HOME
The Info List - Patagonia


--- Advertisement ---



Patagonia
Patagonia
(Spanish pronunciation: [pataˈɣonja]) is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina
Argentina
and Chile. The region comprises the southern section of the Andes
Andes
mountains as well as the deserts, pampas and grasslands east of this southern portion of the Andes. Patagonia
Patagonia
has two coasts: western facing the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and eastern facing the Atlantic Ocean. The Colorado and Barrancas rivers, which run from the Andes
Andes
to the Atlantic, are commonly considered the northern limit of Argentine Patagonia.[1] The archipelago of Tierra del Fuego
Tierra del Fuego
is sometimes included as part of Patagonia. Most geographers and historians locate the northern limit of Chilean Patagonia
Patagonia
at Reloncaví Estuary.[2]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Population and land area

2.1 Largest cities

3 Physical geography

3.1 Geology

4 Political divisions 5 Climate 6 Fauna 7 History

7.1 Pre-Columbian Patagonia
Patagonia
(10,000 BC–AD 1520) 7.2 Early European exploration (1520–1669)

7.2.1 Patagonian giants: early European perceptions

7.3 Scientific exploration (1764–1842) 7.4 Chilean and Argentine colonisation (1843–1902)

7.4.1 Conquest of the desert and the 1881 treaty

8 Economy

8.1 Livestock 8.2 Tourism 8.3 Energy

9 Cuisine 10 Foreign land buyers issue 11 Gallery 12 See also 13 References 14 Notes 15 Further reading 16 External links

Etymology[edit] The name Patagonia
Patagonia
comes from the word patagón,[3] which was used by Magellan in 1520 to describe the Indians of the region, whom his expedition thought to be giants. It is now believed that the people he called the Patagons were Tehuelches, who tended to be taller than Europeans of the time.[4][5] The Argentine researcher Miguel Doura
Miguel Doura
observed that the name Patagonia possibly derives from the ancient Greek region of modern Turkey called Paflagonia, possible home of the patagon personage in the chivalric romances Primaleon printed in 1512, ten years before Magellan arrived in these southern lands. The hypothesis was accepted and published in a 2011 New Review of Spanish Philology report.[6] Population and land area[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2013)

Patagonia

Regions

Eastern Patagonia Western Patagonia Tierra del Fuego

Ecoregions

Valdivian forests Magellanic forests Patagonian steppe

National parks

Laguna San Rafael · Los Glaciares Nahuel Huapi · Torres del Paine Alberto de Agostini · Tierra del Fuego

Administrative division

Chile Palena Province Aysén Region Magallanes Region Argentina Neuquén Province · Río Negro Province Chubut Province · Santa Cruz Province Tierra del Fuego
Tierra del Fuego
Province

v t e

Country/region Area Population Density

Argentina 2,780,400 km2 40,091,359 14.4 per km2

Chile 743,812 km2 16,601,707 22.3 per km2

Patagonia 1,043,076 km2 1,999,540 1.9 per km2

[7][8] Largest cities[edit]

Nº. City Population Province / Region Country

1° Neuquén 345,097 (Metropolitan area) Neuquén Province  Argentina

2° Comodoro Rivadavia 173,300 Chubut Province  Argentina

3° Punta Arenas 116,005 Magallanes Region  Chile

4° San Carlos de Bariloche 108,250[9] Río Negro Province  Argentina

5° Trelew 99,201 Chubut Province  Argentina

6° Río Gallegos 97,742 Santa Cruz Province  Argentina

7° General Roca 85,883 Río Negro Province  Argentina

8° Río Grande 67,038 Tierra del Fuego
Tierra del Fuego
Province  Argentina

9° Cipolletti 79,097 Río Negro Province  Argentina

10° Puerto Madryn 80,101 Chubut Province  Argentina

11° Ushuaia 56,956 Tierra del Fuego
Tierra del Fuego
Province  Argentina

12° Coyhaique 50,041 Aysén Region  Chile

13° Viedma 52,704 Río Negro Province  Argentina

14° Esquel 39,848 Chubut Province  Argentina

Physical geography[edit] See also: Geography of Argentina
Argentina
and Geography of Chile

Island - seabirds and lighthouse in foreground with mountain rising in background

Argentine Patagonia
Patagonia
is for the most part a region of steppelike plains, rising in a succession of 13 abrupt terraces about 100 metres (330 feet) at a time, and covered with an enormous bed of shingle almost bare of vegetation.[10] In the hollows of the plains are ponds or lakes of fresh and brackish water. Towards Chilean territory the shingle gives place to porphyry, granite, and basalt lavas, animal life becomes more abundant and vegetation more luxuriant, consisting principally of southern beech and conifers. The high rainfall against the western Andes
Andes
(Wet Andes) and the low sea surface temperatures offshore give rise to cold and humid air masses, contributing to the ice-fields and glaciers, the largest ice-fields in the Southern hemisphere outside of Antarctica.[10] Among the depressions by which the plateau is intersected transversely, the principal ones are the Gualichu, south of the Río Negro, the Maquinchao and Valcheta
Valcheta
(through which previously flowed the waters of Nahuel Huapi Lake, which now feed the Limay River), the Senguerr
Senguerr
(spelled Senguer on most Argentine maps and within the corresponding region), and, the Deseado River. Besides these transverse depressions (some of them marking lines of ancient inter-oceanic communication), there are others which were occupied by more or less extensive lakes, such as the Yagagtoo, Musters and Colhue Huapi, and others situated to the south of Puerto Deseado, in the centre of the country. In the central region volcanic eruptions, which have taken part in the formation of the plateau during the Cenozoic, cover a large part of the land with basaltic lava-caps; and in the western third, more recent glacial deposits appear above the lava. There, erosion, which is caused principally by the sudden melting and retreat of ice aided by tectonic changes, has scooped out a deep longitudinal depression, best in evidence where in contact with folded Cretaceous
Cretaceous
rocks which are uplifted by the Cenozoic
Cenozoic
granite. It generally separates the plateau from the first lofty hills, whose ridges are generally called the pre-Cordillera. To the west of these, a similar longitudinal depression extends all along the foot of the snowy Andean Cordillera. This latter depression contains the richest and most fertile land of Patagonia. Lake
Lake
basins along the Cordillera were also excavated by ice-streams, including Lake
Lake
Argentino and Lake
Lake
Fagnano, as well as coastal bays such as Bahía Inútil.[10] Geology[edit] See also: Tectonic evolution of Patagonia The geological limit of Patagonia
Patagonia
has been proposed to be Huincul Fault which forms a major discontinuity. The fault truncates various structures including the Pampean orogen found further north. The ages of base arocks change abruptly across the fault.[11] There have been discrepancies among geologists on the origin of the Patagonian landmass. Víctor Ramos has proposed that the Patagonian landmass originated as an allochtonous terrane that separated from Antarctica and docked in South America
South America
250 to 270 Ma in the Permian
Permian
era.[12] A 2014 study by R.J. Pankhurst and coworkers rejects any idea of a far-travelled Patagonia
Patagonia
claiming it is likely of parautochtonous origin (nearby origin).[13] The Mesozoic
Mesozoic
and Cenozoic
Cenozoic
deposits have revealed a most interesting vertebrate fauna. This, together with the discovery of the perfect cranium of a chelonian of the genus Myolania, which is almost identical with Myolania oweni of the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
age in Queensland, forms an evident proof of the connection between the Australian and South American continents. The Patagonian Myolania belongs to the Upper Chalk, having been found associated with remains of Dinosauria. Fossils of the mid- Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Argentinosaurus, which may be the largest of all dinosaurs, have been found in Patagonia, and a model of the mid- Jurassic
Jurassic
Piatnitzkysaurus
Piatnitzkysaurus
graces the concourse of the Trelew airport (the skeleton is in the Trelew
Trelew
paleontological museum; the museum's staff has also announced the discovery of a species of dinosaur even bigger than Argentinosaurus[14]). Of more than paleontological interest,[15] the middle Jurassic
Jurassic
Los Molles Formation and the still richer late Jurassic
Jurassic
(Tithonian) and early Cretaceous (Berriasian) Vaca Muerta
Vaca Muerta
formation above it in the Neuquén basin are reported to contain huge hydrocarbon reserves (mostly gas in Los Molles, both gas and oil in Vaca Muerta) partly accessible through hydraulic fracturing.[16] Other specimens of the interesting fauna of Patagonia, belonging to the Middle Cenozoic, are the gigantic wingless birds, exceeding in size any hitherto known, and the singular mammal Pyrotherium, also of very large dimensions. In the Cenozoic
Cenozoic
marine formation, a considerable number of cetaceans has been discovered. During the Oligocene
Oligocene
and Early Miocene
Miocene
large swathes of Patagonia
Patagonia
were subject to a marine transgression. The transgression might have temporarily linked the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, as inferred from the findings of marine invertebrate fossils of both Atlantic and Pacific affinity in La Cascada Formation.[17][18] Connection would have occurred through narrow epicontinental seaways that formed channels in a dissected topography.[17][19] The Antarctic
Antarctic
Plate started to subduct beneath South America
South America
14 million years ago in the Miocene
Miocene
forming the Chile
Chile
Triple Junction. At first the Antarctic Plate subducted only in the southernmost tip of Patagonia, meaning that the Chile
Chile
Triple Junction was located near the Strait of Magellan. As the southern part of Nazca Plate
Nazca Plate
and the Chile
Chile
Rise became consumed by subduction the more northerly regions of the Antarctic Plate
Antarctic Plate
begun to subduct beneath Patagonia
Patagonia
so that the Chile Triple Junction advanced to the north over time.[20] The asthenospheric window associated to the triple junction disturbed previous patterns of mantle convection beneath Patagonia
Patagonia
inducing an uplift of ca. 1 km that reversed the Miocene transgression.[19][21] Political divisions[edit] At a state level, Patagonia
Patagonia
lies inside two countries: 10% in Chile and 90% in Argentina. Both countries have organised their Patagonian territories into non-equivalent administrative subdivisions: Provinces and departments in Argentina; and regions, provinces and communes in Chile. Chile
Chile
being a unitary state, its first-level administrative divisions—the regions—enjoy far less autonomy than Argentine provinces. Argentine provinces have elected governors and parliaments, while Chilean regions have government-appointed intendants. The Patagonian Provinces of Argentina
Argentina
are Neuquén, Río Negro, Chubut, Santa Cruz, and Tierra del Fuego. The southernmost part of Buenos Aires Province
Buenos Aires Province
can also be considered part of Patagonia. The two Chilean regions indisputedly located entirely within Patagonia are Aysén and Magallanes. Palena Province, a part of the Los Lagos Region, is also located within Patagonia. By some definitions Chiloé Archipelago, the rest of the Los Lagos Region, and part of the Los Ríos Region are also part of Patagonia. Climate[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

