1992) Kiss of the Spider Woman by John Kander and Fred Ebb
Fred Ebb
/ The Who's Tommy by Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
(1993) Passion by Stephen Sondheim
Stephen Sondheim
(1994) Sunset Boulevard by Andrew Lloyd Webber, Don Black, and Christopher Hampton (1995) Rent by Jonathan Larson (1996) Titanic by Maury Yeston (1997) Ragtime by Stephen Flaherty and Lynn Ahrens (1998) Parade by Jason Robert Brown
Jason Robert Brown
(1999) Aida by Elton John
Elton John
and Tim Rice
Tim Rice
(2000)

2001-present

The Producers by Mel Brooks
Mel Brooks
(2001) Urinetown
Urinetown
by Mark Hollmann and Greg Kotis (2002) Hairspray by Marc Shaiman
Marc Shaiman
and Scott Wittman (2003) Avenue Q
Avenue Q
by Robert Lopez
Robert Lopez
and Jeff Marx
Jeff Marx
(2004) The Light in the Piazza by Adam Guettel
Adam Guettel
(2005) The Drowsy Chaperone
The Drowsy Chaperone
by Lisa Lambert and Greg Morrison (2006) Spring Awakening by Duncan Sheik
Duncan Sheik
and Steven Sater (2007) In the Heights
In the Heights
by Lin-Manuel Miranda
Lin-Manuel Miranda
(2008) Next to Normal
Next to Normal
by Tom Kitt and Brian Yorkey (2009) Memphis by David Bryan
David Bryan
and Joe DiPietro (2010) The Book of Mormon by Trey Parker, Robert Lopez
Robert Lopez
and Matt Stone
Matt Stone
(2011) Newsies by Alan Menken
Alan Menken
and Jack Feldman (2012) Kinky Boots by Cyndi Lauper
Cyndi Lauper
(2013) The Bridges of Madison County by Jason Robert Brown
Jason Robert Brown
(2014) Fun Home by Jeanine Tesori and Lisa Kron (2015) Hamilton by Lin-Manuel Miranda
Lin-Manuel Miranda
(2016) Dear Evan Hansen
Dear Evan Hansen
by Benj Pasek and Justin Paul (2017)

v t e

Kennedy Center Honorees (2000s)

2000

Mikhail Baryshnikov Chuck Berry Plácido Domingo Clint Eastwood Angela Lansbury

2001

Julie Andrews Van Cliburn Quincy Jones Jack Nicholson Luciano Pavarotti

2002

James Earl Jones James Levine Chita Rivera Paul Simon Elizabeth Taylor

2003

James Brown Carol Burnett Loretta Lynn Mike Nichols Itzhak Perlman

2004

Warren Beatty Ossie Davis
Ossie Davis
& Ruby Dee Elton John Joan Sutherland John Williams

2005

Tony Bennett Suzanne Farrell Julie Harris Robert Redford Tina Turner

2006

Zubin Mehta Dolly Parton Smokey Robinson Steven Spielberg Andrew Lloyd Webber

2007

Leon Fleisher Steve Martin Diana Ross Martin Scorsese Brian Wilson

2008

Morgan Freeman George Jones Barbra Streisand Twyla Tharp Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
& Roger Daltrey

2009

Mel Brooks Dave Brubeck Grace Bumbry Robert De Niro Bruce Springsteen

Complete list 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s

v t e

Meher Baba

Publications

God Speaks
God Speaks
(1955) Discourses (1939) God in a Pill?
God in a Pill?
(1966)

Terms and concepts

God-realization Perfect Master Involution Mast Mandali New Life

Prayers

Parvardigar Prayer Prayer of Repentance Beloved God Prayer Seven Names of God Prayer 101 Names of God

Traditions

Amartithi Silence Day Dhuni Meher Baba's missing book

Important places

Meherabad
Meherabad
ashram

Pilgrim Center shrine/tomb

Meherazad Meher Spiritual Center Meher Mount Avatar's Abode

Family

Shireen Irani
Shireen Irani
(mother) Sheriar Irani
Sheriar Irani
(father) Mani Irani
Mani Irani
(sister)

Associated figures

Mehera Irani Norina Matchabelli Kitty Davy Eruch Jessawala Faredoon Driver Bhau Kalchuri Francis Brabazon William Donkin Lyn Ott Charles Purdom Gabriel Pascal Quentin Tod Meredith Starr Pete Townshend Tom Hopkinson Mirza Ismail

Contacted masters

Hazrat Babajan Upasni Maharaj Sai Baba of Shirdi Hazrat Tajuddin Baba Narayan Maharaj

Organizations

Avatar Meher Baba
Meher Baba
Trust Sufism Reoriented

Legacy

"Don't Worry, Be Happy" Beyond Words (1997 documentary) Nema aviona za Zagreb
Nema aviona za Zagreb
(2012 film) Happy Birthday (1970 album) I Am (1972 album) With Love (1976 album) O Parvardigar (1976 film) "Parvardigar" (2001 album)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 197831 LCCN: n85093204 ISNI: 0000 0001 1556 1378 GND: 118758543 SUDOC: 077719743 BNF: cb139005297 (data) MusicBrainz: fb147b8f-0144-4418-acaa-90b2d9779840 NDL: 00458996 NKC: ola2002151720 BNE: XX1041825 SN

.