Krai (Russian: Пе́рмский край, tr. Permsky kray,
IPA: [ˈpʲɛrmskʲɪj ˈkraj]) is a federal subject of
krai) that came into existence on December 1, 2005 as a result of
the 2004 referendum on the merger of
Perm Oblast and Komi-Permyak
Autonomous Okrug. The city of
Perm is the administrative center.
Population: 2,635,276 (2010 Census).
Komi-Permyak Okrug retained its autonomous status within
during the transitional period of 2006–2008. It also retained a
budget separate from that of the krai, keeping all federal transfers.
Starting in 2009, Komi-Permyak Okrug's budget became subject to the
budgeting law of
Perm Krai. The transitional period was implemented in
Komi-Permyak Okrug relies heavily on federal subsidies,
and an abrupt cut would have been detrimental to its economy.
1.4 Flora and fauna
3 Administrative divisions
4 Law enforcement
6.1 Demographics for 2007
7 Major attractions
10 External links
Krai is located in the east of the
East European Plain
East European Plain and the
western slope of the Middle Ural Mountains. 99.8% of its area is in
Europe, 0.2% in Asia.
length from north to south – 645 kilometres (401 mi)
length from west to east – 417.5 kilometres (259.4 mi)
The krai borders the
Komi Republic in the north,
Kirov Oblast in the
Udmurt Republic in the southwest, the Republic of
Bashkortostan in the south, and
Sverdlovsk Oblast in the east.
The krai borders stretch for over 2,200 kilometres (1,400 mi).
The highest point is Mount
Tulymsky Kamen at 1,496 metres
Krai belong to the
Kama River Basin, the largest
tributary of Volga River. There are more than 29,000 rivers in Perm
Krai. The total length of all rivers is more than 90,000 kilometres
Only two rivers in
Krai have lengths exceeding 500 kilometres
(310 mi). They are the
Kama River at 1,805 kilometres
(1,122 mi) and the Chusovaya River, 592 kilometres (368 mi).
There are about 40 rivers with lengths from 100 to 500 kilometres (62
to 311 mi). The longest of them are:
Sylva River — 493 km (306 mi)
Kolva River — 460 km (285 mi)
Vishera River — 415 km (258 mi)
Yayva River — 403 km (250 mi)
Kosva River — 283 km (176 mi)
Kosa River — 267 km (165 mi)
Veslyana River — 266 km (165 mi)
Inva River — 257 km (159 mi)
Obva River — 247 km (153 mi)
There are also many small rivers, but some of them have historical
significance, for example Yegoshikha River, in mouth of which city
Perm was founded.
Perm krai has a continental climate. Winters are long and snowy, with
average temperatures in January varying from −18 °C
(0 °F) in the northeast part of krai to −15 °C
(5 °F) in southwest part. The record lowest recorded temperature
was −53 °C (−63 °F) (in the north).
Salt dump in Solikamsk
Kungur Ice Cave
Krai is rich with minerals, that can be explained its diverse
relief in mountainous and flat parts. There are produced: oil, natural
gas, gold, diamonds, chromites, peat, limestone, building materials
Oil in its area was first discovered in 1929 near settlement
Verhnechusovskie Gorodki. Currently there are known more than 180 oil
and gas fields. Among them are developed: 89 oil, 2 gas and 18 both
oil and gas fields. Most of them are small and extracted in central
and southern districts of krai. Northern fields a less developed
because of deep lying of oil under salt layers.
Coal has been mined in
Krai for more than 200 years. For a long
time it played an important role in the fuel and energy balance in the
region. Maximum mining was in 1960 and reached 12 million tones, after
it mining decrease and there are no exploration of new fields.
Krai is located Verkhnekamskoye deposit of potassium salts,
one of the largest in the world. Its area is approx. 1,800 km²
and the thickness of the salt layers reaches 514 m.