See also: Climate of Argentina, Climatic regions of Argentina, and Climate of Chile

View of Punta Arenas, Chile
Chile
in midwinter

The overall climate is cool and dry. The east coast is warmer than the west, especially in summer, as a branch of the southern equatorial current reaches its shores, whereas the west coast is washed by a cold current. However, winters are colder on the inland plateaus east of the slopes and further down the coast on the south east end of the Patagonian region. For example, at Puerto Montt, on the inlet behind Chiloé Island, the mean annual temperature is 11 °C (52 °F) and the average extremes are 25.5 and −1.5 °C (77.9 and 29.3 °F), whereas at Bahía Blanca
Bahía Blanca
near the Atlantic coast and just outside the northern confines of Patagonia
Patagonia
the annual temperature is 15 °C (59 °F) and the range much greater, as temperatures above 35 °C and below −5 °C are recorded every year. At Punta Arenas, in the extreme south, the mean temperature is 6 °C (43 °F) and the average extremes are 24.5 and −2 °C (76.1 and 28.4 °F). The prevailing winds are westerly, and the westward slope has a much heavier precipitation than the eastern in a rainshadow effect;[10] the western islands close to Torres del Paine
Torres del Paine
receive an annual precipitation of 4,000 to 7,000 mm, whilst the eastern hills are less than 800 mm and the plains may be as low as 200 mm annual precipitation.[10] Precipitation is highly seasonal in northwestern Patagonia. For example, Villa La Angostura in Argentina, close to the border with Chile, receives up to 434 mm of rain and snow in May, 297 mm in June, 273 in July, compared to 80 in February and 72 in March. The total for the city is 2074 mm, making it one of the rainiest in Argentina. Further west, some areas receive up to 4,000 mm and more, especially on the Chilean side. In the northeast, the seasons for rain are reversed: most rain falls from occasional summer thunderstorms, but totals barely reach 500 mm in the northeast corner, and rapidly decrease to less than 300 mm. The Patagonian west coast, which belongs exclusively to Chile, has a cool oceanic climate, with summer maximum temperatures ranging from 14 °C in the south to 19 °C in the north (and nights between 5 °C and 11 °C) and very high precipitation, from 2,000 to more than 7,000 mm in local micro-climates. Snow is uncommon at the coast in the north, but happens more often in the south, and frost is usually not very intense. Immediately east from the coast are the Andes, cut by deep fjords in the south and by deep lakes in the north, and with varying temperatures according to the altitude. The tree line ranges from close to 2,000 m on the northern side (except for the Andes
Andes
in northern Neuquén in Argentina, where sunnier and dryer conditions allow trees to grow up to close to 3,000 m), and diminishes southward to only 600–800 m in Tierra del Fuego. Precipitation changes dramatically from one spot to the other, and diminishes very quickly eastward. An example of this is Laguna Frías, in Argentina, receives 4,400 mm yearly. The city of Bariloche, about 40 km further east, receives about 1,000 mm, and the airport, another 15 km east, receives less than 600 mm. The easterly slopes of the Andes
Andes
are home to several Argentine cities: San Martín de los Andes, Bariloche, El Bolsón, Esquel, El Calafate. Temperatures there are milder in the summer (in the north, between 20 °C and 24 °C, with cold nights between 4 °C and 9 °C; in the south, summers are between 16 °C and 20 °C, at night temperatures are similar to the north) and much colder in the winter, with frequent snowfall (although snow cover rarely lasts very long). Daytime highs range from 3 °C to 9 °C in the north, and from 0 °C to 7 °C in the south, whereas nights range from −5 °C to 2 °C everywhere. Cold waves can bring much colder values: -21 °C have been recorded in Bariloche, and most places can often see temperatures between −12 °C and −15 °C and highs staying around 0 °C for a few days. Directly east of these areas, the weather becomes much harsher: precipitation drops to between 150 and 300 mm, the mountains no longer protect the cities from the wind, and temperatures become more extreme. Maquinchao is a couple hundred kilometers east of Bariloche, at the same altitude on a plateau, and summer daytime temperatures are usually about 5 °C warmer, rising up to 35 °C sometimes, but winter temperatures are much more extreme: the record is −35 °C, and it is not uncommon to see some nights 10 °C colder than Bariloche. The plateaus in Santa Cruz province and parts of Chubut usually have snow cover through the winter, and often experience very cold temperatures. In Chile, the city of Balmaceda is known for being situated in this region (which is otherwise almost exclusively in Argentina), and for being the coldest place in Chile, with temperatures below −20 °C every once in a while. The northern Atlantic coast has warm summers (28 °C to 32 °C, but with relatively cool nights at 15 °C) and mild winters, with highs of about 12 °C and lows about 2–3 °C. Occasionally, temperatures reach −10 °C or 40 °C, and rainfall is very scarce. It only gets a bit colder further south in Chubut, and the city of Comodoro Rivadavia
Comodoro Rivadavia
has summer temperatures of 24 °C to 28 °C, nights of 12 °C to 16 °C, and winters with days around 10 °C and nights around 3 °C, and less than 250 mm of rain. However, there is a drastic drop as we move south to Santa Cruz: Rio Gallegos, in the south of the province, has summer temps of 17 °C to 21 °C, (nights between 6 °C and 10 °C) and winter temperatures of 2 °C to 6 °C, with nights between −5 °C and 0 °C despite being right on the coast. Snowfall is common despite the dryness, and temperatures are known to fall to under −18 °C and to remain below freezing for several days in a row. Rio Gallegos is also among the windiest places on Earth, with winds reaching 100 km h occasionally. Tierra del Fuego
Tierra del Fuego
is extremely wet in the west, relatively damp in the south, and dry in the north and east. Summers are cool (13 °C to 18 °C in the north, 12 °C to 16 °C in the south, with nights generally between 3 °C and 8 °C), cloudy in the south, and very windy. Winters are dark and cold, but without extreme temperatures in the south and west ( Ushuaia
Ushuaia
rarely reaches −10 °C, but hovers around 0 °C for several months, and snow can be heavy). In the east and north, winters are much more severe, with cold snaps bringing temperatures down to −20 °C all the way to Rio Grande on the Atlantic coast. Snow can fall even in the summer in most areas as well. The depletion of the ozone layer over the South Pole
South Pole
has been reported as being responsible for blindness and skin cancer in sheep in Tierra del Fuego, and concerns for human health and ecosystems.[22] Fauna[edit]

