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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

PALI (_Pāli_) is a Prakrit language native to the Indian subcontinent . It is widely studied because it is the language of much of the earliest extant literature of Buddhism
Buddhism
as collected in the _ Pāli Canon _ or _Tipiṭaka _ and is the sacred language of some religious texts of Hinduism and all texts of _Theravāda _ Buddhism.

CONTENTS

* 1 Origin and development

* 1.1 Etymology * 1.2 Classification

* 1.3 Early history

* 1.3.1 Pāli and Paiśācī * 1.3.2 Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism
Buddhism
* 1.3.3 Early western views * 1.3.4 Modern scholarship

* 1.4 Pali
Pali
today

* 2 Lexicon * 3 Emic views of Pali
Pali

* 4 Phonology

* 4.1 Vowels * 4.2 Consonants

* 5 Morphology

* 5.1 Nominal inflection

* 5.1.1 a-stems * 5.1.2 ā-stems * 5.1.3 i-stems and u-stems

* 6 Linguistic analysis of a Pali
Pali
text * 7 Ardha-Magadhi

* 8 Sanskrit
Sanskrit

* 8.1 Vowels and diphthongs

* 8.2 Consonants

* 8.2.1 Sound changes

* 8.2.2 Assimilations

* 8.2.2.1 General rules

* 8.2.2.2 Total assimilation

* 8.2.2.2.1 Regressive assimilations * 8.2.2.2.2 Progressive assimilations

* 8.2.2.3 Partial and mutual assimilation

* 8.2.3 Epenthesis * 8.2.4 Other changes

* 8.3 Exceptions

* 9 Writing

* 9.1 Alphabet with diacritics * 9.2 Transliteration on computers * 9.3 Text in ASCII
ASCII

* 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Sources * 13 Further reading * 14 External links

ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT

ETYMOLOGY

The word Pali
Pali
is used as a name for the language of the Theravada canon. According to the Pali
Pali
Text Society's Dictionary, the word seems to have its origins in commentarial traditions, wherein the _Pāli_ (in the sense of the line of original text quoted) was distinguished from the commentary or vernacular translation that followed it in the manuscript. As such, the name of the language has caused some debate among scholars of all ages; the spelling of the name also varies, being found with both long "ā" and short "a" , and also with either a retroflex or non-retroflex "l" sound. Both the long ā and retroflex ḷ are seen in the ISO 15919 / ALA-LC rendering, PāḷI; however, to this day there is no single, standard spelling of the term, and all four possible spellings can be found in textbooks. R. C. Childers translates the word as "series" and states that the language "bears the epithet in consequence of the perfection of its grammatical structure".

In the 19th century, the British Orientalist Robert Cæsar Childers argued that the true or geographical name of the Pali
Pali
language was Magadhi Prakrit , and that because _pāli_ means "line, row, series", the early Buddhists extended the meaning of the term to mean "a series of books", so _Palibhasa_ means "language of the texts". However, modern scholarship has regarded Pali
Pali
as a mix of several Prakrit languages from around the 3rd century BCE, combined together and partially Sanskritized. The closest artifacts to Pali
Pali
that have been found in India are Edicts of Ashoka found at Gujarat
Gujarat
, in the west of India, leading some scholars to associate Pali
Pali
with this region of western India.

CLASSIFICATION

There is persistent confusion as to the relation of Pāḷi to the vernacular spoken in the ancient kingdom of Magadha
Magadha
, which was located around modern-day Bihār .

Pali, as a Middle Indo-Aryan language , is different from Sanskrit more with regard to its dialectal base than the time of its origin. A number of its morphological and lexical features show that it is not a direct continuation of Ṛgvedic Vedic Sanskrit. Instead it descends from one or more dialects that were, despite many similarities, different from Ṛgvedic.

However, this view is not shared by all scholars. Some, like A.C. Woolner , believe that Pali
Pali
is derived from Vedic Sanskrit, but not necessarily from Classical Sanskrit
Sanskrit
.

EARLY HISTORY

Pāli And Paiśācī

Paiśācī is a largely unattested literary language of classical India that is mentioned in Prakrit and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
grammars of antiquity. It is found grouped with the Prakrit languages, with which it shares some linguistic similarities, but was not considered a spoken language by the early grammarians because it was understood to have been purely a literary language.

In works of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
poetics such as Daṇḍin 's _ Kavyadarsha _, it is also known by the name of Bhūtabhāṣa, an epithet which can be interpreted as 'dead language' (i.e., with no surviving speakers), or bhuta means past and bhasha means language i.e. 'a language spoken in past. Evidence which lends support to this interpretation is that literature in Paiśācī is fragmentary and extremely rare but may once have been common. There is no known complete work in this language; however, several scholars specializing in Indology such as Sten Konow , Felix Lacôte and Alfred Master, have argued that Paiśācī was the ancient name for Pāli.

Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism

Many Theravada
Theravada
sources refer to the Pali
Pali
language as "Magadhan " or the "language of Magadha". This identification first appears in the commentaries, and may have been an attempt by Buddhists to associate themselves more closely with the Maurya Empire . The Buddha taught in Magadha, but the four most important places in his life are all outside of it. It is likely that he taught in several closely related dialects of Middle Indo-Aryan, which had a high degree of mutual intelligibility. There is no attested dialect of Middle Indo-Aryan with all the features of Pali. Pali
Pali
has some commonalities with both the western Ashokan Edicts at Girnar in Saurashtra , and the Central-Western Prakrit found in the eastern Hathigumpha inscription
Hathigumpha inscription
. The similarities of the Saurashtran inscriptions to the Hathigumpha inscription may be misleading because the latter suggests the Ashokan scribe may not have translated the material he received from Magadha into the vernacular.

Whatever the relationship of the Buddha's speech to Pali, the Canon was eventually transcribed and preserved entirely in it, while the commentarial tradition that accompanied it (according to the information provided by Buddhaghosa ) was translated into Sinhalese and preserved in local languages for several generations. In Sri Lanka, Pali
Pali
is thought to have entered into a period of decline ending around the 4th or 5th century (as Sanskrit
Sanskrit
rose in prominence, and simultaneously, as Buddhism's adherents became a smaller portion of the subcontinent), but ultimately survived. The work of Buddhaghosa was largely responsible for its reemergence as an important scholarly language in Buddhist thought. The _ Visuddhimagga _, and the other commentaries that Buddhaghosa compiled, codified and condensed the Sinhalese commentarial tradition that had been preserved and expanded in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
since the 3rd century BCE.

Early Western Views

T. W. Rhys Davids in his book _Buddhist India_, and Wilhelm Geiger in his book _Pāli Literature and Language_, suggested that Pali
Pali
may have originated as a lingua franca or common language of culture among people who used differing dialects in North India, used at the time of the Buddha and employed by him. Another scholar states that at that time it was "a refined and elegant vernacular of all Aryan-speaking people". Modern scholarship has not arrived at a consensus on the issue; there are a variety of conflicting theories with supporters and detractors. After the death of the Buddha, Pali
Pali
may have evolved among Buddhists out of the language of the Buddha as a new artificial language. R. C. Childers, who held to the theory that Pali
Pali
was Old Magadhi, wrote: "Had Gautama never preached, it is unlikely that Magadhese would have been distinguished from the many other vernaculars of Hindustan, except perhaps by an inherent grace and strength which make it a sort of Tuscan among the Prakrits."

According to K. R. Norman , it is likely that the viharas in North India had separate collections of material, preserved in the local dialect. In the early period it is likely that no degree of translation was necessary in communicating this material to other areas. Around the time of Ashoka
Ashoka
there had been more linguistic divergence, and an attempt was made to assemble all the material. It is possible that a language quite close to the Pali
Pali
of the canon emerged as a result of this process as a compromise of the various dialects in which the earliest material had been preserved, and this language functioned as a lingua franca among Eastern Buddhists in India from then on. Following this period, the language underwent a small degree of Sanskritisation (i.e., MIA bamhana > brahmana, tta > tva in some cases).

Modern Scholarship

Bhikkhu Bodhi , summarizing the current state of scholarship, states that the language is "closely related to the language (or, more likely, the various regional dialects) that the Buddha himself spoke". He goes on to write:

Scholars regard this language as a hybrid showing features of several Prakrit dialects used around the third century BCE, subjected to a partial process of Sanskritization. While the language is not identical to what Buddha himself would have spoken, it belongs to the same broad language family as those he might have used and originates from the same conceptual matrix. This language thus reflects the thought-world that the Buddha inherited from the wider Indian culture into which he was born, so that its words capture the subtle nuances of that thought-world. —  Bhikkhu Bodhi

According to A. K. Warder , the Pali
Pali
language is a Prakrit language used in a region of Western India . Warder associates Pali
Pali
with the Indian realm (_janapada _) of Avanti , where the Sthavira nikāya was centered. Following the initial split in the Buddhist community, the Sthavira nikāya became influential in Western and South India
South India
while the Mahāsāṃghika branch became influential in Central and East India . Akira Hirakawa and Paul Groner also associate Pali
Pali
with Western India and the Sthavira nikāya, citing the Saurashtran inscriptions, which are linguistically closest to the Pali
Pali
language.