Flora and fauna
Forests cover about 71% of
Perm krai's area. Predominant are
coniferous forests, percentage of deciduous forests increase from
north to south. There are 62 species of mammals, more than 270 species
of birds, 39 species of fishes, 6 species of reptile and 9 species of
Three nature reserves are located in
Perm Krai: Basegi, Vishera,
Krai Legislative Assembly, July 2010
During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared
between three persons: The first secretary of the
Perm CPSU Committee
(who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast
Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive
Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and
the head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor was
appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.
The Charter of
Krai is the fundamental law of the region. The
Legislative Assembly of
Krai is the province's standing
legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Assembly exercises
its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and
by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other
legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Oblast
Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as
district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate
development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast
administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the
highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast
Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.
Welcome sign at the border of Chernushinsky District
Main article: Administrative divisions of
Administratively, the krai is divided into thirty-three districts,
fourteen cities of krai significance, and one closed
administrative-territorial formation. Six administrative districts are
grouped into Komi-Permyak Okrug, which is an administrative unit with
special status formed within
Krai as a result of the 2005 merger
Perm Oblast and Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug, both of which used
to be the federal subjects.
Municipally, the territories of all administrative districts and those
of nine cities of krai significance are incorporated as municipal
districts. The remaining five cities are incorporated as urban okrugs.
MVD's Directorate of
служа закону, Служим народу
by serving the law, we serve the people
Governmental: Government agency
Local civilian police
Komsomolskiy Pr. 74, Perm
Elected officer responsible
Yuri Velyaev, Chief of Police
The Directorate of the Ministry for Internal Affairs in
(ГУ МВД России по Пермскому краю) or the
Perm (Полиция Перми) is the main law enforcement
agency of the government of
Perm Krai, Russia. It is answerable to the
MVD and the governor of
Perm Krai. The chief of police is
Nonferrous metallurgy is based on ore processing Verkhnekamskoye
potash deposit containing magnesium and rare metals. The factories are
Magnesium Plant Corporation VSMPO) and
Solikamsk magnesium plant).
In engineering plays an important role military production. The
largest center of engineering is Perm; manufactured aircraft and
rocket engines, oil field and mining equipment, Petrol motive-powered
saws, communication equipment, vessels, cable and other products. The
largest enterprises are
Motovilikha Plants and
Perm Motors. Timber
Complex edge based on the use of the richest forest resources of
Prikamye. Logging facilities are located mainly in the north of the
Kamskaya Hydroelectric power plant, Perm
According to the 2010 Census, the population of
2,635,276; down from 2,819,421 recorded in the 2002 Census, and
further down from 3,099,994 recorded in the 1989 Census.
Ethnic groups, as of the 2010 Census, are:
Bashkirs (1,3%), Ukrainians
Belarusians (0,3%), Germans (0,3%) and others.
Additionally, 119,538 people were registered from administrative
databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that
the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the
There are about 40,740
Perm Krai, according to the 2002
Census. Most of them live in Bardymsky District, in basin of Tulva
River and belong to tribe gaina.
Tatars live in almost all settlements of
Perm Krai. There are several
different ethnographical groups of Tatar people. In this territory
there were longtime active contacts between
Tatars and Bashkins, so in
some cases it is difficult to delineate the ethnic groups, especially
in such areas as
Kuyedinsky District and Tulva River basin.
Vital Statistics for 2007: Source
Birth Rate: 12.05 per 1000
Death Rate: 15.70 per 1000
Net Immigration: -1.0 per 1000
NGR: -0.37% per Year
PGR: -0.48% per Year
Vital statistics for 2012
Births: 38 847 (14.8 per 1000)
Deaths: 37 278 (14.2 per 1000) 
Total fertility rate: 1.91
Death rates in some of the remote and rural areas in
very high, never seen before during times other than major wars or
natural calamities. Just five districts out of a total of 47 have a
surplus of births over death in
Perm Krai. The birth rate in
is much higher compared to other European regions. For example, the
birth rate for Germany was 8.3 per 1000 in 2007.
