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PANNOTIA (from Greek: _pan-_, "all", _-nótos_, "south"; meaning "all southern land"), also known as VENDIAN SUPERCONTINENT, GREATER GONDWANA, and the PAN-AFRICAN SUPERCONTINENT, was a relatively short-lived Neoproterozoic supercontinent that formed at the end of the Precambrian during the Pan-African orogeny (650–500 Ma) and broke apart 560 Ma with the opening of the Iapetus Ocean
Iapetus Ocean
. Pannotia formed when Laurentia was located adjacent to the two major South American cratons, Amazonia and Río de la Plata . The opening of the Iapetus Ocean
Iapetus Ocean
separated Laurentia from Baltica
Baltica
, Amazonia, and Río de la Plata.

CONTENTS

* 1 Origin of concept * 2 Formation * 3 Break-up * 4 See also

* 5 References

* 5.1 Notes * 5.2 Sources

* 6 External links

ORIGIN OF CONCEPT

Life timeline view • discuss • edit -4500 — – -4000 — – -3500 — – -3000 — – -2500 — – -2000 — – -1500 — – -1000 — – -500 — – 0 — _WATER _ Single-celled life _PHOTOSYNTHESIS _ EUKARYOTES Multicellular life LAND LIFE DINOSAURS MAMMALS FLOWERS ← Earliest Earth
Earth
(−4540 ) ← Earliest water ← Earliest life ← LHB meteorites ← Earliest oxygen ← Atmospheric oxygen ← Oxygen crisis ← Earliest sexual reproduction ← Ediacara biota ← Cambrian explosion
Cambrian explosion
← Earliest humans P h a n e r o z o i c

P r o t e r o z o i c

A r c h e a n H a d e a n Pongola Huronian Cryogenian Andean Karoo Quaternary Axis scale : millions of years . Orange labels: known _ICE AGES_. Also see: _ Human
Human
timeline _ and _Nature timeline _ An artist's impression of Pannotia, about 600 million years ago, in the Ediacaran period.

Piper 1976 was probably the first to propose a Proterozoic supercontinent preceding Pangaea, today known as Rodinia . At that time he simply referred to it as "the Proterozoic super-continent", but much later he named this "symmetrical crescent-shaped analogue of Pangaea" 'Palaeopangaea' and still insists there is neither a need nor any evidences for Rodinia or its daughter supercontinent Pannotia
Pannotia
or a series of other proposed supercontinents since Archaean times.

The existence of a Late Proterozoic supercontinent, much different from Pangaea, was, nevertheless, first proposed by McWilliams 1981 based on paleomagnetic data and the break-up of this supercontinent around 625–550 Ma was documented by Bond, Nickeson "> Rodinia 750 Ma, view centred on the Equator. Reconstruction from Goodge et al. 2008 .

Reconstructions of Rodinia varies but most include five elements:

* Laurentia or the Canadian Shield is located at the centre; * the west coast of Laurentia is facing Antarctica
Antarctica
and Australia (or East Gondwana); * the east coast of Laurentia is facing the Amazonian Craton ; * the north coast is facing Baltica; * and Siberia lies next to Baltica.

Less certain position of continental blocks includes:

* the West African Craton was simply an extension of the Amazonian Craton; * East Gondwana was probably broken apart by oceans; * the Cathaysian Terranes (Indochina , North China , and South China ) were located adjacent to East Gondwana near the North Pole; * the Congo Craton
Congo Craton
was located on the south coast of Laurentia, probably separated from Rodinia by the Mozambique and Adamastor oceans.

Pannotia
Pannotia
545 Ma after Dalziel 1997 , view centred on the South Pole; rotated 180° relative to the reconstruction of Rodinia above

The formation of Pannotia
Pannotia
began during the Pan-African orogeny when the Congo continent got caught between the northern and southern halves of the previous supercontinent Rodinia some 750 Ma. The peak in this mountain building event was around 640–610 Ma, but these continental collisions may have continued into the Early Cambrian some 530 Ma. The formation of Pannotia
Pannotia
was the result of Rodinia turning itself inside out.

When Pannotia
Pannotia
had formed Africa
Africa
was located at the centre surrounded by the rest of Gondwana: South America, Arabia, Madagascar, India, Antarctica, and Australia. Laurentia, who 'escaped' out of Rodinia, Baltica, and Siberia kept the relative positions they had in Rodinia. The Cathaysian and Cimmerian terranes (continental blocks of southern Asia) were located along the northern margins of east Gondwana. The Avalonian -Cadomian terranes (later to become central Europe, Britain, the North American east coast, and Yucatán) were located along the active northern margins of western Gondwana. This orogeny probably extended north into the Uralian margin of Baltica.

