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1. Southern variety

  • Durrani or Kandahar dialect (or South Western dialect)
  • Kakar dialect (or South Eastern dialect)
  • Shirani dialect
  • Mandokhel dialect
  • Marwat-Bettani dialect
  • Wanetsi dialect
  • Southern Karlani group [aka. Central Dialects: Wazirwola and Banunchi]
  • Banuchi dialect

2. Northern variety

  • Central Ghilji dialect (or North Western dialect)
  • Wardak dialect
  • Yusufzai or Yusapzai dialect (or North Eastern dialect)
  • Northern Karlani group
  • Taniwola dialect
  • Mangal tribe dialect
  • Khosti dialect
  • Zadran dialect
  • Bangash-Orakzai-Turi-Zazi- dialect
  • Afridi dialect
  • Khogyani dialect

Standard Pashto

The newly formed Standard Pashto Language Alphabets

Standard Pashto is the standardized variety of Pashto which serves as a prestige Pashto dialect, and is based on the North Western dialect, spoken in the central Ghilji region, including the Afghan capital Kabul and some surrounding region. Standard Pashto's vocabulary, however, also derives from Southern Pashto. This dialect of Pashto has been chosen as standard because the it is generally understandable. Standard Pashto is the literary variety of Pashto used in Afghan media.

Standard Pashto has been developed by Radio Television Afghanistan and Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan in Southern variety

  • Durrani or Kandahar dialect (or South Western dialect)
  • Kakar dialect (or South Eastern dialect)
  • Shirani dialect
  • Mandokhel dialect
  • Marwat-Bettani dialect
  • Wanetsi dialect
  • Southern Karlani group [aka. Central Dialects: Wazirwola and Banunchi]
  • Banuchi dialect

2. Northern variety

  • Central Ghilji dialect (or North Western dialect)
  • Wardak dialect
  • Yusufzai or Yusapzai dialect (or North Eastern dialect)
  • Northern Karlani group
  • Taniwola dialect
  • Mangal tribe dialect
  • Khosti dialect
  • Zadran dialect
  • Bangash-Orakzai-Turi-Zazi- dialect
  • Afridi dialect
  • Khogyani dialect

Standard Pashto

The newly formed Standard Pashto Language Alphabets

Standard Pashto is the standardized variety of Pashto which serves as a prestige Pashto dialect, and is based on the North Western dialect, spoken in the central Ghilji region, including the Afghan capital Kabul and some surrounding region. Standard Pashto's vocabulary, however, also derives from Southern Pashto. This dialect of Pashto has been chosen as standard because the it is generally understandable. Standard Pashto is the literary variety of Pashto used in Afghan media.

Standard Pashto has been developed by Radio Television Afghanistan and Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan in Kabul. It has adopted neologisms to coin new terms from already existing words or phrases and introduce them into the Pashto lexicon. Educated Standard Pashto is learned in the curriculum that is taught in the primary schools in the country. It is used for written and formal spoken purposes, and in the domains of media and government.[89]

There has also been an effort[90] to adopt a written form based on Latin script,[91][92][93][94] but the effort of adapting a Roman alphabet has not gained official support.

Literature

Pashto-speakers have long had a tradition of oral literature, including proverbs, stories, and poems. Written Pashto literature saw a rise in development in the 17th century mostly due to poets like Khushal Khan Khattak (1613–1689), who, along with Rahman Baba (1650–1715), is widely regarded as among the greatest Pashto poets. From the time of Ahmad Shah Durrani (1722–1772), Pashto has been the language of the court. The first Pashto teaching text was written during the period of Ahmad Shah Durrani by Pir Mohammad Kakar with the title of Maʿrifat al-Afghānī ("The Knowledge of Afghani [Pashto]"). After that, the first grammar book of Pashto verbs was written in 1805 under the title of Riyāż al-Maḥabbah ("Training in Affection") through the patronage of Nawab Mahabat Khan, son of Hafiz Rahmat Khan, chief of the Barech. Nawabullah Yar Khan, another son of Hafiz Rahmat Khan, in 1808 wrote a book of Pashto words entitled ʿAjāyib al-Lughāt ("Wonders of Languages").