Black-browed albatross, near Ushuaia

The guanaco (Lama guanicoe), the cougar, the Patagonian fox (Lycalopex griseus), the Patagonian hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus humboldtii), and the Magellanic tuco-tuco
Magellanic tuco-tuco
(Ctenomys magellanicus; a subterranean rodent) are the most characteristic mammals of the Patagonian plains. The Patagonian steppe
Patagonian steppe
is one of the last strongholds of the guanaco and Darwin's rheas (Rhea pennata),[23] which had been hunted for their skins by the Tehuelches, on foot using boleadoras, before the diffusion of firearms and horses;[24] they were formerly the chief means of subsistence for the natives, who hunted them on horseback with dogs and bolas. Vizcachas (Lagidum spp.) and the Patagonian mara[23] (Dolichotis patagonum) are also characteristic of the steppe and the Pampas
Pampas
to the north. Bird life is often abundant. The southern caracara (Caracara plancus) is one of the characteristic objects of a Patagonian landscape; the presence of austral parakeets (Enicognathus ferrugineus) as far south as the shores of the strait attracted the attention of the earlier navigators; and green-backed firecrowns (Sephanoides sephaniodes), a species of hummingbird, may be seen flying amidst the falling snow. One of the largest birds in the world, the Andean condor
Andean condor
(Vultur gryphus) can be seen in Patagonia.[25] Of the many kinds of waterfowl[23] it is enough to mention the Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis), the upland goose (Chloephaga picta), and in the strait the remarkable steamer ducks. Signature marine fauna include the southern right whale, the Magellanic penguin
Magellanic penguin
(Spheniscus magellanicus), the orca and elephant seals. The Valdés Peninsula
Valdés Peninsula
is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, designated for its global significance as a site for the conservation of marine mammals.[26] The Patagonian freshwater fish fauna is relatively restricted compared to other similar Southern Hemisphere regions. The Argentine part is home to a total of 29 freshwater fish species; 18 of which are native.[27] The introduced are several species of trout, common carp and various species that originated in more northerly parts of South American. The natives are osmeriforms ( Aplochiton and Galaxias), temperate perches (Percichthys), catfish (Diplomystes, Hatcheria
Hatcheria
and Trichomycterus), Neotropical silversides (Odontesthes) and characiforms (Astyanax, Cheirodon, Gymnocharacinus
Gymnocharacinus
and Oligosarcus).[27] Other Patagonian freshwater fauna include the highly unusual aeglid crustacean.[28] History[edit] See also: History of Argentina, History of Chile, and Argentina– Chile
Chile
relations Pre-Columbian Patagonia
Patagonia
(10,000 BC–AD 1520)[edit]

Map of the indigenous peoples of Southern Patagonia.

Human habitation of the region dates back thousands of years,[29] with some early archaeological findings in the area dated to at least the 13th millennium BC, although later dates of around the 10th millennium BC are more securely recognized. There is evidence of human activity at Monte Verde
Monte Verde
in Llanquihue Province, Chile
Chile
dated to around 12,500 BC.[10] The glacial period ice-fields and subsequent large meltwater streams would have made settlement difficult at that time. The region seems to have been inhabited continuously since 10,000 BC, by various cultures and alternating waves of migration, the details of which are as yet poorly understood. Several sites have been excavated, notably caves such as Cueva del Milodon[30] in Última Esperanza in southern Patagonia, and Tres Arroyos
Tres Arroyos
on Tierra del Fuego, that support this date.[10] Hearths, stone scrapers, animal remains dated to 9400–9200 BC have been found east of the Andes.[10]

Cueva de las Manos
Cueva de las Manos
site in Santa Cruz, Argentina

The Cueva de las Manos
Cueva de las Manos
is a famous site in Santa Cruz, Argentina. A cave at the foot of a cliff is covered in wall paintings, particularly the negative images of hundreds of hands, believed to date from around 8000 BC.[10] Based on artifacts found in the region, it appears that hunting of guanaco, and to a lesser extent rhea (ñandú), were the primary food sources of tribes living on the eastern plains .[10] It is unclear whether the megafauna of Patagonia, including the ground sloth and horse, were extinct in the area before the arrival of humans, although this is now the more widely accepted account. It is also not clear if domestic dogs were part of early human activity. Bolas
Bolas
are commonly found and were used to catch guanaco and rhea.[10] A maritime tradition existed along the Pacific coast; whose latest exponents were the Yaghan
Yaghan
(Yámana) to the south of Tierra del Fuego, the Kaweshqar between Taitao Peninsula
Taitao Peninsula
and Tierra del Fuego
Tierra del Fuego
and the Chono people
Chono people
in the Chonos Archipelago. The indigenous peoples of the region included the Tehuelches, whose numbers and society were reduced to near extinction not long after the first contacts with Europeans. Tehuelches
Tehuelches
included the Gununa'kena to the north, Mecharnuekenk in south central Patagonia
Patagonia
and the Aonikenk or Southern Tehuelche in the far South, north of the Magellan strait. On Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, the Selk'nam
Selk'nam
(Ona) and Haush (Manek'enk) lived in the north and south east respectively. In the archipelagos to the south of Tierra del Fuego
Tierra del Fuego
were Yámana, with the Kawéskar
Kawéskar
(Alakaluf) in the coastal areas and islands in western Tierra del Fuego
Tierra del Fuego
and the south west of the mainland.[10] In the Patagonian archipelagoes north of Taitao Peninsula
Taitao Peninsula
lived the Chonos. These groups were encountered in the first periods of European contact with different lifestyles, body decoration and language, although it is unclear when this configuration emerged. Towards the end of the 16th century, Mapuche-speaking agriculturalists penetrated the western Andes
Andes
and from there across into the eastern plains and down to the far south. Through confrontation and technological ability, they came to dominate the other peoples of the region in a short period of time, and are the principal indigenous community today.[10] The Mapuche
Mapuche
model of domination through technological superiority and armed confrontation was later repeated as Europeans implemented a succeeding but conceptually identical cycle, essentially replacing the position of the former dominators with a new, albeit predominately European class.[citation needed] Early European exploration (1520–1669)[edit]

Nao Victoria, the replica of the first ship to pass through the Strait of Magellan