Pannotia
Pannotia
formed by subduction of exterior oceans (a mechanism called extroversion) over a geoid low, whereas Pangaea formed by subduction of interior oceans (introversion) over a geoid high perhaps caused by superplumes and slab avalanche events . The oceanic crust subducted by Pannotia
Pannotia
formed within the Mirovoi superocean that surrounded Rodinia before its 830–750 Ma break-up and were accreted during the Late Proterozoic orogenies that resulted from the assembly of Pannotia.

One of the major of these orogenies was the collision between East and West Gondwana or the East African Orogeny . The Trans-Saharan Belt in West Africa
Africa
is the result of the collision between the East Saharan Shield and the West African Craton when 1200–710 Ma-old volcanic and arc-related rocks were accreted to the margin of this craton. 600–500 Ma two Brazilian interior orogenies got highly deformed and metamorphosed between a series of colliding cratons: Amazonia , West Africa
Africa
-São Luís , and São Francisco -Congo -Kasai . The material that was accreted included 950–850 Ma mafic meta-igneous complexes and younger arc-related rocks.

BREAK-UP

The break-up of Pannotia
Pannotia
was accompanied by sea level rise, dramatic changes in climate and ocean water chemistry, and rapid metazoan diversification .

Bond, Nickeson -webkit-column-width: 20em; column-width: 20em; list-style-type: decimal;">

* ^ Scotese 2009 , Reconstruction of Rodinia and Pannotia, p. 68 * ^ Unrug 1997 , pp. 3–4, Fig. 3 * ^ For a more detailed description of the concept(s) of the supercontinent cycle see: Nance, Murphy Piper 2010 , Abstract * ^ Murphy & Nance 1991 , Introduction, p. 469 * ^ Meert fig. 5, p. 329 * ^ Powell 1995 , p. 1053 * ^ Stump 1987 , Abstract; Stump 1992 , Pannotios tectonism, pp. 30–31 * ^ Young 1995 , p. 154 * ^ Goodge et al. 2008 , Fig 3A, p. 238 * ^ _A_ _B_ Scotese 2009 , Reconstruction of Rodinia, pp. 68–71; Fig. 1, p. 69 * ^ Dalziel 1997 , Fig. 12, p. 31 * ^ _A_ _B_ Scotese 2009 , Reconstruction of Pannotia, pp. 71–72 * ^ Murphy & Nance 2013 , Introduction, pp. 185–187 * ^ Murphy & Nance 2013 , Discussion, p. 191 * ^ Murphy & Nance 2013 , Conclusions, p. 192 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Murphy, Nance & Cawood 2009 , Assembly of Pannotia, pp. 412–13 * ^ _A_ _B_ Murphy, Nance & Cawood 2009 , Development of concepts, pp. 410–11 * ^ _A_ _B_ Meert -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em;">

* Bond, G. C.; Nickeson, P. A.; Kominz, M. A. (1984). "Breakup of a supercontinent between 625 Ma and 555 Ma: new evidence and implications for continental histories". _ Earth
Earth
and Planetary Science Letters_. 70 (2): 325–45. doi :10.1016/0012-821X(84)90017-7 . * Dalziel, I. W. (1997). "Neoproterozoic-Paleozoic geography and tectonics: Review, hypothesis, environmental speculation". _Geological Society of America Bulletin_. 109 (1): 16–42. doi :10.1130/0016-7606(1997)1092.3.CO;2 . * Goodge, J. W.; Vervoort, J. D.; Fanning, C. M.; Brecke, D. M.; Farmer, G. L.; Williams, I. S.; Myrow, P. M.; DePaolo, D. J. (2008). "A positive test of East Antarctica– Laurentia juxtaposition within the Rodinia supercontinent" (PDF). _Science_. 321 (5886): 235–40. Bibcode :2008Sci...321..235G. ISSN 0036-8075 . PMID 18621666 . doi :10.1126/science.1159189 . * McWilliams, M. O. (1981). "Palaeomagnetism and Precambrian tectonic evolution of Gondwana". In Kröner, A. _ Precambrian Plate Tectonics_. _Developments in Precambrian Geology_. 4. pp. 649–87. ISBN 9780080869032 . doi :10.1016/S0166-2635(08)70031-8 . * Meert, J. G.; Lieberman, B. S. (2004). "A palaeomagnetic and palaeobiogeographical perspective on latest Neoproterozoic and early Cambrian tectonic events" (PDF). _Journal of the Geological Society_. 161 (3): 477–87. doi :10.1144/0016-764903-107 . Retrieved January 2016. Check date values in: access-date= (help ) * Meert, J. G.; Powell, C. M. (2001). "Assembly and break-up of Rodinia: introduction to the special volume" (PDF). _Precambrian Research_. 110 (1): 1–8. doi :10.1016/s0301-9268(01)00177-2 . * Meert, J. G.; Torsvik, T. H. (2003). "The making and unmaking of a supercontinent: Rodinia revisited" (PDF). _Tectonophysics_. 375 (1): 261–88. doi :10.1016/S0040-1951(03)00342-1 . * Murphy, J. B.; Nance, R. D. (1991). " Supercontinent model for the contrasting character of Late Proterozoic orogenic belts" (PDF). _Geology_. 19 (5): 469–72. doi :10.1130/0091-7613(1991)0192.3.co;2 .

