PANNOTIA (from Greek: _pan-_, "all", _-nótos_, "south"; meaning "all
southern land"), also known as VENDIAN SUPERCONTINENT, GREATER
GONDWANA, and the PAN-AFRICAN SUPERCONTINENT, was a relatively
Neoproterozoic supercontinent that formed at the end of
Precambrian during the
Pan-African orogeny (650–500 Ma) and
broke apart 560 Ma with the opening of the
Iapetus Ocean . Pannotia
Laurentia was located adjacent to the two major South
American cratons, Amazonia and Río de la Plata . The opening of the
Iapetus Ocean separated
Baltica , Amazonia, and Río de
* 1 Origin of concept
* 2 Formation
* 3 Break-up
* 4 See also
* 5 References
* 5.1 Notes
* 5.2 Sources
* 6 External links
ORIGIN OF CONCEPT
Life timeline view • discuss • edit -4500 — – -4000 —
– -3500 — – -3000 — – -2500 — – -2000 — – -1500 —
– -1000 — – -500 — – 0 — _WATER _ Single-celled
life _PHOTOSYNTHESIS _ EUKARYOTES Multicellular
life LAND LIFE DINOSAURS MAMMALS FLOWERS ←
Earth (−4540 ) ← Earliest water ← Earliest
life ← LHB meteorites ← Earliest oxygen ←
Atmospheric oxygen ← Oxygen crisis ← Earliest sexual
reproduction ← Ediacara biota ←
← Earliest humans P
n Pongola Huronian
Cryogenian Andean Karoo Quaternary
Axis scale : millions of years .
Orange labels: known _ICE AGES_.
Also see: _
Human timeline _ and _Nature timeline _ An artist's
impression of Pannotia, about 600 million years ago, in the Ediacaran
Piper 1976 was probably the first to propose a Proterozoic
supercontinent preceding Pangaea, today known as
Rodinia . At that
time he simply referred to it as "the
but much later he named this "symmetrical crescent-shaped analogue of
Pangaea" 'Palaeopangaea' and still insists there is neither a need nor
any evidences for
Rodinia or its daughter supercontinent
Pannotia or a
series of other proposed supercontinents since Archaean times.
The existence of a Late
Proterozoic supercontinent, much different
from Pangaea, was, nevertheless, first proposed by McWilliams 1981
based on paleomagnetic data and the break-up of this supercontinent
around 625–550 Ma was documented by Bond, Nickeson ">
Ma, view centred on the Equator. Reconstruction from Goodge et al.
Rodinia varies but most include five elements:
Laurentia or the
Canadian Shield is located at the centre;
* the west coast of
Laurentia is facing
Antarctica and Australia (or
* the east coast of
Laurentia is facing the
Amazonian Craton ;
* the north coast is facing Baltica;
* and Siberia lies next to Baltica.
Less certain position of continental blocks includes:
West African Craton was simply an extension of the Amazonian
Gondwana was probably broken apart by oceans;
Cathaysian Terranes (Indochina , North China , and South China
) were located adjacent to East
Gondwana near the North Pole;
Congo Craton was located on the south coast of Laurentia,
probably separated from
Rodinia by the Mozambique and Adamastor
Pannotia 545 Ma after Dalziel 1997 , view centred on the South
Pole; rotated 180° relative to the reconstruction of
The formation of
Pannotia began during the
Pan-African orogeny when
the Congo continent got caught between the northern and southern
halves of the previous supercontinent
Rodinia some 750 Ma. The peak in
this mountain building event was around 640–610 Ma, but these
continental collisions may have continued into the Early Cambrian some
530 Ma. The formation of
Pannotia was the result of
itself inside out.
Pannotia had formed
Africa was located at the centre surrounded
by the rest of Gondwana: South America, Arabia, Madagascar, India,
Antarctica, and Australia. Laurentia, who 'escaped' out of Rodinia,
Baltica, and Siberia kept the relative positions they had in Rodinia.
The Cathaysian and Cimmerian terranes (continental blocks of southern
Asia) were located along the northern margins of east Gondwana. The
Avalonian -Cadomian terranes (later to become central Europe, Britain,
the North American east coast, and Yucatán) were located along the
active northern margins of western Gondwana. This orogeny probably
extended north into the Uralian margin of Baltica.