PALI TODAY

Pali
Pali
died out as a literary language in mainland India in the fourteenth century but survived elsewhere until the eighteenth. Today Pali
Pali
is studied mainly to gain access to Buddhist scriptures, and is frequently chanted in a ritual context. The secular literature of Pali historical chronicles, medical texts, and inscriptions is also of great historical importance. The great centers of Pali
Pali
learning remain in the Theravada
Theravada
nations of Southeast Asia: Burma
Burma
, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
, Thailand
Thailand
, Laos
Laos
, and Cambodia
Cambodia
. Since the 19th century, various societies for the revival of Pali
Pali
studies in India have promoted awareness of the language and its literature, including the Maha Bodhi Society founded by Anagarika Dhammapala .

In Europe, the Pali Text Society has been a major force in promoting the study of Pali
Pali
by Western scholars since its founding in 1881. Based in the United Kingdom, the society publishes romanized Pali editions, along with many English translations of these sources. In 1869, the first _ Pali
Pali
Dictionary_ was published using the research of Robert Caesar Childers, one of the founding members of the Pali
Pali
Text Society. It was the first Pali
Pali
translated text in English and was published in 1872. Childers' dictionary later received the Volney Prize in 1876.

The Pali Text Society was founded in part to compensate for the very low level of funds allocated to Indology in late 19th-century England and the rest of the UK; incongruously, the citizens of the UK were not nearly so robust in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Prakrit language studies as Germany, Russia, and even Denmark
Denmark
. Even without the inspiration of colonial holdings such as the former British occupation of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and Burma, institutions such as the Danish Royal Library
Danish Royal Library
have built up major collections of Pali
Pali
manuscripts, and major traditions of Pali
Pali
studies.

LEXICON

Virtually every word in Pāḷi has cognates in the other Middle Indo-Aryan languages, the Prakrits. The relationship to Vedic Sanskrit is less direct and more complicated; the Prakrits were descended from Old Indo-Aryan vernaculars . Historically, influence between Pali
Pali
and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
has been felt in both directions. The Pali
Pali
language's resemblance to Sanskrit
Sanskrit
is often exaggerated by comparing it to later Sanskrit
Sanskrit
compositions – which were written centuries after Sanskrit ceased to be a living language, and are influenced by developments in Middle Indic, including the direct borrowing of a portion of the Middle Indic lexicon; whereas, a good deal of later Pali
Pali
technical terminology has been borrowed from the vocabulary of equivalent disciplines in Sanskrit, either directly or with certain phonological adaptations.

Post-canonical Pali
Pali
also possesses a few loan-words from local languages where Pali
Pali
was used (e.g. Sri Lankans adding Sinhalese words to Pali). These usages differentiate the Pali
Pali
found in the Suttapiṭaka from later compositions such as the Pali
Pali
commentaries on the canon and folklore (e.g., commentaries on the Jataka tales ), and comparative study (and dating) of texts on the basis of such loan-words is now a specialized field unto itself.

Pali
Pali
was not exclusively used to convey the teachings of the Buddha, as can be deduced from the existence of a number of secular texts, such as books of medical science/instruction, in Pali. However, scholarly interest in the language has been focused upon religious and philosophical literature, because of the unique window it opens on one phase in the development of Buddhism
Buddhism
.

EMIC VIEWS OF PALI

Although Sanskrit
Sanskrit
was said in the Brahmanical tradition to be the unchanging language spoken by the gods, in which each word had an inherent significance, this view of language was not shared in the early Buddhist tradition, in which words were only conventional and mutable signs. This view of language naturally extended to Pali, and may have contributed to its usage (as an approximation or standardization of local Middle Indic dialects) in place of Sanskrit. However, by the time of the compilation of the Pali
Pali
commentaries (4th or 5th century), Pali
Pali
was regarded as the natural language, the root language of all beings.

Comparable to Ancient Egyptian , Latin
Latin
or Hebrew
Hebrew
in the mystic traditions of the West, Pali
Pali
recitations were often thought to have a supernatural power (which could be attributed to their meaning, the character of the reciter, or the qualities of the language itself), and in the early strata of Buddhist literature we can already see Pali dhāraṇīs used as charms, as, for example, against the bite of snakes. Many people in Theravada
Theravada
cultures still believe that taking a vow in Pali
Pali
has a special significance, and, as one example of the supernatural power assigned to chanting in the language, the recitation of the vows of Aṅgulimāla are believed to alleviate the pain of childbirth in Sri Lanka. In Thailand, the chanting of a portion of the Abhidhammapiṭaka is believed to be beneficial to the recently departed, and this ceremony routinely occupies as much as seven working days. Interestingly, there is nothing in the latter text that relates to this subject, and the origins of the custom are unclear.

PHONOLOGY

THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA .

VOWELS

HEIGHT BACKNESS

FRONT CENTRAL BACK

HIGH I

ī U

ū

MID E , A O ,

LOW

ā

Long and short vowels are only contrastive in open syllables; in closed syllables, all vowels are always short. Short and long E and O are in complementary distribution: the short variants occur only in closed syllables, the long variants occur only in open syllables. Short and long E and O are therefore not distinct phonemes.

