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Pannotia
Pannotia
(from Greek: pan-, "all", -nótos, "south"; meaning "all southern land"), also known as Vendian supercontinent, Greater Gondwana, and the Pan-African supercontinent, was a relatively short-lived Neoproterozoic supercontinent that formed at the end of the Precambrian
Precambrian
during the Pan-African orogeny
Pan-African orogeny
(650–500 Ma) and broke apart 560 Ma with the opening of the Iapetus Ocean.[1] Pannotia formed when Laurentia
Laurentia
was located adjacent to the two major South American cratons, Amazonia and Río de la Plata. The opening of the Iapetus Ocean
Iapetus Ocean
separated Laurentia
Laurentia
from Baltica, Amazonia, and Río de la Plata.[2]

Contents

1 Origin of concept 2 Formation 3 Break-up 4 See also 5 References

5.1 Notes 5.2 Sources

6 External links

Origin of concept[edit]

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Earliest Earth
Earth
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LHB meteorites

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Oxygen crisis

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P h a n e r o z o i c

P r o t e r o z o i c

A r c h e a n

H a d e a n

Pongola

Huronian

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Andean

Karoo

Quaternary

Axis scale: million years Orange labels: ice ages. Also see: Human
Human
timeline and Nature timeline

An artist's impression of Pannotia, about 600 million years ago, in the Ediacaran
Ediacaran
period.

Piper 1976 was probably the first to propose a Proterozoic supercontinent preceding Pangaea, today known as Rodinia. [3] At that time he simply referred to it as "the Proterozoic
Proterozoic
super-continent",[4] but much later he named this "symmetrical crescent-shaped analogue of Pangaea" 'Palaeopangaea' and still insists there is neither a need nor any evidences for Rodinia
Rodinia
or its daughter supercontinent Pannotia
Pannotia
or a series of other proposed supercontinents since Archaean times.[5] The existence of a Late Proterozoic
Proterozoic
supercontinent, much different from Pangaea, was, nevertheless, first proposed by McWilliams 1981 based on paleomagnetic data and the break-up of this supercontinent around 625–550 Ma was documented by Bond, Nickeson & Kominz 1984.[6] The reconstruction of Bond et al. is virtually identical to that of Dalziel 1997 and others.[7] Another term for the supercontinent that is thought to have existed at the end of Neoproterozoic time is "Greater Gondwanaland", suggested by Stern 1994. This term recognizes that the supercontinent of Gondwana, which formed at the end of the Neoproterozoic, was once part of the much larger end- Neoproterozoic supercontinent.[8] Pannotia
Pannotia
was named by Powell 1995,[9] based on the term "Pannotios" originally proposed by Stump 1987 for "the cycle of tectonic activity common to the Gondwana
Gondwana
continents that resulted in the formation of the supercontinent."[10] Young 1995 proposed renaming the older Proterozoic
Proterozoic
supercontinent (now known as Rodinia) "Kanatia", the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word from which the name 'Canada' is derived, while keeping the name Rodinia
Rodinia
for the latter Neoproterozoic supercontinent (now known as Pannotia).[11] Powell, however, objected to this renaming and instead proposed Stump's term for the latter supercontinent. Formation[edit]

Rodinia
Rodinia
750 Ma, view centred on the Equator. Reconstruction from Goodge et al. 2008.[12]

Reconstructions of Rodinia
Rodinia
varies but most include five elements:[13]

Laurentia
Laurentia
or the Canadian Shield
Canadian Shield
is located at the centre; the west coast of Laurentia
Laurentia
is facing Antarctica
Antarctica
and Australia (or East Gondwana); the east coast of Laurentia
Laurentia
is facing the Amazonian Craton; the north coast is facing Baltica; and Siberia lies next to Baltica.

Less certain position of continental blocks includes:[13]

the West African Craton
West African Craton
was simply an extension of the Amazonian Craton; East Gondwana
Gondwana
was probably broken apart by oceans; the Cathaysian Terranes (Indochina, North China, and South China) were located adjacent to East Gondwana
Gondwana
near the North Pole; the Congo Craton
Congo Craton
was located on the south coast of Laurentia, probably separated from Rodinia
Rodinia
by the Mozambique and Adamastor oceans.