Pannotia formed by subduction of exterior oceans (a mechanism called
extroversion) over a geoid low, whereas
Pangaea formed by subduction
of interior oceans (introversion) over a geoid high perhaps caused by
superplumes and slab avalanche events . The oceanic crust subducted
Pannotia formed within the
Mirovoi superocean that surrounded
Rodinia before its 830–750 Ma break-up and were accreted during the
Proterozoic orogenies that resulted from the assembly of
One of the major of these orogenies was the collision between East
Gondwana or the East African
Orogeny . The Trans-Saharan
Belt in West
Africa is the result of the collision between the East
Saharan Shield and the
West African Craton when 1200–710 Ma-old
volcanic and arc-related rocks were accreted to the margin of this
craton. 600–500 Ma two Brazilian interior orogenies got highly
deformed and metamorphosed between a series of colliding cratons:
Amazonia , West
Africa -São Luís , and São Francisco -Congo -Kasai
. The material that was accreted included 950–850 Ma mafic
meta-igneous complexes and younger arc-related rocks.
The break-up of
Pannotia was accompanied by sea level rise, dramatic
changes in climate and ocean water chemistry, and rapid metazoan
Bond, Nickeson -webkit-column-width: 20em; column-width: 20em;
* ^ Scotese 2009 , Reconstruction of
Rodinia and Pannotia, p. 68
* ^ Unrug 1997 , pp. 3–4, Fig. 3
* ^ For a more detailed description of the concept(s) of the
supercontinent cycle see: Nance, Murphy Piper 2010 , Abstract
* ^ Murphy & Nance 1991 , Introduction, p. 469
* ^ Meert fig. 5, p. 329
* ^ Powell 1995 , p. 1053
* ^ Stump 1987 , Abstract; Stump 1992 , Pannotios tectonism, pp.
* ^ Young 1995 , p. 154
* ^ Goodge et al. 2008 , Fig 3A, p. 238
* ^ _A_ _B_ Scotese 2009 , Reconstruction of Rodinia, pp. 68–71;
Fig. 1, p. 69
* ^ Dalziel 1997 , Fig. 12, p. 31
* ^ _A_ _B_ Scotese 2009 , Reconstruction of Pannotia, pp. 71–72
* ^ Murphy & Nance 2013 , Introduction, pp. 185–187
* ^ Murphy & Nance 2013 , Discussion, p. 191
* ^ Murphy & Nance 2013 , Conclusions, p. 192
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Murphy, Nance & Cawood 2009 , Assembly of Pannotia,
* ^ _A_ _B_ Murphy, Nance & Cawood 2009 , Development of concepts,
* ^ _A_ _B_ Meert -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em;">
* Bond, G. C.; Nickeson, P. A.; Kominz, M. A. (1984). "Breakup of a
supercontinent between 625 Ma and 555 Ma: new evidence and
implications for continental histories". _
Earth and Planetary Science
Letters_. 70 (2): 325–45. doi :10.1016/0012-821X(84)90017-7 .
* Dalziel, I. W. (1997). "Neoproterozoic-Paleozoic geography and
tectonics: Review, hypothesis, environmental speculation". _Geological
Society of America Bulletin_. 109 (1): 16–42. doi
* Goodge, J. W.; Vervoort, J. D.; Fanning, C. M.; Brecke, D. M.;
Farmer, G. L.; Williams, I. S.; Myrow, P. M.; DePaolo, D. J. (2008).
"A positive test of East Antarctica–
Laurentia juxtaposition within
Rodinia supercontinent" (PDF). _Science_. 321 (5886): 235–40.
Bibcode :2008Sci...321..235G. ISSN 0036-8075 . PMID 18621666 . doi
* McWilliams, M. O. (1981). "Palaeomagnetism and Precambrian
tectonic evolution of Gondwana". In Kröner, A. _
Tectonics_. _Developments in
Precambrian Geology_. 4. pp. 649–87.
ISBN 9780080869032 . doi :10.1016/S0166-2635(08)70031-8 .
* Meert, J. G.; Lieberman, B. S. (2004). "A palaeomagnetic and
palaeobiogeographical perspective on latest
Neoproterozoic and early
Cambrian tectonic events" (PDF). _Journal of the Geological Society_.