A sound called _anusvāra _ (Skt.; Pali: _nigghahita_), represented by the letter ṁ (ISO 15919) or ṃ (ALA-LC) in romanization, and by a raised dot in most traditional alphabets, originally marked the fact that the preceding vowel was nasalized. That is, Aṁ, Iṁ and Uṁ represented , and . In many traditional pronunciations, however, the anusvāra is pronounced more strongly, like the velar nasal , so that these sounds are pronounced instead , and . However pronounced, ṁ never follows a long vowel; ā, ī and ū are converted to the corresponding short vowels when ṁ is added to a stem ending in a long vowel, e.g. KATHā + ṁ becomes KATHAṁ, not *kathāṁ, DEVī + ṁ becomes DEVIṁ, not *devīṁ.

CONSONANTS

The table below lists the consonants of Pali. In bold is the transliteration of the letter in traditional romanization , and in square brackets its pronunciation transcribed in the IPA .

LABIAL DENTAL ALVEOLAR Retro- flex PALATAL VELAR GLOTTAL

BILABIAL LABIODENTAL

STOP NASAL M

N

ṇ ñ (ṅ )

VOICELESS UNASPIRATED P

T

ṭ C K

ASPIRATED PH

TH

ṭH CH KH

VOICED UNASPIRATED B

D

ḍ J G

ASPIRATED BH

DH

ḍH JH GH

FRICATIVE

S

H

APPROXIMANT CENTRAL

V

R Y

LATERAL

L (ḷ )

LATERAL ASPIRATED

(ḷH )

Of the sounds listed above only the three consonants in parentheses, ṅ, ḷ, and ḷH, are not distinct phonemes in Pali: ṅ only occurs before velar stops, while ḷ and ḷH are allophones of single ḍ and ḍH occurring between vowels .

MORPHOLOGY

Pali
Pali
is a highly inflected language, in which almost every word contains, besides the root conveying the basic meaning, one or more affixes (usually suffixes) which modify the meaning in some way. Nouns are inflected for gender, number, and case; verbal inflections convey information about person, number, tense and mood.

NOMINAL INFLECTION

Pali
Pali
nouns inflect for three grammatical genders (masculine, feminine, and neuter) and two numbers (singular and plural). The nouns also, in principle, display eight cases : nominative or _paccatta_ case, vocative , accusative or _upayoga_ case, instrumental or _karaṇa_ case, dative or _sampadāna_ case, ablative , genitive or _sāmin_ case, and locative or _bhumma_ case; however, in many instances, two or more of these cases are identical in form; this is especially true of the genitive and dative cases.

a-stems

a-stems, whose uninflected stem ends in short _a_ (/ə/), are either masculine or neuter. The masculine and neuter forms differ only in the nominative, vocative, and accusative cases.

MASCULINE (_LOKA-_ "WORLD") NEUTER (_YāNA-_ "CARRIAGE")

SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL

NOMINATIVE loko lokā yānaṁ yānāni

VOCATIVE loka

ACCUSATIVE lokaṁ loke

INSTRUMENTAL lokena lokehi yānena yānehi

ABLATIVE lokā (lokamhā, lokasmā; lokato) yānā (yānamhā, yānasmā; yānato)

DATIVE lokassa (lokāya) lokānaṁ yānassa (yānāya) yānānaṁ

GENITIVE lokassa yānassa

LOCATIVE loke (lokasmiṁ) lokesu yāne (yānasmiṁ) yānesu

ā-stems

Nouns ending in ā (/aː/) are almost always feminine.

FEMININE (_KATHā-_ "STORY")

SINGULAR PLURAL

NOMINATIVE kathā kathāyo

VOCATIVE kathe

ACCUSATIVE kathaṁ

INSTRUMENTAL kathāya kathāhi

ABLATIVE

DATIVE kathānaṁ

GENITIVE

LOCATIVE kathāya, kathāyaṁ kathāsu

i-stems And U-stems

i-stems and u-stems are either masculine or neuter. The masculine and neuter forms differ only in the nominative and accusative cases. The vocative has the same form as the nominative.