It is possible that navigators such as Gonçalo Coelho and Amerigo Vespucci had reached the area (his own account of 1502 has it that they reached the latitude 52° S), however Vespucci's failure to accurately describe the main geographical features of the region such as the Río de la Plata
Río de la Plata
casts serious doubt on this claim. Possibly the first European description of a part of the Patagonian coast was in a Portuguese voyage around 1512, traditionally attributed to captain Diogo Ribeiro, who after his death was replaced by Estevão de Frois, and was guided by the pilot and cosmographer João de Lisboa). It has been claimed that the expedition, after reaching Rio de la Plata (which they would explore on the return voyage, contacting the Charrúa and other peoples) eventually reached San Matias Gulf, at 42° S. The expedition reported that after going south of the 40th parallel, they found a "land" or a "point extending into the sea", and further south, a gulf. The expedition is said to have rounded the gulf for nearly 300 km (186 mi) and sighted a continent on the southern side of the gulf.[31][32] The Atlantic coast of Patagonia
Patagonia
was first fully explored in 1520 by the Spanish expedition led by Ferdinand Magellan, who on his passage along the coast named many of its more striking features – San Matías Gulf, Cape of 11,000 Virgins (now simply Cape Virgenes), and others. Magellan's fleet spent a difficult winter at what he named Puerto San Julián before resuming its voyage further south on 21 August 1520. During this time it encountered the local inhabitants, likely to be Tehuelche people, described by his reporter, Antonio Pigafetta, as giants called Patagons.[33] Rodrigo de Isla, sent inland in 1535 from San Matías by Simón de Alcazaba Sotomayor (on whom western Patagonia
Patagonia
had been conferred by Charles I of Spain, is presumed to have been the first European to have traversed the great Patagonian plain. If the men under his charge had not mutinied, he might have crossed the Andes
Andes
to reach the Pacific coast. Pedro de Mendoza, on whom the country was next bestowed, founded Buenos Aires, but did not venture south. Alonzo de Camargo (1539), Juan Ladrilleros
Juan Ladrilleros
(1557) and Hurtado de Mendoza (1558) helped to make known the Pacific coasts, and while Sir Francis Drake's voyage in 1577 down the Atlantic coast, through the Strait of Magellan
Strait of Magellan
and northward along the Pacific coast was memorable, yet the descriptions of the geography of Patagonia
Patagonia
owe much more to the Spanish explorer Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa (1579–1580), who, devoting himself especially to the south-west region, made careful and accurate surveys. The settlements which he founded at Nombre de Dios and San Felipe were neglected by the Spanish government, the latter being abandoned before Thomas Cavendish
Thomas Cavendish
visited it in 1587 and so desolate that he called it Port Famine. After the discovery of the route around Cape Horn
Cape Horn
the Spanish Crown lost interest in southern Patagonia
Patagonia
until the eighteenth century when the coastal settlements Carmen de Patagones, San José, Puerto Deseado, and Nueva Colonia Floridablanca were established, although it maintained its claim of a de jure sovereignty over area. In 1669, the district around Puerto Deseado
Puerto Deseado
was explored by John Davis and was claimed in 1670 by Sir John Narborough
John Narborough
for King Charles II of England, but the English made no attempt to establish settlements or explore the interior. Patagonian giants: early European perceptions[edit] The first European explorers of Patagonia
Patagonia
observed that the indigenous people in the region were taller than the average Europeans of the time, prompting some of them to believe that Patagonians were giants. According to Antonio Pigafetta,[3] one of the Magellan expedition's few survivors and its published chronicler, Magellan bestowed the name "Patagão" (or Patagón) on the inhabitants they encountered there, and the name "Patagonia" for the region. Although Pigafetta's account does not describe how this name came about, subsequent popular interpretations gave credence to a derivation meaning 'land of the big feet'. However, this etymology is questionable. The term is most likely derived from an actual character name, "Patagón", a savage creature confronted by Primaleón of Greece, the hero in the homonymous Spanish chivalry novel (or knight-errantry tale) by Francisco Vázquez.[34] This book, published in 1512, was the sequel of the romance "Palmerín de Oliva," much in fashion at the time, and a favourite reading of Magellan. Magellan's perception of the natives, dressed in skins, and eating raw meat, clearly recalled the uncivilized Patagón in Vázquez's book. Novelist and travel writer Bruce Chatwin
Bruce Chatwin
suggests etymological roots of both Patagon
Patagon
and Patagonia
Patagonia
in his book, In Patagonia,[35] noting the similarity between "Patagon" and the Greek word παταγος,[citation needed] which means "a roaring" or "gnashing of teeth" (in his chronicle, Pigafetta describes the Patagonians as "roaring like bulls").

1840s illustration of indigenous Patagonians from near the Straits of Magellan; from "Voyage au pole sud et dans l'Océanie ....." by French explorer Jules Dumont d'Urville

The main interest in the region sparked by Pigafetta's account came from his reports of their meeting with the local inhabitants, whom they claimed to measure some nine to twelve feet in height —"...so tall that we reached only to his waist"—, and hence the later idea that Patagonia
Patagonia
meant "big feet". This supposed race of Patagonian giants or Patagones entered into the common European perception of this little-known and distant area, to be further fuelled by subsequent reports of other expeditions and famous-name travellers like Sir Francis Drake, which seemed to confirm these accounts. Early charts of the New World
New World
sometimes added the legend regio gigantum ("region of the giants") to the Patagonian area. By 1611 the Patagonian god Setebos (Settaboth in Pigafetta) was familiar to the hearers of The Tempest. The concept and general belief persisted for a further 250 years, and was to be sensationally re-ignited in 1767 when an "official" (but anonymous) account was published of Commodore John Byron's recent voyage of global circumnavigation in HMS Dolphin. Byron and crew had spent some time along the coast, and the publication (Voyage Round the World in His Majesty's Ship the Dolphin) seemed to give proof positive of their existence; the publication became an overnight best-seller, thousands of extra copies were to be sold to a willing public, and other prior accounts of the region were hastily re-published (even those in which giant-like folk were not mentioned at all). However, the Patagonian giant frenzy died down substantially only a few years later, when some more sober and analytical accounts were published. In 1773 John Hawkesworth published on behalf of the Admiralty
Admiralty
a compendium of noted English southern-hemisphere explorers' journals, including that of James Cook
James Cook
and John Byron. In this publication, drawn from their official logs, it became clear that the people Byron's expedition had encountered were no taller than 6-foot-6-inch (1.98 m), very tall but by no means giants. Interest soon subsided, although awareness of and belief in the concept persisted in some quarters even up into the 20th century.[36] Scientific exploration (1764–1842)[edit] In the second half of the 18th century, European knowledge of Patagonia
Patagonia
was further augmented by the voyages of the previously mentioned John Byron
John Byron
(1764–1765), Samuel Wallis
Samuel Wallis
(1766, in the same HMS Dolphin which Byron had earlier sailed in) and Louis Antoine de Bougainville (1766). Thomas Falkner, a Jesuit who resided near forty years in those parts, published his Description of Patagonia (Hereford, 1774); Francisco Viedma
Viedma
founded El Carmen, nowadays Carmen de Patagones and Antonio settled the area of San Julian Bay, where he founded the colony of Floridablanca and advanced inland to the Andes (1782). Basilio Villarino ascended the Rio Negro (1782). Two hydrographic surveys of the coasts were of first-rate importance: the first expedition (1826–1830) including HMS Adventure and HMS Beagle under Phillip Parker King, and the second (1832–1836) being the voyage of the Beagle under Robert FitzRoy. The latter expedition is particularly noted for the participation of Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
who spent considerable time investigating various areas of Patagonia onshore, including long rides with gauchos in Río Negro, and who joined FitzRoy in a 200 miles (320 kilometres) expedition taking ships boats up the course of the Santa Cruz river. Chilean and Argentine colonisation (1843–1902)[edit] In the early 19th century, the araucanization of the natives of northern Patagonia
Patagonia
intensified and a lot of Mapuches migrated to Patagonia
Patagonia
to live as nomads raising cattle or pillaging the Argentine countryside. The cattle stolen in the incursions (malones) would later be taken to Chile
Chile
through the mountain passes and traded for goods, especially alcoholic beverages. The main trail for this trade was called Camino de los chilenos
Camino de los chilenos
and run a length of about 1000 km from the Buenos Aires Province
Buenos Aires Province
to the mountain passes of Neuquén Province. The lonco Calfucurá
Calfucurá
crossed the Andes
Andes
from Chile
Chile
to the Pampas
Pampas
around 1830, after a call from the governor of Buenos Aires, Juan Manuel de Rosas, to fight the Boroano people. In 1859, he attacked Bahía Blanca
Bahía Blanca
in Argentina
Argentina
with 3,000 warriors. As in the case of Calfucura, many other bands of Mapuches got involved in the internal conflicts of Argentina
Argentina
until Conquest of the Desert. To counter the cattle raids, a trench called Zanja de Alsina
Zanja de Alsina
was built by Argentina
Argentina
in the pampas in the 1870s. In the mid-19th century, the newly independent nations of Argentina and Chile
Chile
began an aggressive phase of expansion into the south, increasing confrontation with the Indians of the region. In 1860, a French adventurer Orelie-Antoine de Tounens
Orelie-Antoine de Tounens
proclaimed himself king of the Kingdom of Araucanía and Patagonia
Kingdom of Araucanía and Patagonia
of the Mapuche.