161 (3): 477–87. doi :10.1144/0016-764903-107 . Retrieved January
2016. Check date values in: access-date= (help )
* Meert, J. G.; Powell, C. M. (2001). "Assembly and break-up of
Rodinia: introduction to the special volume" (PDF). _Precambrian
Research_. 110 (1): 1–8. doi :10.1016/s0301-9268(01)00177-2 .
* Meert, J. G.; Torsvik, T. H. (2003). "The making and unmaking of a
Rodinia revisited" (PDF). _Tectonophysics_. 375 (1):
261–88. doi :10.1016/S0040-1951(03)00342-1 .
* Murphy, J. B.; Nance, R. D. (1991). "
Supercontinent model for the
contrasting character of Late
Proterozoic orogenic belts" (PDF).
_Geology_. 19 (5): 469–72. doi :10.1130/0091-7613(1991)0192.3.co;2 .
* Murphy, J. B.; Nance, R. D. (2013). "Speculations on the
mechanisms for the formation and breakup of supercontinents" (PDF).
_Geoscience Frontiers_. 4 (2): 185–94. doi
* Murphy, J. B.; Nance, R. D.; Cawood, P. A. (2009). "Contrasting
modes of supercontinent formation and the conundrum of Pangea" (PDF).
Gondwana Research_. 15 (3): 408–20. doi :10.1016/j.gr.2008.09.005 .
* Nance, R. D.; Murphy, J. B.; Santosh, M. (2014). "The
supercontinent cycle: a retrospective essay" (PDF). _Gondwana
Research_. 25 (1): 4–29. doi :10.1016/j.gr.2012.12.026 .
* Piper, J. D. A. (1976). "Palaeomagnetic Evidence for a Proterozoic
Super-Continent". _Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of
London_. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences. 280 (1298):
JSTOR 74572 . doi :10.1098/rsta.1976.0007 .
* Piper, J. D. A. (2000). "The
Rodinia or Palaeopangaea?". _
Earth and Planetary Science Letters_. 176
(1): 131–46. doi :10.1016/S0012-821X(99)00314-3 .
* Piper, J. D. A. (2010). "Protopangaea: Palaeomagnetic definition
of Earth\'s oldest (mid-Archaean-Palaeoproterozoic) supercontinent"
(PDF). _Journal of Geodynamics_. 50 (3): 154–65. doi
* Powell, C. McA. (1995). "Are
Neoproterozoic glacial deposits
preserved on the margins of
Laurentia related to the fragmentation of
two supercontinents? Comment". _Geology_. 23: 1053–55. doi
* Scotese, C. R. (2009). "Late
Proterozoic plate tectonics and
palaeogeography: a tale of two supercontinents,
Rodinia and Pannotia"
(PDF). _Geological Society, London,
Special Publications_. 326 (1):
67–83. doi :10.1144/SP326.4 .
* Stern, R. J. (1994). "Arc-assembly and continental collision in
Neoproterozoic African orogen: implications for the consolidation
of Gondwanaland" (PDF). _Annual Review of
Earth and Planetary
Sciences_. 22: 319–51. doi :10.1146/annurev.ea.22.050194.001535 .
Retrieved December 2015. Check date values in: access-date= (help )
* Stump, E. (1987). "Construction of the Pacific margin of Gondwana
during the Pannotios cycle". In McKenzie, G. D. _
Structure, tectonics and geophysics_. American Geophysical Union
Monograph. 40. pp. 77–87. doi :10.1029/GM040p0077 .
* Stump, E. (1992). "The Ross orogen of the Transantarctic Mountains
in the light of the Laurentian–
Gondwana split" (PDF). _GSA Today_.
2: 25–27, 30–33. Retrieved December 2015. Check date values in:
access-date= (help )
* Unrug, R. (1997). "
Rodinia to Gondwana: the geodynamic map of
Gondwana supercontinent assembly" (PDF). _GSA today_. 7 (1): 1–6.
* Young, G. M. (1995). "Are
Neoproterozoic glacial deposits
preserved on the margins of
Laurentia related to the fragmentation of
two supercontinents?" (PDF). _Geology_. 23 (2): 153–56. doi
* An image showing
Pannotia according to
Christopher Scotese . (_it
is referred to as the late
Supercontinent in the