The Info List - Pax Britannica

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Pax Britannica
Pax Britannica
(Latin for "British Peace", modelled after Pax Romana) was the period of relative peace between the Great Powers during which the British Empire
British Empire
became the global hegemonic power and adopted the role of a global police force.[1][2] Between 1815 and 1914, a period referred to as Britain's "imperial century",[3][4] around 10,000,000 square miles (26,000,000 km2) of territory and roughly 400 million people were added to the British Empire.[5] Victory over Napoleonic France
Napoleonic France
left the British without any serious international rival, other than perhaps Russia in central Asia.[6] When Russia tried expanding its influence in the Balkans, the British and French defeated them in the Crimean War
Crimean War
(1854–56), thereby protecting the feeble Ottoman Empire. Britain's Royal Navy
Royal Navy
controlled most of the key maritime trade routes and enjoyed unchallenged sea power. Alongside the formal control exerted over its own colonies, Britain's dominant position in world trade meant that it effectively controlled access to many regions, such as Asia
and Latin America. British merchants, shippers and bankers had such an overwhelming advantage over everyone else that in addition to its colonies it had an "informal empire".[7][8][9]


1 History 2 See also 3 References

3.1 Footnotes 3.2 Bibliography 3.3 Primary sources

History[edit] Further information: History of the foreign relations of the United Kingdom § 1814-1914, International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919), and Timeline of British diplomatic history § 1815–1860 After losing the American colonies in the American Revolution, Britain turned towards Asia, the Pacific and later Africa with subsequent exploration leading to the rise of the Second British Empire (1783–1815). The Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
began in Great Britain in the late 1700s and new ideas emerged about free markets, such as Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations
The Wealth of Nations
(1776). Free trade became a central principle that Britain practiced by the 1840s. It played a key role in Britain's economic growth and financial dominance.[10] From the end of the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
in 1815 until World War I
World War I
in 1914, the United Kingdom played the role of global hegemon (most powerful actor). Imposition of a "British Peace" on key maritime trade routes began in 1815 with the annexation of British Ceylon (now Sri Lanka).[11] Under the British Residency of the Persian Gulf, local Arab rulers agreed to a number of treaties that formalised Britain’s protection of the region. Britain imposed an anti-piracy treaty, known as the General Maritime Treaty of 1820, on all Arab rulers in the region. By signing the Perpetual Maritime Truce of 1853, Arab rulers gave up their right to wage war at sea in return for British protection against external threats.[12] The global superiority of British military and commerce was aided by a divided and relatively weak continental Europe, and the presence of the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
on all of the world's oceans and seas. Even outside its formal empire, Britain controlled trade with many countries such as China, Siam, and Argentina. Following the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
the British Empire's economic strength continued to develop through naval dominance[13] and diplomatic efforts to maintain a balance of power in continental Europe.[14] In this era, the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
provided services around the world that benefited other nations, such as the suppression of piracy and blocking the slave trade. The Slave Trade Act 1807
Slave Trade Act 1807
had banned the trade across the British Empire, after which the Royal Navy established the West Africa Squadron
West Africa Squadron
and the government negotiated international treaties under which they could enforce the ban.[15][16] Sea power, however, did not project on land. Land wars fought between the major powers include the Crimean War, the Franco-Austrian War, the Austro-Prussian War
Austro-Prussian War
and the Franco-Prussian War, as well as numerous conflicts between lesser powers. The Royal Navy
Royal Navy
prosecuted the First Opium War (1839–1842) and Second Opium War
Second Opium War
(1856–1860) against Imperial China. The Royal Navy
Royal Navy
was superior to any other two navies in the world, combined. Between 1815 and the passage of the German naval laws of 1890 and 1898, only France was a potential naval threat. Britain traded goods and capital extensively with countries around the world, adopting a free trade policy after 1840. The growth of British imperial strength was further underpinned by the steamship and the telegraph, new technologies invented in the second half of the 19th century, allowing it to control and defend the empire. By 1902, the British Empire
British Empire
was linked together by a network of telegraph cables, the so-called All Red Line.[17] The Pax Britannica
Pax Britannica
was weakened by the breakdown of the continental order which had been established by the Congress of Vienna.[18] Relations between the Great Powers of Europe were strained to breaking point by issues such as the decline of the Ottoman Empire, which led to the Crimean War, and later the emergence of new nation states in the form of Italy and Germany
after the Franco-Prussian War. Both of these wars involved Europe's largest states and armies. The industrialisation of Germany, the Empire of Japan, and the United States contributed to the relative decline of British industrial supremacy in the early 20th century. See also[edit]

Historiography of the British Empire Imperial Federation Pax Americana

References[edit] Footnotes[edit]

