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The Pan-Arab colors
Pan-Arab colors
are black, white, green, and red. Individually, each of the four Pan-Arab colors
Pan-Arab colors
were intended to represent a certain Arab dynasty, or era.[3] The black was the color of the banner of Muhammad and the Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate and was later adopted by the Abbasid Caliphate; white was used by the Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate; green was used by the Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliphate; and red was both the flag held by the Khawarij
Khawarij
and also represented the Hashemites, as well as the Ottoman Empire.[4] The four colors derived their potency from a verse by 14th century Iraqi poet Safi Al-Din Al-Hilli: " White
White
are our acts, black our battles, green our fields, and red our swords".[5] Pan-Arab colors
Pan-Arab colors
were first combined in 1916 in the flag of the Arab Revolt.[6] Many current flags are based on Arab Revolt
Arab Revolt
colors, such as the flags of Jordan, Kuwait, Palestine, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, and the United Arab Emirates,[7] and formerly in the flag of the brief six month union of the Arab Federation
Arab Federation
of Iraq
Iraq
and Jordan. From the 1950s onwards, a sub-set of the Pan-Arab colors, the Arab Liberation colors, came to prominence. These consist of a tricolor of red, white and black bands, with green given less prominence. The Arab Liberation colors were inspired by the use of the Arab Liberation Flag in the Egyptian Revolution of 1952.[8][full citation needed] These appear in the current flags of Egypt, Iraq, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen, and formerly in the flags of the rival states of North Yemen
North Yemen
and South Yemen, and in the short-lived Arab unions of the United Arab Republic and the Federation of Arab Republics.[7]

Contents

1 Current flags with Pan-Arab colors

1.1 UN member and observer sovereign states 1.2 Unrecognized and partially recognized states

2 Former national flags with the Pan-Arab colors 3 Flags of Arab political and paramilitary movements using Pan-Arab colors 4 Historical Arab flags 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Current flags with Pan-Arab colors[edit] UN member and observer sovereign states[edit]

Egypt

Iraq

Jordan

Kuwait

Libya[9]

Palestinian Territories[10]

Sudan

Syria

United Arab Emirates[11]

Yemen

Unrecognized and partially recognized states[edit]

Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic

Somaliland

Former national flags with the Pan-Arab colors[edit]

Hejaz
Hejaz
(1917–20)[12]

Syria
Syria
(OET Administration, 1918–20)[13]

Syria
Syria
(8 March 1920 – 24 July 1920)[13]

Hejaz
Hejaz
(1920–26)[12]

Emirate of Jabal Shammar
Emirate of Jabal Shammar
(1920–21)[14]

Jordan (1921–28)[15]

Iraq
Iraq
(1921–59)[16]

Hejaz
Hejaz
(as part of the Kingdom of Nejd and Hejaz, 1926–32)

Jordan (1928–39)[15]

Syria
Syria
(1932–58 and 1961–63),[13] used currently (2011 onwards) by the Syrian Interim Government
Syrian Interim Government
and the Free Syrian Army

Palestine (All-Palestine Government, 1948–59)[17]

Egypt
Egypt
(1952–1958, flown alongside the national flag)

Arab Federation
Arab Federation
of Jordan and Iraq
Iraq
(14 February 1958 – 2 August 1958)[18]

United Arab Republic
United Arab Republic
(1958–61), Egypt
Egypt
(1961–72)

Iraq
Iraq
(1959–63)

North Yemen
North Yemen
(1962–90)

Iraq
Iraq
(1963–91)[19] and Syria
Syria
(1963–72)[13]

Palestine (1964–2006)[17]

Flag of Hadhramaut
Hadhramaut
(1967–69)

South Yemen
South Yemen
(1967–90), used currently (2007 onwards) by the South Yemen
Yemen
Movement

Libya
Libya
(1969–72)

Federation of Arab Republics ( Egypt
Egypt
(1972–84), Syria
Syria
(1972–80),[13] and Libya
Libya
(1972–77))

Lower Yafa ( Yemen
Yemen
(1800-1967)

Mahra Sultanate
Mahra Sultanate
(unknown-1967)

Arab Islamic Republic
Arab Islamic Republic
(proposed 1974, never implemented)

Iraq
Iraq
(1991–2004)[19]

Iraq
Iraq
(2004–08)[19]

Flags of Arab political and paramilitary movements using Pan-Arab colors[edit]

Flag of Ottoman era Istanbul-based autonomist "Arab Literature Club" (1909–15), a precursor Arab flag[20]

Flag of Ottoman era autonomist "Young Arab Society" (1911–16), a precursor Arab flag[21]