MASCULINE (_ISI-_ "SEER") NEUTER (_AKKHI-_ "EYE")

SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL

NOMINATIVE isi isayo, isī akkhi, akkhiṁ akkhī, akkhīni

VOCATIVE

ACCUSATIVE isiṁ

INSTRUMENTAL isinā isihi, isīhi akkhinā akkhihi, akkhīhi

ABLATIVE isinā, isito akkhinā, akkhito

DATIVE isino isinaṁ, isīnaṁ akkhino akkhinaṁ, akkhīnaṁ

GENITIVE isissa, isino akkhissa, akkhino

LOCATIVE isismiṁ isisu, isīsu akkhismiṁ akkhisu, akkhīsu

MASCULINE (_BHIKKHU-_ "MONK") NEUTER (_CAKKHU-_ "EYE")

SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL

NOMINATIVE bhikkhu bhikkhavo, bhikkhū cakkhu, cakkhuṁ cakkhūni

VOCATIVE

ACCUSATIVE bhikkhuṁ

INSTRUMENTAL bhikkhunā bhikkhūhi cakkhunā cakkhūhi

ABLATIVE

DATIVE bhikkhuno bhikkhūnaṁ cakkhuno cakkhūnaṁ

GENITIVE bhikkhussa, bhikkhuno bhikkhūnaṁ, bhikkhunnaṁ cakkhussa, cakkhuno cakkhūnaṁ, cakkhunnaṁ

LOCATIVE bhikkhusmiṁ bhikkhūsu cakkhusmiṁ cakkhūsu

LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF A PALI TEXT

From the opening of the Dhammapada : _Manopubbaṅgamā dhammā, manoseṭṭhā manomayā;_ _Manasā ce paduṭṭhena, bhāsati vā karoti vā,_ _Tato naṁ dukkhaṁ anveti, cakkaṁ'va vahato padaṁ._

Element for element gloss: MANO-PUBBAṅ-GAM=ā DHAMM=ā, MANO-SEṭṭH=ā MANO-MAY=ā; Mind-before-going=_m.pl.nom._ dharma =_m.pl.nom._, mind-foremost=_m.pl.nom._ mind-made=_m.pl.nom._ MANAS=ā CE PADUṭṭH=ENA, BHāSA=TI Vā KARO=TI Vā, Mind=_n.sg.inst._ if corrupted=_n.sg.inst._ speak=_3.sg.pr._ either act=_3.sg.pr._ or, TA=TO NAṁ DUKKHAṁ ANV-E=TI, CAKKAṁ \'VA VAHAT=O PAD=Aṁ. That=from him suffering after-go=_3.sg.pr._, wheel as carrying(beast)=_m.sg.gen._ foot=_n.sg.acc._

The three compounds in the first line literally mean: MANOPUBBAṅGAMA "whose precursor is mind", "having mind as a fore-goer or leader" MANOSEṭṭHA "whose foremost member is mind", "having mind as chief" MANOMAYA "consisting of mind" or "made by mind"

The literal meaning is therefore: "The dharmas have mind as their leader, mind as their chief, are made of/by mind. If either speaks or acts with a corrupted mind, from that suffering goes after him, as the wheel the foot of a draught animal."

A slightly freer translation by Acharya Buddharakkhita Mind precedes all mental states. Mind is their chief; they are all mind-wrought. If with an impure mind a person speaks or acts suffering follows him like the wheel that follows the foot of the ox.

ARDHA-MAGADHI

The Indo-Aryan languages are commonly assigned to three major groups – Old, Middle and New Indo-Aryan. The classification reflects consecutive stages in a common linguistic development, but is not merely a matter of chronology: Classical Sanskrit, as a codified derivate of Vedic Sanskrit, remains mostly representative of the Old Indo-Aryan stage, even though it continued to flourish at the same time as the Middle Indo-Aryan languages. Conversely, a number of the morphophonological and lexical features of the Middle Indo-Aryan languages show that they are not direct continuations of Ṛvedic Sanskrit, the main base of Classical Sanskrit. Instead they descend from other dialects similar to, but in some ways more archaic than Rigvedic.

SANSKRIT

Pali
Pali
and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
are very closely related and the common characteristics of Pali
Pali
and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
were always easily recognized by those in Nepal who were familiar with both. Indeed, a very large proportion of Pali
Pali
and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word-stems are identical in form, differing only in details of inflection.

Technical terms from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
were converted into Pali
Pali
by a set of conventional phonological transformations. These transformations mimicked a subset of the phonological developments that had occurred in Proto-Pali. Because of the prevalence of these transformations, it is not always possible to tell whether a given Pali
Pali
word is a part of the old Prakrit lexicon, or a transformed borrowing from Sanskrit. The existence of a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word regularly corresponding to a Pali
Pali
word is not always secure evidence of the Pali
Pali
etymology, since, in some cases, artificial Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words were created by back-formation from Prakrit words.

The following phonological processes are not intended as an exhaustive description of the historical changes which produced Pali from its Old Indic ancestor, but rather are a summary of the most common phonological equations between Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Pali, with no claim to completeness.

VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS

* Sanskrit
Sanskrit
AI and AU always monophthongize to Pali
Pali
E and O, respectively

Examples: MAITRī → METTā, AUṣADHA → OSADHA

* Sanskrit
Sanskrit
AYA and AVA likewise often reduce to Pali
Pali
E and O

Examples: DHāRAYATI → DHāRETI, AVATāRA → OTāRA, BHAVATI → HOTI

* Sanskrit
Sanskrit
AVI becomes Pali
Pali
E (i.e. AVI → AI → E)

Example: STHAVIRA → THERA

* Sanskrit
Sanskrit
ṛ appears in Pali
Pali
as A, I or U, often agreeing with the vowel in the following syllable. ṛ also sometimes becomes U after labial consonants.

Examples: KṛTA → KATA, TṛṣṇA → TAṇHA, SMṛTI → SATI, ṛṣI → ISI, DṛṣṭI → DIṭṭHI, ṛDDHI → IDDHI, ṛJU → UJU, SPṛṣṭA → PHUṭṭHA, VṛDDHA → VUDDHA

* Sanskrit
Sanskrit
long vowels are shortened before a sequence of two following consonants.

Examples: KṣāNTI → KHANTI, RāJYA → RAJJA, īśVARA → ISSARA, TīRṇA → TIṇṇA, PūRVA → PUBBA

CONSONANTS

Sound Changes

* The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
sibilants ś, ṣ, and S merge as Pali
Pali
S

Examples: śARAṇA → SARAṇA, DOṣA → DOSA

* The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
stops ḍ and ḍH become ḷ and ḷH between vowels (as in Vedic)

Example: CAKRAVāḍA → CAKKAVāḷA, VIRūḍHA → VIRūḷHA

Assimilations

General Rules

* Many assimilations of one consonant to a neighboring consonant occurred in the development of Pali, producing a large number of geminate (double) consonants. Since aspiration of a geminate consonant is only phonetically detectable on the last consonant of a cluster, geminate KH, GH, CH, JH, ṭH, ḍH, TH, DH, PH and BH appear as KKH, GGH, CCH, JJH, ṭṭH, ḍḍH, TTH, DDH, PPH and BBH, not as _khkh, ghgh_ etc. * When assimilation would produce a geminate consonant (or a sequence of unaspirated stop+aspirated stop) at the beginning of a word, the initial geminate is simplified to a single consonant.

Examples: PRāṇA → PāṇA (not _ppāṇa_), STHAVIRA → THERA (not _tthera_), DHYāNA → JHāNA (not _jjhāna_), JñāTI → ñāTI (not _ññāti_)

* When assimilation would produce a sequence of three consonants in the middle of a word, geminates are simplified until there are only two consonants in sequence.

Examples: UTTRāSA → UTTāSA (not _utttāsa_), MANTRA → MANTA (not _mantta_), INDRA → INDA (not _indda_), VANDHYA → VAñJHA (not _vañjjha_)

* The sequence VV resulting from assimilation changes to BB

Example: SARVA → savva → SABBA, PRAVRAJATI → pavvajati → PABBAJATI, DIVYA → divva → DIBBA, NIRVāṇA → nivvāṇa → NIBBāNA

Total Assimilation

Total assimilation, where one sound becomes identical to a neighboring sound, is of two types: progressive, where the assimilated sound becomes identical to the following sound; and regressive, where it becomes identical to the preceding sound.

Regressive Assimilations

* Internal visarga assimilates to a following voiceless stop or sibilant

Examples: DUḥKṛTA → DUKKATA, DUḥKHA → DUKKHA, DUḥPRAJñA → DUPPAññA, NIḥKRODHA (=NIṣKRODHA) → NIKKODHA, NIḥPAKVA (=NIṣPAKVA) → NIPPAKKA, NIḥśOKA → NISSOKA, NIḥSATTVA → NISSATTA

* In a sequence of two dissimilar Sanskrit
Sanskrit
stops, the first stop assimilates to the second stop

Examples: VIMUKTI → VIMUTTI, DUGDHA → DUDDHA, UTPāDA → UPPāDA, PUDGALA → PUGGALA, UDGHOṣA → UGGHOSA, ADBHUTA → ABBHUTA, śABDA → SADDA

* In a sequence of two dissimilar nasals, the first nasal assimilates to the second nasal

Example: UNMATTA → UMMATTA, PRADYUMNA → PAJJUNNA

* J assimilates to a following ñ (i.e., Jñ becomes ññ)

Examples: PRAJñā → PAññā, JñāTI → ñāTI

* The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
liquid consonants R and L assimilate to a following stop, nasal, sibilant, or V

Examples: MāRGA → MAGGA, KARMA → KAMMA, VARṣA → VASSA, KALPA → KAPPA, SARVA → savva → SABBA

* R assimilates to a following L

Examples: DURLABHA → DULLABHA, NIRLOPA → NILLOPA

* D sometimes assimilates to a following V, producing vv → BB

Examples: UDVIGNA → uvvigga → UBBIGGA, DVāDAśA → BāRASA (beside DVāDASA)

* T and D may assimilate to a following S or Y when a morpheme boundary intervenes