Perm as a whole is
having 50% higher birth rate, and even the district with the lowest
birth rate is having 20% higher BR compared to Germany. In 2008, the
birth rate in
Krai was 8% higher than that of 2007. Close to 35.5
thousand births were recorded with the heaviest increases in City of
Perm (+11%) and Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug (+18%). Among the
districts, Kudymkar City recorded a 46% rise in birth rates for 2008
compared to 2007, while Usolsky recorded a 31% rise and Kyshertsky
recorded a 29% rise. In 13 of the districts, there were more births
than deaths, among them Ordynsky, Karagaysky, Kudimkar, Chernushynsky,
Chaykovsky & Permsky.
Total fertility rate:
1995 - 1,31 2000 - 1,26 2005 - 1,34 2006 - 1,34 2007 - 1,47
2008 - 1,57 2009 - 1,61 2010 - 1,77 2011 - 1,78 2012 - 1,91
2013 - 1,93 2014 - 1,98 2015 - 2,02 2016 - 1,99(e)
Demographics for 2007
Krai as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas)
Rodnovery and other native faiths
Spiritual but not religious
Atheism and irreligion
Other and undeclared
As of a 2012 survey 43% of the population of
Krai adheres to
the Russian Orthodox Church, 5% declares to be generically
unaffiliated Christian, 4% are Muslims, 2% are
Rodnovers (Slavic folk
religion), 1% are Old Believers, 1% Orthodox Christian believers who
don't belong to churches or are members of non-Russian Orthodox
churches, 8% follows other religion or did not give an answer to the
survey. In addition, 24% of the population declares to be "spiritual
but not religious" and 14% to be either atheist or not religious.
Perm State Art Gallery
Krai is home of several museums:
Perm State Art Galery
Perm Museum of Local History
Museum of Motovilikha Plants
Khokhlovka and others.
Numerous architectural monuments are located in the small town of
Usolye, in north of
Perm Krai. Particularly important are the Saviour
Cathedral, with a separate bell tower, and House of Stroganov.
There are many theaters in Perm, including the
Perm Opera and Ballet
Perm Academic Theater, the Puppet Theater, the Theater
for Young Spectators, the Theater "Near Bridge", and others.
There are many temples and convents in
Perm Krai. The most significant
of them are:
Belogorsky Convent located in 85 km from Perm,
Sludskaya Church, Fedosievskaya Church,
Perm Mosque and others.
Ordinsky is home to the Orda underwater caves. Located near Orda
Perm region, Ural,
Orda Cave is also the biggest underwater
gypsum crystal cave in the world.
^ Президент Российской
Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая
2000 г. «О полномочном представителе
Президента Российской Федерации в
федеральном округе». Вступил в
силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован:
"Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст.
2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian
Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the
Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian
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^ Госстандарт Российской
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Gosstandart of the Russian
Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian
Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as
amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
^ Федеральный конституционный
закон №1-ФКЗ от 25 марта 2004 г
«Об образовании в составе Российской
Федерации нового субъекта Российской
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федерального конституционного закона
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^ Charter, Article 15.3
^ Charter, Article 15.4
^ Федеральная служба государственной
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"Территория, число районов, населённых
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^ The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported
by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note
that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the
infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the
^ Правительство Российской
закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об
исчислении времени», в ред.
Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03
июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в
Федеральный закон "Об исчислении
времени"». Вступил в силу по
истечении шестидесяти дней после дня
официального опубликования (6 августа
2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская
газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian
Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31,
2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ
of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating
Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the
^ Official throughout the Russian Federation according to
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^ Полезные ископаемые Archived October 6, 2008, at
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городских поселений, сельских
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с населением 3 тысячи и более
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^ Статья о башкирах на сайте РОО "Хомай"
Archived February 26, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
^ ТАТАРЫ. Энциклопедия «Пермский край»
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^ http://dmr.perm.ru/?/katalog.dirx2x79x143.205*xls[permanent dead
^ a b c "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia".
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края. №32-ПК 27 апреля 2007 г. «Устав
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2Administratively subordinated to Tyumen Oblast
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