Pannotia
Pannotia
545 Ma after Dalziel 1997,[14] view centred on the South Pole; rotated 180° relative to the reconstruction of Rodinia
Rodinia
above

The formation of Pannotia
Pannotia
began during the Pan-African orogeny
Pan-African orogeny
when the Congo continent got caught between the northern and southern halves of the previous supercontinent Rodinia
Rodinia
some 750 Ma. The peak in this mountain building event was around 640–610 Ma, but these continental collisions may have continued into the Early Cambrian some 530 Ma. The formation of Pannotia
Pannotia
was the result of Rodinia
Rodinia
turning itself inside out.[15] When Pannotia
Pannotia
had formed Africa
Africa
was located at the centre surrounded by the rest of Gondwana: South America, Arabia, Madagascar, India, Antarctica, and Australia. Laurentia, who 'escaped' out of Rodinia, Baltica, and Siberia kept the relative positions they had in Rodinia. The Cathaysian and Cimmerian terranes (continental blocks of southern Asia) were located along the northern margins of east Gondwana. The Avalonian-Cadomian terranes (later to become central Europe, Britain, the North American east coast, and Yucatán) were located along the active northern margins of western Gondwana. This orogeny probably extended north into the Uralian margin of Baltica.[15] Pannotia
Pannotia
formed by subduction of exterior oceans (a mechanism called extroversion)[16] over a geoid low, whereas Pangaea
Pangaea
formed by subduction of interior oceans (introversion) over a geoid high[17] perhaps caused by superplumes and slab avalanche events.[18] The oceanic crust subducted by Pannotia
Pannotia
formed within the Mirovoi superocean that surrounded Rodinia
Rodinia
before its 830–750 Ma break-up and were accreted during the Late Proterozoic
Proterozoic
orogenies that resulted from the assembly of Pannotia.[19] One of the major of these orogenies was the collision between East and West Gondwana
Gondwana
or the East African Orogeny.[20] The Trans-Saharan Belt in West Africa
Africa
is the result of the collision between the East Saharan Shield and the West African Craton
West African Craton
when 1200–710 Ma-old volcanic and arc-related rocks were accreted to the margin of this craton.[19] 600–500 Ma two Brazilian interior orogenies got highly deformed and metamorphosed between a series of colliding cratons: Amazonia, West Africa-São Luís, and São Francisco-Congo-Kasai. The material that was accreted included 950–850 Ma mafic meta-igneous complexes and younger arc-related rocks.[19] Break-up[edit] The break-up of Pannotia
Pannotia
was accompanied by sea level rise, dramatic changes in climate and ocean water chemistry, and rapid metazoan diversification.[20] Bond, Nickeson & Kominz 1984 found Neoproterozoic passive margin sequences worldwide – the first indication of a Late Neoproterozoic supercontinent but also the traces of its demise.[21] The Iapetus Ocean
Iapetus Ocean
started to open while Pannotia
Pannotia
was being assembled, 200 Ma after the break-up of Rodinia. This opening of the Iapetus and other Cambrian seas coincided with the first steps in the evolution of soft-bodied metazoans and also made a myriad of habitats available for them, which led to the so-called Cambrian explosion, the rapid evolution of skeletalized metazoans.[22] Trilobites originated in the Neoproterozoic and began to diversify before the break-up of Pannotia
Pannotia
600–550 Ma as evidenced by their ubiquitous presence in the fossil record and the lack of vicariance patterns in their lineage.[21] See also[edit]