* Murphy, J. B.; Nance, R. D. (2013). "Speculations on the mechanisms for the formation and breakup of supercontinents" (PDF). _Geoscience Frontiers_. 4 (2): 185–94. doi :10.1016/j.gsf.2012.07.005 . * Murphy, J. B.; Nance, R. D.; Cawood, P. A. (2009). "Contrasting modes of supercontinent formation and the conundrum of Pangea" (PDF). _ Gondwana Research_. 15 (3): 408–20. doi :10.1016/j.gr.2008.09.005 .

* Nance, R. D.; Murphy, J. B.; Santosh, M. (2014). "The supercontinent cycle: a retrospective essay" (PDF). _Gondwana Research_. 25 (1): 4–29. doi :10.1016/j.gr.2012.12.026 . * Piper, J. D. A. (1976). "Palaeomagnetic Evidence for a Proterozoic Super-Continent". _Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London_. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences. 280 (1298): 469–90. JSTOR 74572 . doi :10.1098/rsta.1976.0007 . * Piper, J. D. A. (2000). "The Neoproterozoic Supercontinent: Rodinia or Palaeopangaea?". _ Earth
Earth
and Planetary Science Letters_. 176 (1): 131–46. doi :10.1016/S0012-821X(99)00314-3 . * Piper, J. D. A. (2010). "Protopangaea: Palaeomagnetic definition of Earth\'s oldest (mid-Archaean-Palaeoproterozoic) supercontinent" (PDF). _Journal of Geodynamics_. 50 (3): 154–65. doi :10.1016/j.jog.2010.01.002 . * Powell, C. McA. (1995). "Are Neoproterozoic glacial deposits preserved on the margins of Laurentia related to the fragmentation of two supercontinents? Comment". _Geology_. 23: 1053–55. doi :10.1130/0091-7613(1995)0232.3.CO;2 . * Scotese, C. R. (2009). "Late Proterozoic plate tectonics and palaeogeography: a tale of two supercontinents, Rodinia and Pannotia" (PDF). _Geological Society, London, Special
Special
Publications_. 326 (1): 67–83. doi :10.1144/SP326.4 . * Stern, R. J. (1994). "Arc-assembly and continental collision in the Neoproterozoic African orogen: implications for the consolidation of Gondwanaland" (PDF). _Annual Review of Earth
Earth
and Planetary Sciences_. 22: 319–51. doi :10.1146/annurev.ea.22.050194.001535 . Retrieved December 2015. Check date values in: access-date= (help ) * Stump, E. (1987). "Construction of the Pacific margin of Gondwana during the Pannotios cycle". In McKenzie, G. D. _ Gondwana Six: Structure, tectonics and geophysics_. American Geophysical Union Monograph. 40. pp. 77–87. doi :10.1029/GM040p0077 . * Stump, E. (1992). "The Ross orogen of the Transantarctic Mountains in the light of the Laurentian– Gondwana split" (PDF). _GSA Today_. 2: 25–27, 30–33. Retrieved December 2015. Check date values in: access-date= (help ) * Unrug, R. (1997). " Rodinia to Gondwana: the geodynamic map of Gondwana supercontinent assembly" (PDF). _GSA today_. 7 (1): 1–6. * Young, G. M. (1995). "Are Neoproterozoic glacial deposits preserved on the margins of Laurentia related to the fragmentation of two supercontinents?" (PDF). _Geology_. 23 (2): 153–56. doi :10.1130/0091-7613(1995)0232.3.CO;2 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

* An image showing Pannotia
Pannotia
according to Christopher Scotese . (_it is referred to as the late Precambrian Supercontinent in the

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