^ Johnston, pp. 508-10. ^ Porter, p. 332. ^ Hyam, p. 1. ^ Smith, p. 71. ^ Parsons, p. 3. ^ Porter, p. 401. ^ Porter, p. 8. ^ Marshall, pp. 156–57. ^ Cameron, pp. 45-47. ^ Darwin, p. 391. ^ Crawfurd, pp. 191–192: "...for what purpose was it conquered and is it now retained?' We endeavoured to explain, that during the wars, in which we were lately engaged with our European enemies who occupied the coast of the island, they harassed our commerce from its ports, and therefore, in self-defence, there was a necessity for taking possession of it." ^ "The British in the Gulf: An Overview". Qatar Digital Library. British Library Qatar Foundation Partnership. Retrieved 25 October 2014. The increased stability that this 'Pax Britannica' brought led to increased volumes of trade in the region. Ruling families began to actively seek British protection as a means of securing their rule and safeguarding their territories.  ^ Pugh, p. 83. ^ Thackeray, p. 57. ^ Falola, pp. xxi, xxxiii-xxxiv. ^ "The legal and diplomatic background to the seizure of foreign vessels by the Royal Navy".  ^ Dalziel, pp. 88–91. ^ Pugh, p. 90.


Albrecht-Carrié, René. A Diplomatic History of Europe Since the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
(1958), 736pp; basic survey Bartlett, C. J. Peace, War and the European Powers, 1814-1914 (1996) brief overview 216pp Bury, J. P. T. ed. The New Cambridge Modern History: Vol. 10: the Zenith of European Power, 1830-70 (1964) Cameron, Rondo; Bovykin, V.I., eds. (1991). International Banking: 1870–1914. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-506271-7.  Darby, H. C. and H. Fullard The New Cambridge Modern History, Vol. 14: Atlas (1972) Darwin, John (2012). Unfinished Empire: The Global Expansion of Britain. London: Allen Lane.  Dalziel, Nigel (2006). The Penguin Historical Atlas of the British Empire. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-101844-5.  Falola, Toyin; Warnock, Amanda (2007). Encyclopedia of the middle passage. Greenwood Press. ISBN 9780313334801.  Ferguson, Niall. Empire: The Rise and Demise of the British World Order and the Lessons for Global Power (2002), Hinsley, F.H., ed. The New Cambridge Modern History, vol. 11, Material Progress and World-Wide Problems 1870-1898 (1979) Hyam, Ronald (2002). Britain's Imperial Century, 1815–1914: A Study of Empire and Expansion. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-7134-3089-9. Retrieved 22 July 2009.  Johnston, Douglas M.; Reisman, W. Michael (2008). The Historical Foundations of World Order. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 9047423933.  Kennedy, Paul. The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers
The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers
Economic Change and Military Conflict From 1500-2000 (1987), stress on economic and military factors Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy (1995), 940pp; not a memoir but an interpretive history of international diplomacy since the late 18th century Marshall, PJ (1996). The Cambridge Illustrated History of the British Empire. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-00254-0. Retrieved 22 July 2009.  Parsons, Timothy H (1999). The British Imperial Century, 1815–1914: A World History Perspective. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-8476-8825-9. Retrieved 22 July 2009.  Porter, Andrew (1998). The Nineteenth Century, The Oxford History of the British Empire
British Empire
Volume III. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-924678-5. Retrieved 22 July 2009.  Pugh, Martin (1999). Britain since 1789: A Concise History. Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-22359-5. Retrieved 20 April 2010.  Rich, Norman. Great Power Diplomacy: 1814-1914 (1991), comprehensive survey Seaman, L.C.B. From Vienna to Versailles (1955) 216pp; brief overview of diplomatic history online Smith, Simon (1998). British Imperialism 1750–1970. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-3-12-580640-5. Retrieved 22 July 2009.  Thackeray, Frank (2002). Events That Changed Great Britain since 1689. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-31686-4.  Ward, A.W. and G. P. Gooch, eds. The Cambridge History of British Foreign Policy, 1783-1919 (3 vol, 1921–23), old detailed classic; vol 1, 1783-1815 ; vol 2, 1815-1866; vol 3. 1866-1919

Primary sources[edit]

Crawfurd, John (21 August 2006) [First published 1830]. Journal of an Embassy from the Governor-general of India to the Courts of Siam and Cochin China. Volume 1 (2nd ed.). London: H. Colburn and R. Bentley. OCLC 03452414. Retrieved 2 February 2012. 

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Periods of regional and relative peace


Pax Americana Pax Europaea Pax Praetoriana Pax Sinica


Pax Assyriaca Pax Britannica Pax Dei Pax Hispanica Pax Islamica Pax Khazarica Pax Minoica Pax Mongolica Pax Ottomana Pax Praetoriana Pax Romana Pax Sinica Pax Sovietica Pax Sumerica Pax Syriana

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