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The Rifle, .303 Pattern 1914 (or P14) was a British service rifle of the First World War period. A bolt action weapon with an integral 5-round magazine, it was principally contract manufactured by companies in the United States. It served as a sniper rifle and as second line and reserve issue until being declared obsolete in 1947. The Pattern 1914 Enfield
Pattern 1914 Enfield
was the successor to the Pattern 1913 Enfield experimental rifle and the predecessor of the U.S. Rifle
Rifle
M1917 Enfield.

Contents

1 History 2 Production history 3 Design details 4 Users 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

History[edit]

.276 Enfield
.276 Enfield
(7×60mm) rimless bottlenecked rifle cartridge for which the action was originally designed

.303 British
.303 British
(7.7×56mmR) rimmed cartridge for which the P14 action was adapted

During the Boer War the British were faced with accurate long-range fire from Mauser
Mauser
rifles, model 1893 and 1895, in 7×57mm
7×57mm
caliber. This smaller, high-velocity round prompted the War Department to develop their own "magnum" round, the .276 Enfield, in 1910. An advanced new rifle using a modified Mauser
Mauser
M98-pattern action was built to fire it, the Pattern 1913 Enfield
Pattern 1913 Enfield
(P13); effective mass production was still some way off when World War I
World War I
started, to say nothing of the logistical nightmare of introducing a new rifle cartridge in wartime, so nothing came of it.

Conscripts of the Estonian Sakala Partisan Battalion with P14 rifles in 1939 or 1940.

Production history[edit] The primary contractor (Vickers) was unable to produce more than a handful of rifles, so the P14 became a de facto afterthought. The Short, Magazine Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
therefore remained the standard British rifle during World War I
World War I
and beyond. The need for additional small arms combined with a shortage of spare industrial capacity led the British government to contract with United States commercial arms manufacturers, Winchester, Remington and Eddystone (a subsidiary of Remington set up principally to manufacture the P14) to produce the P14 for the British before the US entered the war in 1917. Problems were encountered with specifications, quality and shortage of machine tools and skilled workers, with the result that the first rifles were not accepted by British inspectors until February 1916. Shortly afterwards a modification was made to enlarge the bolt lugs and the rifle became the Mark I*. However, each factory produced slightly differing parts, leading to interchangeability issues; Winchester was particularly troublesome in this regard, going so far as to refuse for months to change to the new Mark I* standard. Therefore, the official designation of the rifle was dependent upon its manufacturer: e.g., the Pattern 1914 Mk I W and Pattern 1914 Mk I* W is a Mk I or Mk I* of Winchester manufacture, R would be Remington, or E for Eddystone. The P14's principal combat use during World War I
World War I
was as a sniper rifle, since it was found to be more accurate than the Short, Magazine Lee–Enfield, either in standard issue form or with modified "fine-adjustment" aperture rearsights designated Pattern 1914 Mk I W (F) and Pattern 1914 Mk I* W (F) or, from April 1918,[1] Aldis Pattern 1918 telescopic sights designated Pattern 1914 Mk I* W (T) (modified and telescopic sights were mainly used on Winchester-manufactured rifles, the Winchesters being thought to be of superior quality).[2] Eventually Winchester would manufacture 235,293 rifles, Remington 400,000 and Eddystone 600,000, totaling 1,235,293 rifles. When the U.S. entered World War I, the P14 was modified and standardized by the U.S. Ordnance Department and went into production at the same factories as had produced the P14, production of that rifle having ceased, as the Model of 1917. Sometimes called the M1917 Enfield, it was chambered for the standard US .30-06 Springfield cartridge and enjoyed some success as a complement for the Springfield M1903 rifles which were America's official standard issue, soon far surpassing the Springfield in total production and breadth of issue. In 1926 the Pattern 1914 Enfield
Pattern 1914 Enfield
was re-designated by the British military as the No3Mk1. Prior to and during World War II, the Pattern 1914 Enfield
Pattern 1914 Enfield
was used, after undergoing modification ("Weedon Repair Standard", formally the Mk2 standard) in Britain mainly as a rearguard rifle. The modification consisted of armourers at the Weedon Royal Ordnance Depot or various other commercial companies inspecting the rifles, removing the volley sights and performing any necessary repair prior to issue. Post Dunkirk and with the great loss of arms that the British forces endured in 1940 the No3Mk1 stock suddenly became a valued resource. The rifle was also used again as a sniper rifle, the configuration being different from the World War I
World War I
incarnation. Additionally, the US also sent some M1917 Enfield
M1917 Enfield
rifles to the UK under Lend-Lease, though the different .30-06 Springfield
.30-06 Springfield
chambering limited use and necessitated clearly marking the rifles with a 2 inch wide red band around the stock. The Australian Army also used some quantities of the sniper variant of the P14 during World War II. Once sufficient numbers were built up of the Short Magazine Lee–Enfields and No4’s the No3Mk1 were either relegated primarily to equip the World War II British Home Guard
British Home Guard
or used as sniper rifles. The P14/No3Mk1 was declared obsolete in British service in 1947.[3] Surplus P14s were sold throughout the Commonwealth, especially Canada, New Zealand, Australia
Australia
and South Africa, where they proved popular for full-bore target shooting, and being sporterised for game shooting. Design details[edit]

