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PAX BRITANNICA (Latin for the "British Peace", modelled after Pax Romana ) was the period of relative peace in Europe (1815–1914) during which the British Empire
British Empire
became the global hegemonic power and adopted the role of a global police force.

Between 1815 and 1914, a period referred to as the UK "imperial century," around 10,000,000 square miles (26,000,000 km2) of territory and roughly 400 million people were added to the British Empire. Victory over Napoleonic France left the British without any serious international rival, other than perhaps Russia in central Asia . When Russia tried expanding its influence in the Balkans, the British and French defeated it in the Crimean War (1854–56), thereby protecting the by-then feeble Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
.

The UK Royal Navy
Royal Navy
controlled most of the key maritime trade routes and enjoyed unchallenged sea power . Alongside the formal control it exerted over its own colonies, the UK dominant position in world trade meant that it effectively controlled access to many regions, such as Asia
Asia
and Latin America
Latin America
. The British merchants, shippers and bankers had such an overwhelming advantage over everyone else that in addition to its colonies it had an "informal empire ".

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 See also

* 3 References

* 3.1 Footnotes * 3.2 Bibliography * 3.3 Primary sources

HISTORY

Further information: International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919) and Timeline of British diplomatic history § 1815–96

After losing the American colonies in the American Revolution
American Revolution
, Britain turned towards Asia, the Pacific and later Africa with subsequent exploration leading to the rise of the Second British Empire (1783–1815). The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain in the late 1700s and new ideas emerged about free markets, such as Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations (1776). Free trade became a central principle that Britain practiced by the 1840s. It played a key role in Britain's economic growth and financial dominance .

From the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815 until World War I
World War I
in 1914, the United Kingdom played the role of global hegemon (most powerful actor). Imposition of a "British Peace" on key maritime trade routes began in 1815 with the annexation of British Ceylon (now Sri Lanka). Under the British Residency of the Persian Gulf , local Arab rulers agreed to a number of treaties that formalised Britain’s protection of the region. Britain imposed an anti-piracy treaty, known as the General Treaty of 1820, on all Arab rulers in the region. By signing the Perpetual Maritime Truce of 1853, Arab rulers gave up their right to wage war at sea in return for British protection against external threats. The global superiority of British military and commerce was aided by a divided and relatively weak continental Europe, and the presence of the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
on all of the world's oceans and seas. Even outside its formal empire, Britain controlled trade with many countries such as China, Siam , and Argentina. Following the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
the British Empire's economic strength continued to develop through naval dominance and diplomatic efforts to maintain a balance of power in continental Europe.

In this era, the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
provided services around the world that benefited other nations, such as the suppression of piracy and blocking the slave trade . The Slave Trade Act 1807
Slave Trade Act 1807
had banned the trade across the British Empire, after which the Royal Navy established the West Africa Squadron and the government negotiated international treaties under which they could enforce the ban. Sea power, however, did not project on land. Land wars fought between the major powers include the Crimean War , the Franco-Austrian War , the Austro-Prussian War and the Franco-Prussian War , as well as numerous conflicts between lesser powers. The Royal Navy
Royal Navy
prosecuted the First Opium War (1839–1842) and Second Opium War (1856–1860) against Imperial China . The Royal Navy
Royal Navy
was superior to any other two navies in the world, combined. Between 1815 and the passage of the German naval laws of 1890 and 1898, only France was a potential naval threat.

Britain traded goods and capital extensively with countries around the world, adopting a free trade policy after 1840. The growth of British imperial strength was further underpinned by the steamship and the telegraph , new technologies invented in the second half of the 19th century, allowing it to control and defend the empire. By 1902, the British Empire
British Empire
was linked together by a network of telegraph cables, the so-called All Red Line .

The Pax Britannica
Pax Britannica
was weakened by the breakdown of the continental order which had been established by the Congress of Vienna. Relations between the Great Powers of Europe were strained to breaking point by issues such as the decline of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
, which led to the Crimean War , and later the emergence of new nation states in the form of Italy and Germany
Germany
after the Franco-Prussian War . Both of these wars involved Europe's largest states and armies. The industrialisation of Germany
Germany
, the Empire of Japan , and the United States contributed to the relative decline of British industrial supremacy in the early 20th century.