Map of the advance of the Argentina
Argentina
frontier until the establishment of zanja de Alsina

Following the last instructions of Bernardo O'Higgins, the Chilean president Manuel Bulnes
Manuel Bulnes
sent an expedition to the Strait of Magellan and founded Fuerte Bulnes
Fuerte Bulnes
in 1843. Five years later, the Chilean government moved the main settlement to the current location of Punta Arenas, the oldest permanent settlement in Southern Patagonia. The creation of Punta Arenas
Punta Arenas
was instrumental in making Chile's claim of the Strait of Magellan
Strait of Magellan
permanent. In the 1860s sheep from the Falkland Islands were introduced to the lands around the Straits of Magellan, and throughout the 19th century the sheepfarming grew to be the most important economic sector in southern Patagonia.[citation needed] George Chaworth Musters
George Chaworth Musters
in 1869 wandered in company with a band of Tehuelches
Tehuelches
through the whole length of the country from the strait to the Manzaneros in the north-west, and collected a great deal of information about the people and their mode of life.[37] Conquest of the desert and the 1881 treaty[edit] Main articles: Conquest of the Desert
Conquest of the Desert
and Boundary Treaty of 1881 between Chile
Chile
and Argentina Argentine authorities worried that the strong connections araucanized tribes had with Chile
Chile
would allegedly give Chile
Chile
certain influence over the pampas.[38] Argentine authorities feared an eventual war with Chile
Chile
over Patagonia
Patagonia
where the natives would side with the Chileans and that it would therefore be fought in the vicinities of Buenos Aires.[38] The decision of planning and executing the Conquest of the Desert
Conquest of the Desert
was probably triggered by the 1872 attack of Cufulcurá
Cufulcurá
and his 6,000 followers on the cities of General Alvear, Veinticinco de Mayo and Nueve de Julio, where 300 criollos were killed, and 200,000 heads of cattle taken. In the 1870s, the Conquest of the Desert
Conquest of the Desert
was a controversial campaign by the Argentine government, executed mainly by General Julio Argentino Roca, to subdue or, some claim, to exterminate the native peoples of the South. In 1885, a mining expeditionary party under the Romanian adventurer Julius Popper
Julius Popper
landed in southern Patagonia
Patagonia
in search of gold, which they found after travelling southwards towards the lands of Tierra del Fuego. This further opened up some of the area to prospectors. European missionaries and settlers arrived through the 19th and 20th centuries, notably the Welsh settlement of the Chubut Valley. During the first years of the 20th century, the border between the two nations in Patagonia
Patagonia
was established by the mediation of the British crown. Numerous modifications have been made since then, the last conflict having been resolved in 1994 by an arbitral tribunal constituted in Rio de Janeiro, granting Argentina
Argentina
sovereignty over the Southern Patagonia
Patagonia
Icefield, Cerro Fitz Roy
Cerro Fitz Roy
and Laguna del Desierto.[39][40][better source needed] Until 1902, a large proportion of Patagonia's population were natives of Chiloé Archipelago
Chiloé Archipelago
(Chilotes) who worked as peons in large livestock farming estancias. As manual labour they had status below the gauchos and the Argentine, Chilean and European landowners and administrators. Before and after 1902, when the boundaries were drawn, a lot of Chilotes were expelled from the Argentine side due to fear of what having a large Chilean population in Argentina
Argentina
could lead into in the future. These workers founded the first inland Chilean settlement in what is now the Aysén Region;[41][42] Balmaceda. Lacking good grasslands on the forest-covered Chilean side, the immigrants burned down the forest, setting fires that could last more than two years.[42] Economy[edit]

Tierra del Fuego
Tierra del Fuego
sheep ranch, 1942. The region's primary activity then, it's been eclipsed by the decline in the global wool market as much as by petroleum and gas extraction.

The area's principal economic activities have been mining, whaling, livestock (notably sheep throughout) agriculture (wheat and fruit production near the Andes
Andes
towards the north), and oil after its discovery near Comodoro Rivadavia
Comodoro Rivadavia
in 1907.[43] Energy production is also a crucial part of the local economy. Railways were planned to cover continental Argentine Patagonia
Patagonia
to serve the oil, mining, agricultural and energy industries, and a line was built connecting San Carlos de Bariloche
San Carlos de Bariloche
to Buenos Aires. Portions of other lines were built to the south, but the only lines still in use are La Trochita
La Trochita
in Esquel, the 'Train of the End of the World' in Ushuaia, both heritage lines,[44] and a short run Tren Histórico de Bariloche
Bariloche
to Perito Moreno. In the western forest-covered Patagonian Andes
Andes
and archipelagoes, wood lodging has historically been an important part of the economy; it impelled the colonization of the areas of the Nahuel Huapi and Lácar lakes in Argentina
Argentina
and Guaitecas Archipelago
Guaitecas Archipelago
in Chile. Livestock[edit] See also: Patagonian sheep farming boom

Gauchos
Gauchos
mustering sheep in Patagonia

Sheep farming introduced in the late 19th century has been a principal economic activity. After reaching its heights during the First World War, the decline in world wool prices affected sheep farming in Argentina. Nowadays about half of Argentina's 15 million sheep are in Patagonia, a percentage that is growing as sheep farming disappears in the Pampa
Pampa
(to the North). Chubut (mainly Merino) is the top wool producer with Santa Cruz ( Corriedale
Corriedale
and some Merino) second. Sheep farming revived in 2002 with the devaluation of the peso and firmer global demand for wool (led by China and the EU). Still there is little investment in new abbatoirs (mainly in Comodoro Rivadavia, Trelew
Trelew
and Rio Gallegos), and often there are phytosanitary restrictions to the export of sheep meat. Extensive valleys in the Cordilleran range have provided sufficient grazing lands, and the low humidity and weather of the southern region make raising Merino
Merino
and Corriedale
Corriedale
sheep common. Livestock also includes small numbers of cattle, and in lesser numbers pigs and horses. Sheep farming provides a small but important number of jobs for rural areas with little other employment. Tourism[edit]

Whale watching off the Valdes Peninsula

In the second half of the 20th century, tourism became an ever more important part of Patagonia's economy. Originally a remote backpacking destination, the region has attracted increasing numbers of upmarket visitors, cruise passengers rounding Cape Horn
Cape Horn
or visiting Antarctica, and adventure and activity holiday-makers. Principal tourist attractions include the Perito Moreno glacier, the Valdés Peninsula, the Argentine Lake
Lake
District and Ushuaia
Ushuaia
and Tierra del Fuego
Tierra del Fuego
(the city is also a jumping off place for travel to Antarctica, bringing in still more visitors). Tourism has created new markets locally and for export for traditional crafts such as Mapuche
Mapuche
handicrafts, guanaco textiles, and confectionery and preserves.[43] A spin-off from increased tourism has been the buying of often enormous tracts of land by foreigners, often as a prestige purchase rather than for agriculture. Buyers have included Sylvester Stallone, Ted Turner
Ted Turner
and Christopher Lambert, and most notably Luciano Benetton, Patagonia's largest landowner.[43] His Compañia de Tierras Sud has brought new techniques to the ailing sheep-rearing industry and sponsored museums and community facilities, but has been controversial particularly for its treatment of local Mapuche
Mapuche
communities.[45] Energy[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

At the urging of the Chilean government, the Spanish company Endesa hopes to build a number of large hydro-electric dams in the Chilean Patagonia, which has raised environmental concerns from a large number of local and international NGOs. The first dams proposed would be built on the Baker and Pascua rivers, but dams have also been proposed on others, including the famed Futaleufú River
Futaleufú River
in Chile
Chile
and Santa Cruz river in Argentina. The dams would affect the minimum ecological flows and threaten the fishing, wilderness-tourism and agricultural interests along the river. The electricity would be fed into high-voltage lines (to be built by a Canadian company) and taken 1,200 miles (1,900 km) north to the industry and mining hub around Santiago. The lines would cut through a number of previously pristine national parks and protected areas. The rightist Piñera government considered the power to be essential for economic growth, while opponents claimed it would destroy Patagonia's growing tourism industry. On June 11, 2014, the new leftist Bachelet government rejected the dam project, estimated to be worth about 8 billion dollars, after years of pressure from environmental groups.

La Trochita
La Trochita
on its Chubut Province
Chubut Province
route. Formerly the sole rapid transport means in the province, La Trochita
La Trochita
is now a tourist attraction.