British sniper training in France 1944

Home Guard volunteers are instructed on the working of a P14 rifle during World War 2.

Adapting the design to fire the standard .303 British
.303 British
round led to the Rifle, .303 Pattern 1914 (P14), a design fed from a five-round internal box magazine. With its prominent sight protection ears on the receiver, "dog-leg" bolt handle and "pot-belly" magazine, it was distinctive in appearance. The action was essentially a Mauser
Mauser
design with some Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
features and optimised for rapid fire, with the action cocking on closing, a feature highly valued by the British Army with its emphasis on riflemen highly trained for rapid fire, but less valued in other armies, such as the US or Germany, where cock-on-opening designs such as the M1903 Springfield
M1903 Springfield
and Gewehr 98 were preferred. Cock-on-opening actions became more difficult to operate when heated by rapid fire as the effort to open the bolt had to overcome the striker spring to cock the action as well as unsticking the fired case from the chamber. The P14 was an advanced design for the time, and was said to be the most advanced service rifle of World War I.[4] The Pattern 1914 Enfield
Pattern 1914 Enfield
had a large, strong bolt action, and the bolt travel is long, as it was designed for the dimensionally large and powerful .276 Enfield
.276 Enfield
cartridge. The bolt action had a Model 98 Mauser type claw extractor and two forward lugs; there was also a rear safety lug formed by the base of the bolt handle sitting in a recess in the receiver. Much faster and smoother to operate than a Model 98 Mauser, the bolt was well-supported throughout its travel and the camming action on opening and closing the bolt facilitated ease and speed of operation. The unusual 'dog-leg' shaped bolt handle is low profile and places the bolt knob just rearwards of the trigger close to the firer's hand, again facilitating rapid cycling and fire. Like the Lee–Enfield, the safety falls under the firer's thumb and can be operated silently. Due to the original Pattern 1913 Enfield
Pattern 1913 Enfield
action being designed around the high-powered .276 Enfield
.276 Enfield
experimental cartridge with a larger diameter case than the .303 British, the internal box magazine capacity for the smaller diameter .303 British
.303 British
was six rounds, although the employed stripper clips held only five cartridges. The Pattern 1914 Enfield
Pattern 1914 Enfield
like the Mauser
Mauser
Gewehr 98
Gewehr 98
had no magazine cut-off mechanism, which when engaged permits the feeding and extraction of single cartridges only while keeping the cartridges in the magazine in reserve. The rifle was designed with a iron sight line consisting of rear receiver aperture battle sight calibrated for .303 British
.303 British
Mk VII ball ammunition at 300 yd (274 m) with an additional ladder aperture sight that could be flipped up and was calibrated for 200–1,000 yd (183–914 m) in 100 yd (91 m) increments and 1,000–1,650 yd (914–1,509 m) in 50 yd (46 m) increments. The ladder aperture sight moves vertically on a slide, and hence was not able to correct for wind drift. The rear sight element was protected by sturdy "ears" and proved to be faster and more accurate than the typical mid-barrel sight offered by Mauser, Enfield or the Buffington battle sight of the 1903 Springfield. The front sighting element consisted of a wing guards protected front post, and was adjusted laterally and locked into position during assembly at the arsenal. The Pattern 1914 Enfield rear sight element was situated on an elongated receiver bridge, which added weight to the action, as well as lengthening the bolt. There were also volley-fire sights similar to those on the Short Magazine Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
fitted to the left side of the weapon for use up to 2,600 yd (2,377 m), though these were of little use and were usually deleted when the weapon was refurbished. The advanced aperture sights with their long sight radius contributed to a well-deserved reputation for accuracy, and WW1 snipers considered it to be more accurate than the standard Short Magazine Lee-Enfield
Lee-Enfield
Mk III infantry rifle.[5] Compared to the Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
the Pattern 1914 Enfield
Pattern 1914 Enfield
was more accurate, more durable; however, it was heavier – the Lee—Enfield Mk III weighed 8 lb 10 oz (3.91 kg) empty – and had only half the magazine capacity, giving it a significantly lower effective rate of fire. The pre World War professional British Army emphasized besides marksmanship also on rapid-fire training, resulting in the annual Mad minute
Mad minute
qualification shoot for their riflemen. In contrast to the Boer War experience which had led to the P13/P14 project, World War I
World War I
conditions favored volume of fire, at which the Short Magazine Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
excelled. Users[edit]