Poetry exampleNorthern variety

  • Central Ghilji dialect (or North Western dialect)
  • Wardak dialect
  • Yusufzai or Yusapzai dialect (or North Eastern dialect)
  • Northern Karlani group
  • Taniwola dialect
  • Mangal tribe dialect
  • Khosti dialect
  • Zadran dialect
  • Bangash-Orakzai-Turi-Zazi- dialect
  • Afridi dialect
  • Khogyani dialect

Standard Pashto

An excerpt from the Kalām of Rahman Baba:

زۀ رحمان پۀ خپ

An excerpt from the Kalām of Rahman Baba:

زۀ رحمان پۀ خپله ګرم يم چې مين يم
چې دا نور ټوپن مې بولي ګرم په څۀ

IPA: Zə ra.mɑˈn pə xpəˈl.a gram jəm t͡ʃe ma.jaˈn jəm
t͡ʃe d̪ɑ nor ʈo.pəˈn me bo.liˈ gram

زۀ رحمان پۀ خپله ګرم يم چې مين يم
چې دا نور ټوپن مې بولي ګرم په څۀ

IPA: Zə ra.mɑˈn pə xpəˈl.a gram jəm t͡ʃe ma.jaˈn jəm
t͡ʃe d̪ɑ nor ʈo.pəˈn me bo.liˈ gram pə t͡sə

Transliteration: Zə Rahmā́n pə xpə́la gram yəm če mayán yəm
Če dā nor ṭopə́n me bolí gram pə tsə

Translation: "I Rahman, myself am guilty that I am a lover,
On what does this other universe call me guilty."

Pashto also has a rich heritage of proverbs (Pashto matalúna, sg. matál).[95][96] An example of a proverb:

اوبه په ډانګ نه بېلېږي

Transliteration: Ubә́ pə ḍāng na beléẓ̌i

Translation: "One cannot divide water by [hitting it with] a pole."

اوبه په ډانګ نه بېلېږي

Transliteration: Ubә́ pə ḍāng na beléẓ̌i

Translation: "One cannot divide water by [hitting it with] a pole."

ستړې مه شې

stә́ṛay mә́ she

stә́ṛe mә́ she

May you not be tired ستړي مه شئ stә́ṛi mә́ shai May you not be tired [said to people] Thank You مننه manә́na Acceptance [from the verb منل] Good Bye په مخه دې ښه pə mә́kha de x̌á On your front be good Good Bye خدای پامان xwdā́i pāmā́n From: خدای په امان [With/On God's security] Hello په خير راغلې pə xair rā́ğle With goodness (you) came

Colorsstә́ṛe mә́ she

May you not be tired <

List of colors:

سور/ سره sur/sra [red]

سور/ سره sur/sra [red]

سور/ سره sur/sra [red]

شين / شنه šin/šna [green]

شين / شنه šin/šna [green]

کینخي kinaxí [purple]

کینخي kinaxí [purple]

تور/ توره tor/tóra [black]

تور/ توره tor/tóra [black]

شين / شنه šin/šna [blue]

شين / شنه šin/šna [blue]

سپين/ سپينه spin/spína [white]

سپين/ سپينه spin/spína [white]

نسواري naswārí [brown]

نسواري naswārí [brown]

ژېړ/ ژېړه žeṛ/žéṛa [yellow]

ژېړ/ ژېړه žeṛ/žéṛa [yellow]

چوڼيا čuṇyā́ [violet]

چوڼيا čuṇyā́ [violet]

خړ / خړه xәṛ/xə́ṛa [grey]


خړ / خړه xәṛ/xə́ṛa [grey]




List of colors borro


List of colors borrowed from neighbouring languages:

Yusapzai: /mɑs.pa.xiˈn/

Later Afternoon مازديګر

مازيګر

māzdigár

māzigár

/mɑz.d̪i.ɡaˈr/

/mɑ.zi.ɡaˈr/

Evening ماښام māx̌ā́m Kandahari: /mɑ.ʂɑˈm/

Wardak: /mɑ.çɑˈm/

Yusapzai: /mɑ.xɑˈm/

Late Evening ماسختن māsxután /mɑs.xwə.t̪aˈn/

/mɑs.xʊ.t̪aˈn/

Notes

  1. ^ The only American pronunciation listed by Oxford Online Dictionaries is /ˈpæʃt/.[7]
  2. ^ Sometimes spelled "Pushtu" or "Pushto",[5]Notes


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