Flag of the Ba'ath Party
Ba'ath Party
(1947–present), also used by the National Democratic Front for the Liberation of Oman and the Arabian Gulf (active 1969–71)

Flag of the National Liberation Front of Yemen
Yemen
(1963–78), the Dhofar Liberation Front (1965–68), and the Popular Front for the Liberation of the Occupied Arabian Gulf (1968–74)

Flag of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman
Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman
(1974–92)

Flag used by Arab separatists and autonomists in Khuzestan, Iran[22]

Flag used by the separatist organisations the National Council of Ahwaz and the National Liberation Movement of Ahwaz
National Liberation Movement of Ahwaz
in Khuzestan, Iran[22][23]

Flag of the Arab Movement of Azawad
Arab Movement of Azawad
(2012–present)

Flag of Arab Jerusalem

Historical Arab flags[edit]

White
White
flag, used by Umayyads (661–750) and Fatimids (909–1171)[24]

Black
Black
Standard used by the Abbasids (750–1258)[25]

Green
Green
flag, used by Fatimids (909–1171) and Libya (1977–2011)[citation needed]

Red
Red
flag, used forces loyal to Marwan II
Marwan II
[26], by Khawarij, as well as Muslim states in Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
and Maghreb al-Aqsa[citation needed]

See also[edit]

List of Arab flags Pan-Arabism Tricolor Pan-Slavic colors Pan-African colors

References[edit]

^ a b Pan-Arab Colors, crwflags.com ^ Mahdi Abdul-Hadi. "The Great Arab Revolt". passia.org (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 2014-05-05.  ^ Abū Khaldūn Sati' al-Husri, The days of Maysalūn: A Page from the Modern History of the Arabs, Sidney Glauser Trans., (Washington D.C.: Middle East Institute, 1966), 46. ^ Mahdi Abdul-Hadi, Palestine Facts: The Meaning of the Flag Archived 2012-04-19 at the Wayback Machine., passia.org ^ Muhsin Al-Musawi, Reading Iraq: Culture and Power in Conflict (I. B. Tauris 2006), p. 63 ^ I. Friedman, British Pan-Arab Policy, 1915–1922, Transaction Publ., 2011, p.135 ^ a b Znamierowski, Alfred (2003). Illustrated Book of Flags. Southwater. p. 123. ISBN 1842158813. Retrieved 22 November 2014. The designs of these flags were later modified, but the four pan-Arab colors were retained and were adopted by Transjordan (1921), Palestine (1922), Kuwait (1961), the United Arab Emirates (1971), Western Sahara (1976) and Somaliland (1996).  ^ M. Naguib Egypt's Destiny 1955 ^ "Pan-Arab colors". www.abysse.co.jp.  ^ "Palestinian Law No. 5 for the year 2006 amending some provisions of Law No. 22 for the year 2005 on the Sanctity of the Palestinian Flag". Muqtafi.birzeit.edu. Retrieved 26 December 2014.  ^ Also used as the flag of Fujairah
Fujairah
since 1975 ^ a b Kingdom of Hejaz
Kingdom of Hejaz
1915-1925, Crwflags.com ^ a b c d e Historical Flags Overview (Syria), Crwflags.com ^ Ha'il (Saudi Arabia) - Emirate of 'Ha'il, Crwflags.com ^ a b Historical Flags (Jordan), Crwflags.com ^ Kingdom of Iraq
Iraq
(1924-1958), Crwflags.com ^ a b Historical Flags (Palestine) , Crwflags.com ^ Arab Federation
Arab Federation
of Jordan and Iraq, Crwflags.com ^ a b c Evolution of the Iraqi Flag, 1963-2008, Crwflags.com ^ Mahdi Abdul-Hadi, Al-Muntadha al-Adhabi Archived 2014-05-05 at the Wayback Machine., passia.org ^ Mahdi Abdul-Hadi, Jam'yiat al-'Arabiya al-Fatat Archived 2014-05-05 at the Wayback Machine., passia.org ^ a b Al-Ahwaz (Khuzestan) Political Organizations (Iran) on crwflags.com ^ S. T. Al-Seyed Naama, Brief History of Ahwaz, on al-ahwaz.com ^ The contrast of white vs. black as the Fatimid/ Umayyad
Umayyad
vs. Abbasid dynastic colour over time developed in white as the colour of Shia Islam and black as the colour of Sunni Islam: "The proselytes of the ʿAbbasid revolution took full advantage of the eschatological expectations raised by black banners in their campaign to undermine the Umayyad
Umayyad
dynasty from within. Even after the ʿAbbasids had triumphed over the Umayyads in 750, they continued to deploy black as their dynastic colour; not only the banners but the headdresses and garments of the ʿAbbasid caliphs were black [...] The ubiquitous black created a striking contrast with the banners and dynastic color of the Umayyads, which had been white [...] The Ismaili Shiʿite counter-caliphate founded by the Fatimids took white as its dynastic color, creating a visual contrast to the ʿAbbasid enemy [...] white became the Shiʿite color, in deliberate opposition to the black of the ʿAbbasid 'establishment'." Jane Hathaway, A Tale of Two Factions: Myth, Memory, and Identity in Ottoman Egypt
Egypt
and Yemen, 2012, p. 97f. ^ The Abbasid Revolution
Abbasid Revolution
against the Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate adopted black for its rāyaʾ for which their partisans were called the musawwids. Tabari (1995), Jane McAuliffe, ed., Abbāsid Authority Affirmed, 28, SUNY, p. 124  ^ Patricia Crone (2012). The Nativist Prophets of Early Islam. p. 122. .