Examples: UT+SAVA → USSAVA, UD+YāNA → UYYāNA

Progressive Assimilations

* Nasals sometimes assimilate to a preceding stop (in other cases epenthesis occurs)

Examples: AGNI → AGGI, āTMAN → ATTA, PRāPNOTI → PAPPOTI, śAKNOTI → SAKKOTI

* M assimilates to an initial sibilant

Examples: SMARATI → SARATI, SMṛTI → SATI

* Nasals assimilate to a preceding stop+sibilant cluster, which then develops in the same way as such clusters without following nasals

Examples: TīKṣṇA → tikṣa → TIKKHA, LAKṣMī → lakṣī →LAKKHī

* The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
liquid consonants R and L assimilate to a preceding stop, nasal, sibilant, or V

Examples: PRāṇA → PāṇA, GRāMA → GāMA, śRāVAKA → SāVAKA, AGRA → AGGA, INDRA → INDA, PRAVRAJATI → pavvajati → PABBAJATI, AśRU → ASSU

* Y assimilates to preceding non-dental/retroflex stops or nasals

Examples: CYAVATI → CAVATI, JYOTIṣ → JOTI, RāJYA → RAJJA, MATSYA → macchya → MACCHA, LAPSYATE → lacchyate → LACCHATI, ABHYāGATA → ABBHāGATA, āKHYāTI → AKKHāTI, SAṁKHYā → SAṅKHā (but also SAṅKHYā), RAMYA → RAMMA

* Y assimilates to preceding non-initial V, producing vv → BB

Example: DIVYA → divva → DIBBA, VEDITAVYA → veditavva → VEDITABBA, BHāVYA → bhavva → BHABBA

* Y and V assimilate to any preceding sibilant, producing SS

Examples: PAśYATI → PASSATI, śYENA → SENA, AśVA → ASSA, īśVARA → ISSARA, KARIṣYATI → KARISSATI, TASYA → TASSA, SVāMIN → SāMī

* V sometimes assimilates to a preceding stop

Examples: PAKVA → PAKKA, CATVāRI → CATTāRI, SATTVA → SATTA, DHVAJA → DHAJA

Partial And Mutual Assimilation

* Sanskrit
Sanskrit
sibilants before a stop assimilate to that stop, and if that stop is not already aspirated, it becomes aspirated; e.g. śC, ST, ṣṭ and SP become CCH, TTH, ṭṭH and PPH

Examples: PAśCāT → PACCHā, ASTI → ATTHI, STAVA → THAVA, śREṣṭHA → SEṭṭHA, AṣṭA → AṭṭHA, SPARśA → PHASSA

* In sibilant-stop-liquid sequences, the liquid is assimilated to the preceding consonant, and the cluster behaves like sibilant-stop sequences; e.g. STR and ṣṭR become TTH and ṭṭH

Examples: śāSTRA → śasta → SATTHA, RāṣṭRA → raṣṭa → RAṭṭHA

* T and P become C before S, and the sibilant assimilates to the preceding sound as an aspirate (i.e., the sequences TS and PS become CCH)

Examples: VATSA → VACCHA, APSARAS → ACCHARā

* A sibilant assimilates to a preceding K as an aspirate (i.e., the sequence Kṣ becomes KKH)

Examples: BHIKṣU → BHIKKHU, KṣāNTI → KHANTI

* Any dental or retroflex stop or nasal followed by Y converts to the corresponding palatal sound, and the Y assimilates to this new consonant, i.e. TY, THY, DY, DHY, NY become CC, CCH, JJ, JJH, ññ; likewise ṇY becomes ññ. Nasals preceding a stop that becomes palatal share this change.

Examples: TYAJATI → cyajati → CAJATI, SATYA → sacya → SACCA, MITHYā → michyā → MICCHā, VIDYā → vijyā → VIJJā, MADHYA → majhya → MAJJHA, ANYA → añya → AññA, PUṇYA → puñya → PUññA, VANDHYA → vañjhya → vañjjha → VAñJHA

* The sequence MR becomes MB, via the epenthesis of a stop between the nasal and liquid, followed by assimilation of the liquid to the stop and subsequent simplification of the resulting geminate.

Examples: āMRA → ambra → AMBA, TāMRA → TAMBA

Epenthesis

An epenthetic vowel is sometimes inserted between certain consonant-sequences. As with ṛ, the vowel may be A, I, or U, depending on the influence of a neighboring consonant or of the vowel in the following syllable. I is often found near I, Y, or palatal consonants; U is found near U, V, or labial consonants.