SEE ALSO

* Historiography of the British Empire
British Empire
* History of the foreign relations of the United Kingdom * Imperial Federation * International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919) * Pax Americana

REFERENCES

FOOTNOTES

* ^ Johnston , pp. 508-10. * ^ Porter , p. 332. * ^ Hyam , p. 1. * ^ Smith , p. 71. * ^ Parsons , p. 3. * ^ Porter , p. 401. * ^ Porter , p. 8. * ^ Marshall , pp. 156–57. * ^ Cameron , pp. 45-47. * ^ Darwin , p. 391. * ^ Crawfurd , pp. 191–192: "...for what purpose was it conquered and is it now retained?' We endeavoured to explain, that during the wars, in which we were lately engaged with our European enemies who occupied the coast of the island, they harassed our commerce from its ports, and therefore, in self-defence, there was a necessity for taking possession of it." * ^ "The British in the Gulf: An Overview". Qatar Digital Library. British Library Qatar Foundation Partnership. Retrieved 25 October 2014. The increased stability that this 'Pax Britannica' brought led to increased volumes of trade in the region. Ruling families began to actively seek British protection as a means of securing their rule and safeguarding their territories. * ^ Pugh , p. 83. * ^ Thackeray , p. 57. * ^ Falola , pp. xxi, xxxiii-xxxiv. * ^ "The legal and diplomatic background to the seizure of foreign vessels by the Royal Navy". * ^ Dalziel , pp. 88–91. * ^ Pugh , p. 90.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Albrecht-Carrié, René. A Diplomatic History of Europe Since the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
(1958), 736pp; basic survey * Bartlett, C. J. Peace, War and the European Powers, 1814-1914 (1996) brief overview 216pp * Bury, J. P. T. ed. The New Cambridge Modern History: Vol. 10: the Zenith of European Power, 1830-70 (1964) * Cameron, Rondo; Bovykin, V.I., eds. (1991). International Banking: 1870–1914. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-506271-7 . * Darby, H. C. and H. Fullard The New Cambridge Modern History, Vol. 14: Atlas (1972) * Darwin, John (2012). Unfinished Empire: The Global Expansion of Britain. London: Allen Lane. * Dalziel, Nigel (2006). The Penguin Historical Atlas of the British Empire. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-101844-5 . * Falola, Toyin; Warnock, Amanda (2007). Encyclopedia of the middle passage. Greenwood Press. ISBN 9780313334801 . * Ferguson, Niall. Empire: The Rise and Demise of the British World Order and the Lessons for Global Power (2002), * Hinsley, F.H., ed. The New Cambridge Modern History, vol. 11, Material Progress and World-Wide Problems 1870-1898 (1979) * Hyam, Ronald (2002). Britain\'s Imperial Century, 1815–1914: A Study of Empire and Expansion. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-7134-3089-9 . Retrieved 22 July 2009. * Johnston, Douglas M.; Reisman, W. Michael (2008). The Historical Foundations of World Order. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 9047423933 . * Kennedy, Paul . The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers
The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers
Economic Change and Military Conflict From 1500-2000 (1987), stress on economic and military factors * Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy (1995), 940pp; not a memoir but an interpretive history of international diplomacy since the late 18th century * Marshall, PJ (1996). The Cambridge Illustrated History of the British Empire. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-00254-0 . Retrieved 22 July 2009. * Parsons, Timothy H (1999). The British Imperial Century, 1815–1914: A World History Perspective. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-8476-8825-9 . Retrieved 22 July 2009. * Porter, Andrew (1998). The Nineteenth Century, The Oxford History of the British Empire
British Empire
Volume III. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-924678-5 . Retrieved 22 July 2009. * Pugh, Martin (1999). Britain since 1789: A Concise History. Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-22359-5 . Retrieved 20 April 2010. * Rich, Norman. Great Power Diplomacy: 1814-1914 (1991), comprehensive survey * Seaman, L.C.B. From Vienna to Versailles (1955) 216pp; brief overview of diplomatic history online * Smith, Simon (1998). British Imperialism 1750–1970. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-3-12-580640-5 . Retrieved 22 July 2009. * Thackeray, Frank (2002). Events That Changed Great Britain since 1689. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-31686-4 . * Ward, A.W. and G. P. Gooch , eds. The Cambridge History of British Foreign Policy, 1783-1919 (3 vol, 1921–23), old detailed classic; vol 1, 1783-1815 ; vol 2, 1815-1866; vol 3. 1866-1919