Due to its sparse rainfall in agricultural areas, Argentine Patagonia already has numerous dams for irrigation, some of which are also used for hydropower. The Limay River
Limay River
is used to generate hydroelectricity at five dams built on its course: Alicurá, Piedra del Águila, Pichi Picún Leufú, El Chocón, and Arroyito; together with the Cerros Colorados Complex on the Neuquén River they contribute with more than one quarter of the total hydroelectric generation in the country. Coal is mined in the Rio Turbio
Rio Turbio
area and used for electrical generation. Patagonia's notorious winds have already made the area Argentina's main source of wind power, and there are plans for major increases in wind power generation. Patagonia
Patagonia
has always been Argentina's main area, and Chile's only area, of conventional oil and gas production. Oil and gas have played an important role in the rise of Neuquén-Cipolleti as Patagonia's most populous urban area, and in the growth of Comodoro Rivadavia,[46] Punta Arenas, and Rio Grande as well. The development of the Neuquén basin's enormous unconventional oil and gas reserves through hydraulic fracturing has just begun, but the YPF-Chevron Loma Campana field in the Vaca Muerta
Vaca Muerta
formation is already the world's largest producing shale oil field outside North America according to YPF
YPF
CEO Miguel Gallucio. Cuisine[edit] Argentine Patagonian cuisine is largely the same as the cuisine of Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
– grilled meats and pasta – with extensive[citation needed] use of local ingredients and less use of those products which have to be imported into the region. Lamb is considered the traditional Patagonian meat, grilled for several hours over an open fire. Some guide books[which?] have reported that game, especially guanaco and introduced deer and boar, are popular in restaurant cuisine. However, since the guanaco is a protected animal in both Chile
Chile
and Argentina, it is unlikely to appear commonly as restaurant fare. Trout
Trout
and centolla (king crab) are also common, though over-fishing of centolla has made it increasingly scarce. In the area around Bariloche, there is a noted Alpine cuisine tradition, with chocolate bars and even fondue restaurants, and tea rooms are a feature of the Welsh communities in Gaiman and Trevelin
Trevelin
as well as in the mountains.[43] Since the mid-1990s there has been some success with winemaking in Argentine Patagonia, especially in Neuquén. Foreign land buyers issue[edit] Foreign investors, including Italian multinational Benetton Group, Ted Turner, Joseph Lewis[47] and the environmentalist Douglas Tompkins, own major land areas. This situation has caused several conflicts with local inhabitants and the governments of Chile
Chile
and Argentina; for example the opposition by Douglas Tompkins
Douglas Tompkins
to the planned route for Carretera Austral
Carretera Austral
in Pumalín Park. A scandal is also brewing about two properties owned by Ted Turner: the estancia La Primavera, located inside Nahuel Huapi National Park; and the estancia Collón Cura.[47] Benetton has faced criticism from Mapuche
Mapuche
organizations, including Mapuche
Mapuche
International Link, over its purchase of traditional Mapuche lands in Patagonia. The Curiñanco-Nahuelquir family was evicted from their land in 2002 following Benetton's claim to it, but the land was restored in 2007.[48] Gallery[edit]

Nahuel Huapi Lake, near Bariloche, Argentina
Argentina
Chaitén volcano stretching across Patagonia
Patagonia
into San Jorge Basin
San Jorge Basin
in the Atlantic Ocean

Satellite view of the Perito Moreno Glacier
Glacier
(Santa Cruz Province) and the Andean ice-sheet

Road Y-50 towards Estancia
Estancia
Rio Verde, Magallanes, Chile

Laguna Cabeza de Mar, 50 km north of Punta Arenas, Magallanes, Chile

Perito Moreno Glacier, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina

Monte Fitz Roy, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina

The city of Trelew, Chubut Province, Argentina

Guanacos.

Welsh settlement in Patagonia. (Chubut Province, Argentina)

Southern right whale
Southern right whale
in Península Valdés, Chubut Province, Argentina.

Torres del Paine, Chile

Cuernos del Paine, Torres del Paine
Torres del Paine
National Park, Chile

Grey Glacier, Torres del Paine
Torres del Paine
National Park, Chile

Pío XI Glacier, Bernardo O'Higgins
Bernardo O'Higgins
National Park, Chile

See also[edit]

Apostolic Prefecture of Southern Patagonia Apostolic Vicariate of Northern Patagonia Domuyo Francisco Moreno Museum of Patagonia Lago Puelo National Park Lanín
Lanín
volcano Lanín
Lanín
National Park List of deserts by area Los Alerces National Park Los Glaciares National Park Mount Hudson Nahuel Huapi National Park Patagonian Expedition Race Patagonian Ice Sheet Southern Cone Torres del Paine
Torres del Paine
National Park Y Wladfa

References[edit]