Israeli P14 Enfield rifle at Yad Mordechai battlefield reconstruction site.

 Afghanistan[6]  Australia  British Empire  Estonia  Lithuania  Latvia  Greenland  India  Ireland  Israel  Luxembourg   Norway
Norway
Received from Allied airdrops to the resistance during WW2 and given by Britain to the Norwegian Brigade during the occupation of Germany in 1947. Returned to Britain in 1952 in exchange for P-17 rifles. [7]  Philippines used by Philippine Commonwealth troops under the Philippine Army and Constabulary units and local guerilla resistance before World War II   Poland
Poland
used by the Police and the KOP before World War II   Soviet Union
Soviet Union
used by NKVD as part of lease lend arms in Leningrad  United States

See also[edit]

British military rifles

References[edit]

^ John Walter, Rifles of the World, p110 3rd edition ISBN 978-0896892415 ^ Sniping in France by Major H. Hesketh-Prichard (1920) p. 259 ^ All About Enfields No3 ^ p.14 Julian S. Hatcher "Hatcher's Notebook" Stackpole Books Harrisburg PA, 1962 ^ Sniping in France by Major H. Hesketh-Prichard (1920) p. 259 "It is as well to understand at once that a far higher degree of accuracy can be obtained from the P14 than from the Short Magazine Lee–Enfield, and this is the reason why it has been issued to snipers". ^ https://wwiiafterwwii.wordpress.com/2015/06/01/wwii-gear-in-afghan-use-part-i-firearms/ ^ Karl Egil Hanevik (1998). Norske Militærgeværer etter 1867.Hanevik Våpen. p. 371. ISBN 8299314313

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pattern 1914 Enfield.

The P-14

v t e

British Empire
British Empire
small arms and ordnance of the First World War

Rifles

Lee-Metford Magazine Lee-Enfield
Lee-Enfield
(MLE) rifle Short Magazine Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
(SMLE) rifle Pattern 1914 Enfield
Pattern 1914 Enfield
rifle Ross Rifle
Rifle
(Canada)

Machine guns

Maxim gun Vickers
Vickers
machine gun Hotchkiss Mark I Lewis Gun

Side arms

Webley .455" Revolver Mk. IV–VI Webley .455" Pistol Mk. I Colt New Service Smith & Wesson Triple Lock

Hand grenades

No. 1 No. 2 Hales Pattern Nos. 3, 20, 24, 35 Hales rifle grenades Nos. 5, 23, 36 Mills No. 6 Nos. 8, 9 Jam Tin No. 13 Battye No. 14 Pitcher No. 15 Ball No. 16 Oval No. 17 Opera hat No. 18 No. 19 No. 21 "Spherical" No. 22 Newton-Pippin No. 25 Sangster No. 27 No. 28 Chemical No. 29 Gas No. 31 Day Signal No. 32 Night Signal No. 32 "Spherical E" No. 34 Egg No. 37 No. 39 Steuart Pattern