PRIMARY SOURCES

* Crawfurd, John (21 August 2006) . Journal of an Embassy from the Governor-general of India to the Courts of Siam and Cochin China. Volume 1 (2nd ed.). London: H. Colburn and R. Bentley. OCLC 03452414 . Retrieved 2 February 2012.

* v * t * e

Periods of regional and relative peace

CONTEMPORARY

* Pax Americana * Pax Europaea * Pax Praetoriana * Pax Sinica

HISTORICAL

* Pax Assyriaca * Pax Britannica * Pax Dei * Pax Hispanica * Pax Islamica * Pax Khazarica * Pax Minoica * Pax Mongolica * Pax Ottomana * Pax Praetoriana * Pax Romana * Pax Sinica * Pax Sovietica * Pax Sumerica * Pax Syriana

* v * t * e

Power in international relations

TYPES

* Economic * Energy * Food * Hard * National * Power politics * Realpolitik * Smart * Soft

STATUS

* Emerging * Small * Middle * Regional * Great * Super * Hyper

GEOPOLITICS

* American * Asian * British * Chinese * Indian * Pacific

HISTORY

* List of ancient great powers * List of medieval great powers * List of modern great powers * International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919)

THEORY

* Balance of power

* European

* Center of power * Hegemonic stability theory * Philosophy of power * Polarity * Power projection * Power transition theory
Power transition theory
* Second Superpower * Sphere of influence * Superpower collapse * Superpower disengagement

STUDIES

* Composite Index of National Capability * Comprehensive National Power

ORGANIZATIONS AND GROUPS BY REGION OR REGIONS AFFECTED

AFRICA

* African Union
African Union
* Union for the Mediterranean

AFRICA–ASIA

* Arab League
Arab League
* Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC) * Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)

AMERICAS

* Mercosur * North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) * Organization of American States (OAS) * Union of South American Nations
Union of South American Nations
(Unasur)

ASIA

* Asia
Asia
Cooperation Dialogue (ACD) * Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) * Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) * China–Japan–South Korea trilateral summits * Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) * South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
(SAARC) * Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
(SCO)

EUROPE

* Council of Europe (CE) * European Union
European Union
(EU) * Nordic Council
Nordic Council
* Visegrád Group

EURASIA

* Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS) * Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) * Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) * Eurasian Economic Union (EaEU) * Turkic Council

NORTH AMERICA–EUROPE

* North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) * Arctic Council

AFRICA–ASIA–EUROPE

* Union for the Mediterranean

AFRICA–SOUTH AMERICA

* South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone

OCEANIA-PACIFIC

* Australia–New Zealand– United States
United States
Security Treaty (ANZUS) * Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) * Melanesian Spearhead Group (MSG) * Pacific Islands Forum (PIF) * Polynesian Leaders Group (PLG)

NON-REGIONAL

* Brazil–Russia–India–China–South Africa (BRICS) * Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
* Francophonie * Colombia–Indonesia–Vietnam–Egypt–Turkey–South Africa (CIVETS) * E7 * E9 * G4 * G7 * G8 * G8+5 * G20 * G24 * G77 * India–Brazil–South Africa Dialogue Forum (IBSA) * Mexico–Indonesia–Nigeria–Turkey (MINT) * Next Eleven (N-11) * Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) * Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) * Uniting for Consensus

GLOBAL

* United Nations
United Nations
(UN)

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