External links[edit]

Pan-Arab colors Evolution of the Arab Flag, by Dr. Mahdi Abdul-Hadi (in Arabic)

v t e

Arab nationalism

Ideology

Arab socialism Ba'athism Nasserism Pan-Arabism Third International Theory

History

Arabization Arab Revolt Intercommunal conflict in Mandatory Palestine Iraqi revolt against the British Arab separatism in Khuzestan Great Syrian Revolt 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine 1941 Iraqi coup d'état Anglo-Iraqi War Arab–Israeli conflict Israeli–Palestinian conflict 1948 Arab–Israeli War Egyptian revolution of 1952 Iraqi Intifada Algerian War Suez Crisis United Arab Republic United Arab States Arab Federation 14 July Revolution 1959 Mosul uprising 1961 Syrian coup d'état Arab Cold War North Yemen
North Yemen
Civil War Ramadan Revolution 1963 Syrian coup d'état Dhofar Rebellion November 1963 Iraqi coup d'état Aden Emergency Unified Political Command 1966 Syrian coup d'état Six-Day War War of Attrition 17 July Revolution Ba'athist Iraq 1969 Sudanese coup d'état 1969 Libyan coup d'état Black
Black
September Federation of Arab Republics United Arab Republic
United Arab Republic
(1972) Yom Kippur War Arab Islamic Republic Lebanese Civil War 1979 Khuzestan
Khuzestan
insurgency First Intifada Second Intifada

Concepts

Arab identity Arab Union Arab world Greater Syria

Personalities

Michel Aflaq Jassem Alwan Abdul Rahman Arif Abdul Salam Arif Zaki al-Arsuzi Bashar al-Assad Hafez al-Assad Jamal al-Atassi Mansur al-Atrash Sultan al-Atrash Tariq Aziz Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr Ahmed Ben Bella Salah al-Din al-Bitar Izzat Darwaza Faisal I of Iraq Muammar Gaddafi Rashid Ali al-Gaylani George Habash Sati' al-Husri Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca Saddam Hussein Amin al-Husseini Salah Jadid Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi Gamal Abdel Nasser Adnan Pachachi Ameen Rihani Fuad al-Rikabi Abdullah Rimawi Hamdeen Sabahi Constantin Zureiq

Organizations

Al-Awda Al-Fatat Al-Mourabitoun Arab Ba'ath Arab Ba'ath
Arab Ba'ath
Movement Arab Higher Committee Arab Liberation Army Arab Nationalist Movement Arab Socialist Action Party Arab Socialist Union (Egypt) Arab Socialist Union (Iraq) Arab Socialist Union (Syria) Arabian Peninsula People's Union Army of the Men of the Naqshbandi Order Ba'ath Party Ba'ath Party
Ba'ath Party
(Iraqi-dominated faction) Ba'ath Party
Ba'ath Party
(Syrian-dominated faction) Fatah General Military Council for Iraqi Revolutionaries Independence Party (Mandatory Palestine) Islamic Legion Lebanese National Movement Libyan Arab Socialist Union National Liberation Front (Algeria) Palestine Liberation Organization Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine Rejectionist Front Supreme Command for Jihad and Liberation

Literature

The Arab Awakening On the Way of Resurrection The Battle for One Destiny

Symbolism

Coat of arms of the United Arab Republic Eagle of Saladin Flag of the Arab Federation Flag of the Arab Revolt Flag of the Ba'ath Party Hawk of Quraish Pan-Arab colors

Related topics

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