Plate tectonics Supercontinent
Supercontinent
cycle Pan-African orogeny

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ Scotese 2009, Reconstruction of Rodinia
Rodinia
and Pannotia, p. 68 ^ Unrug 1997, pp. 3–4, Fig. 3 ^ For a more detailed description of the concept(s) of the supercontinent cycle see: Nance, Murphy & Santosh 2014, Indications of pre-Pangean supercontinents, pp. 6, 8 ^ Piper 1976, Geological and Geophysical implications, p. 478 ^ Piper 2000, Abstract; Piper 2010, Abstract ^ Murphy & Nance 1991, Introduction, p. 469 ^ Meert & Powell 2001, Fig. 1, p. 2 ^ Stern 1994, Fig. 1, p. 321; fig. 5, p. 329 ^ Powell 1995, p. 1053 ^ Stump 1987, Abstract; Stump 1992, Pannotios tectonism, pp. 30–31 ^ Young 1995, p. 154 ^ Goodge et al. 2008, Fig 3A, p. 238 ^ a b Scotese 2009, Reconstruction of Rodinia, pp. 68–71; Fig. 1, p. 69 ^ Dalziel 1997, Fig. 12, p. 31 ^ a b Scotese 2009, Reconstruction of Pannotia, pp. 71–72 ^ Murphy & Nance 2013, Introduction, pp. 185–187 ^ Murphy & Nance 2013, Discussion, p. 191 ^ Murphy & Nance 2013, Conclusions, p. 192 ^ a b c Murphy, Nance & Cawood 2009, Assembly of Pannotia, pp. 412–13 ^ a b Murphy, Nance & Cawood 2009, Development of concepts, pp. 410–11 ^ a b Meert & Lieberman 2004, Results, Discussion, pp. 4–5 ^ Dalziel 1997, p. 38

Sources[edit]

Bond, G. C.; Nickeson, P. A.; Kominz, M. A. (1984). "Breakup of a supercontinent between 625 Ma and 555 Ma: new evidence and implications for continental histories". Earth
Earth
and Planetary Science Letters. 70 (2): 325–45. doi:10.1016/0012-821X(84)90017-7.  Dalziel, I. W. (1997). "Neoproterozoic-Paleozoic geography and tectonics: Review, hypothesis, environmental speculation". Geological Society of America Bulletin. 109 (1): 16–42. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1997)109<0016:ONPGAT>2.3.CO;2.  Goodge, J. W.; Vervoort, J. D.; Fanning, C. M.; Brecke, D. M.; Farmer, G. L.; Williams, I. S.; Myrow, P. M.; DePaolo, D. J. (2008). "A positive test of East Antarctica– Laurentia
Laurentia
juxtaposition within the Rodinia
Rodinia
supercontinent" (PDF). Science. 321 (5886): 235–40. Bibcode:2008Sci...321..235G. doi:10.1126/science.1159189. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 18621666.  McWilliams, M. O. (1981). "Palaeomagnetism and Precambrian
Precambrian
tectonic evolution of Gondwana". In Kröner, A. Precambrian
Precambrian
Plate Tectonics. Developments in Precambrian
Precambrian
Geology. 4. pp. 649–87. doi:10.1016/S0166-2635(08)70031-8. ISBN 9780080869032.  Meert, J. G.; Lieberman, B. S. (2004). "A palaeomagnetic and palaeobiogeographical perspective on latest Neoproterozoic and early Cambrian tectonic events" (PDF). Journal of the Geological Society. 161 (3): 477–87. doi:10.1144/0016-764903-107. Retrieved January 2016.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) Meert, J. G.; Powell, C. M. (2001). "Assembly and break-up of Rodinia: introduction to the special volume" (PDF). Precambrian
Precambrian
Research. 110 (1): 1–8. doi:10.1016/s0301-9268(01)00177-2.  Meert, J. G.; Torsvik, T. H. (2003). "The making and unmaking of a supercontinent: Rodinia
Rodinia
revisited" (PDF). Tectonophysics. 375 (1): 261–88. doi:10.1016/S0040-1951(03)00342-1.  Murphy, J. B.; Nance, R. D. (1991). " Supercontinent
Supercontinent
model for the contrasting character of Late Proterozoic
Proterozoic
orogenic belts" (PDF). Geology. 19 (5): 469–72. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1991)019<0469:smftcc>2.3.co;2.  Murphy, J. B.; Nance, R. D. (2013). "Speculations on the mechanisms for the formation and breakup of supercontinents" (PDF). Geoscience Frontiers. 4 (2): 185–94. doi:10.1016/j.gsf.2012.07.005.  Murphy, J. B.; Nance, R. D.; Cawood, P. A. (2009). "Contrasting modes of supercontinent formation and the conundrum of Pangea" (PDF). Gondwana
Gondwana
Research. 15 (3): 408–20. doi:10.1016/j.gr.2008.09.005.  Nance, R. D.; Murphy, J. B.; Santosh, M. (2014). "The supercontinent cycle: a retrospective essay" (PDF). Gondwana
Gondwana
Research. 25 (1): 4–29. doi:10.1016/j.gr.2012.12.026.  Piper, J. D. A. (1976). "Palaeomagnetic Evidence for a Proterozoic Super-Continent". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences. 280 (1298): 469–90. doi:10.1098/rsta.1976.0007. JSTOR 74572.  Piper, J. D. A. (2000). "The Neoproterozoic Supercontinent: Rodinia
Rodinia
or Palaeopangaea?". Earth
Earth
and Planetary Science Letters. 176 (1): 131–46. doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(99)00314-3.  Piper, J. D. A. (2010). "Protopangaea: Palaeomagnetic definition of Earth's oldest (mid-Archaean-Palaeoproterozoic) supercontinent" (PDF). Journal of Geodynamics. 50 (3): 154–65. doi:10.1016/j.jog.2010.01.002.  Powell, C. McA. (1995). "Are Neoproterozoic glacial deposits preserved on the margins of Laurentia
Laurentia
related to the fragmentation of two supercontinents? Comment". Geology. 23: 1053–55. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1995)023<1053:ANGDPO>2.3.CO;2.  Scotese, C. R. (2009). "Late Proterozoic
Proterozoic
plate tectonics and palaeogeography: a tale of two supercontinents, Rodinia
Rodinia
and Pannotia" (PDF). Geological Society, London, Special
Special
Publications. 326 (1): 67–83. doi:10.1144/SP326.4.  Stern, R. J. (1994). "Arc-assembly and continental collision in the Neoproterozoic African orogen: implications for the consolidation of Gondwanaland" (PDF). Annual Review of Earth
Earth
and Planetary Sciences. 22: 319–51. doi:10.1146/annurev.ea.22.050194.001535. Retrieved December 2015.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) Stump, E. (1987). "Construction of the Pacific margin of Gondwana during the Pannotios cycle". In McKenzie, G. D. Gondwana
Gondwana
Six: Structure, tectonics and geophysics. American Geophysical Union Monograph. 40. pp. 77–87. doi:10.1029/GM040p0077.  Stump, E. (1992). "The Ross orogen of the Transantarctic Mountains in the light of the Laurentian– Gondwana
Gondwana
split" (PDF). GSA Today. 2: 25–27, 30–33. Retrieved December 2015.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) Unrug, R. (1997). " Rodinia
Rodinia
to Gondwana: the geodynamic map of Gondwana supercontinent assembly" (PDF). GSA Today. 7 (1): 1–6.  Young, G. M. (1995). "Are Neoproterozoic glacial deposits preserved on the margins of Laurentia
Laurentia
related to the fragmentation of two supercontinents?" (PDF). Geology. 23 (2): 153–56. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1995)023<0153:ANGDPO>2.3.CO;2. 