^ The Late Cenozoic
Cenozoic
of Patagonia
Patagonia
and Tierra del Fuego
Tierra del Fuego
Volumen 11 de Developments in quaternary science, pág. 13. Autor: Jorge Rabassa. Editor: Jorge Rabassa. Editor: Elsevier, 2008. ISBN 0-444-52954-3, 9780444529541 ^ Ciudadanía, territorio y desarrollo endógeno: resistencias y mediaciones de las políticas locales en las encrucijadas del neoliberalismo. Pág. 205. Autores: Rubén Zárate, Liliana Artesi, Oscar Madoery. Editor: Editorial Biblos, 2007. ISBN 950-786-616-7, 9789507866166 ^ a b Antonio Pigafetta, Relazione del primo viaggio intorno al mondo, 1524: "Il capitano generale nominò questi popoli Patagoni." A Brief Declaration of the Vyage abowte the Worlde by Antonie Pygafetta Vincentine, Rycharde Eden, The Decades of the Newe Worlde or West India, London, William Powell, 1555. The original word would probably be in Magellan's native Portuguese (patagão) or the Spanish of his men (patagón). It has been interpreted later as "big foot" but the etymology refers to a literary character in a Spanish novel of the early 16th century (see text). Anthony Munday, The Famous and Renowned Historie of Primaleon of Greece, 1619, cap.XXXIII: "How Primaleon… found the Grand Patagon
Patagon
". ^ Fondebrider, Jorge (2003). "Chapter 1 – Ámbitos y voces". Versiones de la Patagonia
Patagonia
(in Spanish) (1st ed.). Buenos Aires, Argentina: Emecé Editores S.A. p. 29. ISBN 950-04-2498-3.  ^ Robert Silverberg (2011). "The Strange Case of the Patagonian Giants" (PDF). Asimov's Science Fiction. To the voyagers of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, when the average height of an adult European male was just over five feet [1.55 meters], the Patagonians surely must have looked very large, as, to any child, all adults seem colossal. Then, too, an element of understandable human exaggeration must have entered these accounts of men who had traveled so far and endured so much, and the natural wish not to be outdone by one’s predecessors helped to produce these repeated fantasies of Goliaths ten feet tall or even more.  ^ Nueva Revista de Filología Hispánica 59 (1): pp. 37-78. 2011. ISSN 0185-0121 ^ "Argentina: CIA The World Factbook, est July 2009". Cia.gov. Retrieved 20 December 2012.  ^ "Chile: CIA The World Factbook, est July 2009". Cia.gov. Retrieved 20 December 2012.  ^ "Aseguran que en Bariloche
Bariloche
viven 30 mil personas más que las censadas ::: ANGOSTURA DIGITAL - DIARIO DE VILLA LA ANGOSTURA Y REGION DE LOS LAGOS - PATAGONIA ARGENTINA - Actualidad, cuentos, efemerides, turismo, nieve, pesca, montañismo,cursos, historia, reportajes". Retrieved 25 October 2014.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Patagonia: Natural History, Prehistory and Ethnography at the Uttermost End of the Earth, C. McEwan, L.A. and A. Prieto (eds), Princeton University Press
Princeton University Press
with British Museum
British Museum
Press, 1997. ISBN 0-691-05849-0 ^ Ramos, V.A.; Riccardi, A.C.; Rolleri, E.O. (2004). "Límites naturales del norte de la Patagonia". Revista de la Asociación Geológica Argentina
Argentina
(in Spanish). 59 (4).  ^ Jaramillo, Jessica. "Entrevista al Dr. Víctor Alberto Ramos, Premio México Ciencia y Tecnología 2013" (in Spanish). Incluso ahora continúa la discusión sobre el origen de la Patagonia, la cual lleva más de veinte años sin lograr un consenso entre la comunidad científica. Lo que propone el grupo de investigación en el que trabaja el geólogo es que la Patagonia
Patagonia
se originó en el continente Antártico, para después separarse y formar parte de Gondwana, alrededor de 250 a 270 millones de años.  ^ Pankhurst, R.J.; Rapela, C.W.; López de Luchi, M.G.; Rapalini, A.E.; Fanning, C.M.; Galindo, C. (2014). "The Gondwana connections of northern Patagonia". Journal of the Geological Society, London. 171: 313–328. doi:10.1144/jgs2013-081.  ^ "BBC News - 'Biggest dinosaur ever' discovered". BBC News. Retrieved 25 October 2014.  ^ Though not without it where the formations surface; see Chacaicosaurus
Chacaicosaurus
and Mollesaurus
Mollesaurus
from the Los Molles, and Caypullisaurus, Cricosaurus, Geosaurus, Herbstosaurus, and Wenupteryx from the Vaca Muerta. ^ U.S. Energy Information Administration, Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas
Gas
Resources: An Assessment of 137 Shale Formations in 41 Countries Outside the United States, June 2013, pp. V-1 through V-13. According to the same study, the Austral (Argentine name)/Magallanes (Chilean name) basin under the southern Patagonian mainland and Tierra del Fuego
Tierra del Fuego
may also have massive hydrocarbon reserves in early Cretaceous
Cretaceous
shales; see pp. V-23 and VII-17 in particular. On May 21, 2014, YPF
YPF
also announced the first oil and gas discovery in the D-129 shale formation of the Golfo San Jorge area in Chubut, and on August 14, 2014, the first shale oil discovery in yet another Cretaceous
Cretaceous
formation in the Neuquén basin, the Valanginian/Hauterivian Agrio formation; see "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 May 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2014. , and "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 18 August 2014.  ^ a b Encinas, Alfonso; Pérez, Felipe; Nielsen, Sven; Finger, Kenneth L.; Valencia, Victor; Duhart, Paul (2014). "Geochronologic and paleontologic evidence for a Pacific–Atlantic connection during the late Oligocene–early Miocene
Miocene
in the Patagonian Andes
Andes
(43–44°S)". Journal of South American Earth
Earth
Sciences. 55: 1–18. doi:10.1016/j.jsames.2014.06.008.  ^ Nielsen, S.N. (2005). " Cenozoic
Cenozoic
Strombidae, Aporrhaidae, and Struthiolariidae (Gastropoda, Stromboidea) from Chile: their significance to biogeography of faunas and climate of the south-east Pacific". Journal of Paleontology. 79: 1120–1130. doi:10.1666/0022-3360(2005)079[1120:csaasg]2.0.co;2.  ^ a b Guillame, Benjamin; Martinod, Joseph; Husson, Laurent; Roddaz, Martin; Riquelme, Rodrigo (2009). "Neogene uplift of central eastern Patagonia: Dynamic response to active spreading ridge subduction?". Tectonics. 28. Bibcode:2009Tecto..28.2009G. doi:10.1029/2008tc002324.  ^ Cande, S.C.; Leslie, R.B. (1986). "Late Cenozoic
Cenozoic
Tectonics
Tectonics
of the Southern Chile
Chile
Trench". Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth and Planets. 91: 471–496. Bibcode:1986JGR....91..471C. doi:10.1029/jb091ib01p00471.  ^ Guillaume, Benjamin; Gautheron, Cécile; Simon-Labric, Thibaud; Martinod, Joseph; Roddaz, Martin; Douville, Eric (2013). "Dynamic topography control on Patagonian relief evolution as inferred from low temperature thermochronology". Earth
Earth
and Planetary Science Letters. 364: 157–167. Bibcode:2013E&PSL.364..157G. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2012.12.036.  ^ Southern Chile
Chile
warned of high radiation levels under ozone hole, CNN.com, 10 October 2000, accessed 2006-08-11 ^ a b c WCS. " Patagonia
Patagonia
and Southern Andean Steppe, Argentina". Saving Wild Places. Wildlife Conservation Society. Retrieved 19 June 2015.  ^ Rhys, David Hall (1976). A geographic study of the Welsh colonization in Chubut, Patagonia. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Xerox University Microfilms. pp. 84–88.  ^ WCS. "Andean condor". Saving wildlife. World Conservation Society. Retrieved 19 June 2015.  ^ UNESCO. "Península Valdés". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. UNESCO. Retrieved 19 June 2015.  ^ a b Baigun, C.; Ferriz, R.A. (2003). "Distribution patterns of freshwater fishes in Patagonia
Patagonia
(Argentina)". Organisms Diversity & Evolution. 3: 151–159. doi:10.1078/1439-6092-00075.  ^ Christopher C. Tudge (2003). "Endemic and enigmatic: the reproductive biology of Aegla (Crustacea: Anomura: Aeglidae) with observations on sperm structure". Memoirs of Museum Victoria. 60 (1): 63–70.  ^ SCHLOSSBERG, TATIANA (17 June 2016). "12,000 Years Ago, Humans and Climate Change Made a Deadly Team". NYT. NYC. Retrieved 19 June 2016.  ^ C. Michael Hogan (2008) Cueva del Milodon, The Megalithic Portal, ed. A. Burnham [1] ^ Oskar Hermann Khristian Spate. The Spanish Lake. Canberra: ANU E Press, 2004. p. 37. [2] ^ Newen Zeytung auss Presillg Landt (in ancient german and portuguese) Newen Zeytung auss Presillg Landt ^ Laurence Bergreen. Over the Edge of the World. Harper Perennial, 2003. p. 163. ISBN 0-06-621173-5.  ^ The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Growth and Development, By Stanley J. Ulijaszek, Francis E. Johnston, M. A. Preece. Cambridge University Press, 1998, p. 380: "Patagonian Giants: Myths and Possibilities." ^ Chatwin, Bruce. In Patagonia
In Patagonia
(1977). Ch. 49 ^ Carolyne Ryan. "European Travel Writings and the Patagonian giants". Lawrence University. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 24 October 2013.  ^ Dickenson, John. "Musters, George Chaworth". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/19679.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) ^ a b " Argentina
Argentina
and Chile: The Struggle For Patagonia
Patagonia
1843-1881". 36: 347–363. JSTOR 981291.  ^ Rosa, Carlos Leonardo de la (1 January 1998). "Acuerdo sobre los hielos continentales: razones para su aprobación". Ediciones Jurídicas Cuyo – via Google Books.  ^ es:Disputa de la laguna del Desierto ^ "Coihaique – Ciudades y Pueblos del sur de Chile". Turistel.cl. Retrieved 20 August 2012.  ^ a b Luis Otero, La Huella del Fuego: Historia de los bosques y cambios en el paisaje del sur de Chile
Chile
(Valdivia, Editorial Pehuen) ^ a b c d Time Out Patagonia, Cathy Runciman (ed), Penguin Books, 2002. ISBN 0-14-101240-4 ^ History of the Old Patagonian Express, La Trochita, accessed 2006-08-11 ^ 'The Invisible Colours of Benetton', Mapuche
Mapuche
International Link, accessed 2006-08-11 ^ Comodoro's coat of arms bears an oil derrick in the center. ^ a b "Rivers of bloodfrom Patagonia-argentina.com".  ^ "Recovered Mapuche
Mapuche
territory in Patagonia: Benetton vs. Mapuche". MAPU Association. Archived from the original on 8 September 2012. Retrieved 7 April 2008. 

Notes[edit]  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Patagonia". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  Further reading[edit]

The Last Cowboys at the End of the World: The Story of the Gauchos
Gauchos
of Patagonia, Nick Reding, 2002. ISBN 0-609-81004-9 The Old Patagonian Express, Paul Theroux, 1979. In Patagonia, Bruce Chatwin, 1977 and 1988. ISBN 0-14-243719-0 Patagonia: A Cultural History, Chris Moss, 2008. ISBN 978-1-904955-38-2 Patagonia: A Forgotten Land: From Magellan to Peron, C. A. Brebbia, 2006. ISBN 978-1-84564-061-3 The Wild Shores of Patagonia: The Valdés Peninsula
Valdés Peninsula
& Punta Tombo, Jasmine Rossi, 2000. ISBN 0-8109-4352-2 Luciana Vismara, Maurizio OM Ongaro, PATAGONIA – E-BOOK W/ UNPUBLISHED FOTOS, MAPS, TEXTS (Formato Kindle – 6 November 2011) – e Book
Book
Kindle Adventures in Patagonia: a missionary's exploring trip, Titus Coan, 1880. Library of Congress Control Number 03009975. A list of writings relating to Patagonia, 320-21. Idle Days in Patagonia
Patagonia
by William Henry Hudson, Chapman and Hall Ltd, London, 1893

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Patagonia.