Artillery

Tank guns

QF 6 pounder Hotchkiss QF 6 pounder 6 cwt

Infantry guns

1.59-inch Breech-Loading Vickers
Vickers
Q.F. Gun, Mk II ("Vickers-Crayford rocket gun")

Field Artillery

BL 12 pounder 6 cwt QF 12 pounder 8 cwt QF 12 pounder 18 cwt QF 13 pounder BL 15 pounder BLC 15 pounder QF 15 pounder QF 18 pounder QF 4 inch gun Mk III BL 4 inch gun Mk VII QF 4.5 inch Howitzer

Mountain artillery

RML 2.5 inch Mountain Gun BL 10 pounder Mountain Gun BL 2.75-inch Mountain Gun QF 2.95 inch Mountain Gun QF 3.7-inch mountain howitzer

Howitzers, medium, and heavy artillery

QF 4.7 inch Gun BL 5 inch Howitzer BL 5.4 inch Howitzer BL 60 pounder gun BLC 6 inch siege gun BL 6 inch Gun Mk VII BL 6 inch Gun Mk XIX BL 6-inch 26 cwt howitzer BL 6-inch 30 cwt howitzer BL 8 inch Howitzer
Howitzer
Mk I - V BL 8 inch Howitzer
Howitzer
Mk VI - VIII

Siege artillery

BL 7.5 inch Mk III naval gun BL 9.2-inch howitzer BL 9.2 inch Mk X naval gun BL 12 inch Howitzer BL 12 inch Mk X naval gun BL 15 inch Howitzer

Coastal artillery

QF 12 pounder 12 cwt QF 4 inch naval gun Mk I – III BL 6 inch Mk VII naval gun BL 9.2 inch gun Mk IX–X RML 9 inch

Mortars

Garland Trench Mortar 3 inch Stokes Mortar Light Mortar (IJA Artillery) 3.7 inch mortar 4 inch mortar Vickers
Vickers
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Grenade launchers

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Smoke and chemical weapons

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Anti-aircraft guns

QF 1 pounder pom-pom QF 2 pounder "pom-pom" Mk II 75 mm AA gun QF 12 pounder 12 cwt QF 3 inch 5 cwt QF 13 pounder 6 cwt QF 13 pounder Mk IV QF 13 pounder 9 cwt QF 3 inch 20 cwt QF 18 pounder QF 4 inch Mk V

Foreign weapon designs in British Empire
British Empire
Armies use

Hotchkiss Mark I Lewis Gun Light Mortar (IJA Artillery) 75 mm AA gun QF 15 pounder 9.45 inch Heavy Mortar Sauterelle

v t e

British Commonwealth small arms of World War II
World War II
and Korea

Side-arms

Webley Mk IV & Mk VI Revolvers Enfield No. 2
Enfield No. 2
Mk I Revolver Browning P-35 "High Power" Pistol M1911/M1911A1 pistol Smith & Wesson "Victory" Revolver Welrod

Rifles & submachine guns

SMLE
SMLE
No.1 Mk III* & Lee-Enfield
Lee-Enfield
No.4 Mk.I Pattern 1914 Enfield Lee-Enfield
Lee-Enfield
No.5 Mk.I "Jungle Carbine" Ross Rifle
Rifle
Mk.III De Lisle Commando Carbine Sten Lanchester Sterling Austen Kokoda Owen Gun Welgun M1921/M1928/M1 Thompson

Machine-guns & other larger weapons

Besa machine gun Bren Gun Charlton Automatic Rifle Lewis Gun Vickers
Vickers
MG PIAT Rifle, Anti-Tank, .55 in, Boys 29 mm Spigot Mortar "Blacker Bombard" SBML 2inch Mortar Projector, 2½-inch Mk. II "Northover" ML 3-inch Mortar ML 4.2 inch Mortar 3-inch Mk. I OSB Gun "Smith Gun" No.2 "Lifebuoy" Flamethrower

Grenades

British grenades of WWI and WW2 Mills Bomb

Small arms
Small arms
cartridges

.303 British 9mm Parabellum .45 ACP .455 Webley .38/200 .38 Special .50 BMG .55 Bo

.