External links[edit]

An image showing Pannotia
Pannotia
according to Christopher Scotese. (it is referred to as the late Precambrian
Precambrian
Supercontinent
Supercontinent
in the image). Torsvik, Trond Helge. "Palaeozoic Continent
Continent
Margins: Late Cambrian (500 Ma)". Retrieved 18 June 2010.  Stampfli, G. M.; von Raumer, J. F.; Borel, G. D. (2002). "Paleozoic evolution of pre-Variscan terranes: from Gondwana
Gondwana
to the Variscan collision" (PDF). Special
Special
Papers-Geological Society of America. 364: 263–280. Retrieved January 2016.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) (see Fig. 3 for an Early Ordovician (490 Ma) reconstruction)

v t e

Continents of the world

   

Africa

Antarctica

Asia

Australia

Europe

North America

South America

   

Afro-Eurasia

America

Eurasia

Oceania

   

Former supercontinents Gondwana Laurasia Pangaea Pannotia Rodinia Columbia Kenorland Nena Sclavia Ur Vaalbara

Historical continents Amazonia Arctica Asiamerica Atlantica Avalonia Baltica Cimmeria Congo craton Euramerica Kalaharia Kazakhstania Laurentia North China Siberia South China East Antarctica India

   

Submerged continents Kerguelen Plateau Zealandia

Possible future supercontinents Pangaea
Pangaea
Ultima Amasia Novopangaea

Mythical and hypothesised continents Atlantis Kumari Kandam Lemuria Meropis Mu Hyperborea Terra Australis

See also Regions of the world Continental fragment

.