Planning a vacation to Patagonia
Patagonia
GUIDE Photos from Chilean Patagonia
Patagonia
(2008–2011) by Jorge Uzon Patagonia
Patagonia
Nature Photo Gallery: Landscapes, flora and fauna from Argentina
Argentina
and Chile Patagon
Patagon
Journal, magazine about Patagonia Aborigines of Patagonia Patagonia
Patagonia
SinRepresas (in Spanish) Patagonia
Patagonia
de Chile
Chile
(in Spanish) Gallery of photos from Patagonia
Patagonia
– February[permanent dead link] 'Race to the End of the Earth' – article about competing in Patagonian Expedition Race 'The Accidental Explorer' – article about travels in Patagonia 'Backpacking Patagonia' - series of articles about solo hiking in Patagonia

v t e

Regions of the world

v t e

Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland

Mbaise

Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean
Ocean
islands

Comoros Islands

North Africa

Maghreb

Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains

Nile Valley

Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile Delta Nuba Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt

Western Sahara

West Africa

Pepper Coast Gold Coast Slave Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Niger Basin Guinean Forests of West Africa Niger Delta Inner Niger Delta

Southern Africa

Madagascar

Central Highlands (Madagascar) Northern Highlands

Rhodesia

North South

Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay

Macro-regions

Aethiopia Arab world Commonwealth realm East African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic is an official language Mediterranean Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan (region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountains Tropical Africa

v t e

Regions of Asia

Central

Greater Middle East Aral Sea

Aralkum Desert Caspian Sea Dead Sea Sea of Galilee

Transoxiana

Turan

Greater Khorasan Ariana Khwarezm Sistan Kazakhstania Eurasian Steppe

Asian Steppe Kazakh Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe

Mongolian-Manchurian grassland Wild Fields

Yedisan Muravsky Trail

Ural

Ural Mountains

Volga region Idel-Ural Kolyma Transbaikal Pryazovia Bjarmaland Kuban Zalesye Ingria Novorossiya Gornaya Shoriya Tulgas Iranian Plateau Altai Mountains Pamir Mountains Tian Shan Badakhshan Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Mount Imeon Mongolian Plateau Western Regions Taklamakan Desert Karakoram

Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract

Siachen Glacier

North

Inner Asia Northeast Far East

Russian Far East Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

Extreme North Siberia

Baikalia
Baikalia
( Lake
Lake
Baikal) Transbaikal Khatanga Gulf Baraba steppe

Kamchatka Peninsula Amur Basin Yenisei Gulf Yenisei Basin Beringia Sikhote-Alin

East

Japanese archipelago

Northeastern Japan Arc Sakhalin Island Arc

Korean Peninsula Gobi Desert Taklamakan Desert Greater Khingan Mongolian Plateau Inner Asia Inner Mongolia Outer Mongolia China proper Manchuria

Outer Manchuria Inner Manchuria Northeast China Plain Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

North China Plain

Yan Mountains

Kunlun Mountains Liaodong Peninsula Himalayas Tibetan Plateau

Tibet

Tarim Basin Northern Silk Road Hexi Corridor Nanzhong Lingnan Liangguang Jiangnan Jianghuai Guanzhong Huizhou Wu Jiaozhou Zhongyuan Shaannan Ordos Loop

Loess Plateau Shaanbei

Hamgyong Mountains Central Mountain Range Japanese Alps Suzuka Mountains Leizhou Peninsula Gulf of Tonkin Yangtze River Delta Pearl River Delta Yenisei Basin Altai Mountains Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass

West

Greater Middle East

MENA MENASA Middle East

Red Sea Caspian Sea Mediterranean Sea Zagros Mountains Persian Gulf

Pirate Coast Strait of Hormuz Greater and Lesser Tunbs

Al-Faw Peninsula Gulf of Oman Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Aden Balochistan Arabian Peninsula

Najd Hejaz Tihamah Eastern Arabia South Arabia

Hadhramaut Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
coastal fog desert

Tigris–Euphrates Mesopotamia

Upper Mesopotamia Lower Mesopotamia Sawad Nineveh plains Akkad (region) Babylonia

Canaan Aram Eber-Nari Suhum Eastern Mediterranean Mashriq Kurdistan Levant

Southern Levant Transjordan Jordan Rift Valley

Israel Levantine Sea Golan Heights Hula Valley Galilee Gilead Judea Samaria Arabah Anti-Lebanon Mountains Sinai Peninsula Arabian Desert Syrian Desert Fertile Crescent Azerbaijan Syria Palestine Iranian Plateau Armenian Highlands Caucasus

Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains

Greater Caucasus Lesser Caucasus

North Caucasus South Caucasus

Kur-Araz Lowland Lankaran Lowland Alborz Absheron Peninsula

Anatolia Cilicia Cappadocia Alpide belt

South

Greater India Indian subcontinent Himalayas Hindu Kush Western Ghats Eastern Ghats Ganges Basin Ganges Delta Pashtunistan Punjab Balochistan Kashmir

Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley Pir Panjal Range

Thar Desert Indus Valley Indus River
Indus River
Delta Indus Valley Desert Indo-Gangetic Plain Eastern coastal plains Western Coastal Plains Meghalaya subtropical forests MENASA Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Doab Bagar tract Great Rann of Kutch Little Rann of Kutch Deccan Plateau Coromandel Coast Konkan False Divi Point Hindi Belt Ladakh Aksai Chin Gilgit-Baltistan

Baltistan Shigar Valley

Karakoram

Saltoro Mountains

Siachen Glacier Bay of Bengal Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Mannar Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman Islands Nicobar Islands

Maldive Islands Alpide belt

Southeast

Mainland

Indochina Malay Peninsula

Maritime

Peninsular Malaysia Sunda Islands Greater Sunda Islands Lesser Sunda Islands

Indonesian Archipelago Timor New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

Philippine Archipelago

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Leyte Gulf Gulf of Thailand East Indies Nanyang Alpide belt

Asia-Pacific Tropical Asia Ring of Fire

v t e

Regions of Europe

North

Nordic Northwestern Scandinavia Scandinavian Peninsula Fennoscandia Baltoscandia Sápmi West Nordic Baltic Baltic Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Iceland Faroe Islands

East

Danubian countries Prussia Galicia Volhynia Donbass Sloboda Ukraine Sambia Peninsula

Amber Coast

Curonian Spit Izyum Trail Lithuania Minor Nemunas Delta Baltic Baltic Sea Vyborg Bay Karelia

East Karelia Karelian Isthmus

Lokhaniemi Southeastern

Balkans Aegean Islands Gulf of Chania North Caucasus Greater Caucasus Kabardia European Russia

Southern Russia

Central

Baltic Baltic Sea Alpine states Alpide belt Mitteleuropa Visegrád Group

West

Benelux Low Countries Northwest British Isles English Channel Channel Islands Cotentin Peninsula Normandy Brittany Gulf of Lion Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Pyrenees Alpide belt

South

Italian Peninsula Insular Italy Tuscan Archipelago Aegadian Islands Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Gibraltar Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Crimea Alpide belt

Germanic Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin

Great Hungarian Plain Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Slovak Lowland

v t e

Regions of North America

Northern

Eastern Canada Western Canada Canadian Prairies Central Canada Northern Canada Atlantic Canada The Maritimes French Canada English Canada Acadia

Acadian Peninsula

Quebec City–Windsor Corridor Peace River Country Cypress Hills Palliser's Triangle Canadian Shield Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Newfoundland (island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait of Georgia Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Labrador Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula

Bay de Verde Peninsula

Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay Greenland Pacific Northwest Inland Northwest Northeast

New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth

West

Midwest Upper Midwest Mountain States Intermountain West Basin and Range Province

Oregon Trail Mormon Corridor Calumet Region Southwest

Old Southwest

Llano Estacado Central United States

Tallgrass prairie

South

South Central Deep South Upland South

Four Corners East Coast West Coast Gulf Coast Third Coast Coastal states Eastern United States

Appalachia

Trans-Mississippi Great North Woods Great Plains Interior Plains Great Lakes Great Basin

Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert

Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald Triangle San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area

San Francisco Bay North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) East Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River Delta Columbia River Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula of Michigan Lower Peninsula of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

Bible Belt Black Belt Corn Belt Cotton Belt Frost Belt Rice Belt Rust Belt Sun Belt Snow Belt

Latin

Northern Mexico Baja California Peninsula Gulf of California

Colorado River Delta

Gulf of Mexico Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Basin and Range Province Western Caribbean Zone Isthmus of Panama Gulf of Panama

Pearl Islands

Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast West Indies Antilles

Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward

Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Northern Middle Anglo Latin

French Hispanic

American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

v t e

Regions of Oceania

Australasia

Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon Islands (archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake
Lake
Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia

Maralinga

Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula

Melanesia

Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu

Micronesia

Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

Polynesia

Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

v t e

Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

Caribbean South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta

South

Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula

West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

v t e

Polar regions

Antarctic

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands

Arctic

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

v t e

Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

  Book   Category

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 158582259 NDL: 00569071

Coordinates: 41°48′37″S 68°54′23″W / 41.81015°S 68.90627°W / -4

.