* Sequences of stop + nasal are sometimes separated by A or U

Example: RATNA → RATANA, PADMA → PADUMA (U influenced by labial M)

* The sequence SN may become SIN initially

Examples: SNāNA → SINāNA, SNEHA → SINEHA

* I may be inserted between a consonant and L

Examples: KLEśA → KILESA, GLāNA → GILāNA, MLāYATI → MILāYATI, śLāGHATI → SILāGHATI

* An epenthetic vowel may be inserted between an initial sibilant and R

Example: śRī → SIRī

* The sequence RY generally becomes RIY (I influenced by following Y), but is still treated as a two-consonant sequence for the purposes of vowel-shortening

Example: āRYA → arya → ARIYA, SūRYA → surya → SURIYA, VīRYA → virya → VIRIYA

* A or I is inserted between R and H

Example: ARHATI → ARAHATI, GARHā → GARAHā, BARHIṣ → BARIHISA

* There is sporadic epenthesis between other consonant sequences

Examples: CAITYA → CETIYA (not _cecca_), VAJRA → VAJIRA (not _vajja_)

Other Changes

* Any Sanskrit
Sanskrit
sibilant before a nasal becomes a sequence of nasal followed by H, i.e. ṣṇ, SN and SM become ṇH, NH, and MH

Examples: TṛṣṇA → TAṇHA, UṣṇīṣA → UṇHīSA, ASMI → AMHI

* The sequence śN becomes ñH, due to assimilation of the N to the preceding palatal sibilant

Example: PRAśNA → praśña → PAñHA

* The sequences HY and HV undergo metathesis

Examples: JIHVā → JIVHā, GṛHYA → GAYHA, GUHYA → GUYHA

* H undergoes metathesis with a following nasal

Example: GṛHṇāTI → GAṇHāTI

* Y is geminated between E and a vowel

Examples: śREYAS → SEYYA, MAITREYA → METTEYYA

* Voiced aspirates such as BH and GH on rare occasions become H

Examples: BHAVATI → HOTI, -EBHIṣ → -EHI, LAGHU → LAHU

* Dental and retroflex sounds sporadically change into one another

Examples: JñāNA → ñāṇA (not _ñāna_), DAHATI → ḍAHATI (beside Pali
Pali
DAHATI) NīḍA → NīLA (not _nīḷa_), STHāNA → ṭHāNA (not _thāna_), DUḥKṛTA → DUKKAṭA (beside Pali DUKKATA)

EXCEPTIONS

There are several notable exceptions to the rules above; many of them are common Prakrit words rather than borrowings from Sanskrit.

* āRYA → AYYA (beside ARIYA) * GURU → GARU (adj.) (beside GURU (n.)) * PURUṣA → PURISA (not _purusa_) * VṛKṣA → rukṣa → RUKKHA (not _vakkha_)

WRITING

ALPHABET WITH DIACRITICS

Emperor Ashoka
Ashoka
erected a number of pillars with his edicts in at least three regional Prakrit languages in Brahmi script
Brahmi script
, all of which are quite similar to Pali. Historically, the first written record of the Pali
Pali
canon is believed to have been composed in Sri Lanka, based on a prior oral tradition. As per the Mahavamsa (the chronicle of Sri Lanka), due to a major famine in the country Buddhist monks wrote down the Pali
Pali
canon during the time of King Vattagamini in 100 BC. The transmission of written Pali
Pali
has retained a universal system of alphabetic values, but has expressed those values in a stunning variety of actual scripts.

In Sri Lanka, Pali
Pali
texts were recorded in Sinhala script . Other local scripts, most prominently Khmer , Burmese , and in modern times Thai (since 1893), Devanāgarī
Devanāgarī
and Mon script ( Mon State , Burma) have been used to record Pali.

Since the 19th century, Pali
Pali
has also been written in the Roman script. An alternate scheme devised by Frans Velthuis, called the Velthuis scheme (see § Text in ASCII
ASCII
) allows for typing without diacritics using plain ASCII
ASCII
methods, but is arguably less readable than the standard IAST system, which uses diacritical marks.

The Pali
Pali
alphabetical order is as follows:

* A ā I ī U ū E O ṃ K KH G GH ṅ C CH J JH ñ ṭ ṭH ḍ ḍH ṇ T TH D DH N P PH B BH M Y R L ḷ V S H

ḷH, although a single sound, is written with ligature of ḷ and H.

TRANSLITERATION ON COMPUTERS

There are several fonts to use for Pali
Pali
transliteration. However, older ASCII
ASCII
fonts such as Leedsbit PaliTranslit, Times_Norman, Times_CSX+, Skt Times, Vri Roman Pali
Pali
CN/CB etc., are not recommendable since they are not compatible with one another and technically out of date. On the contrary, fonts based on the Unicode
Unicode
standard are recommended because Unicode
Unicode
seems to be the future for all fonts and also because they are easily portable to one another.

However, not all Unicode
Unicode
fonts contain the necessary characters. To properly display all the diacritic marks used for romanized Pali
Pali
(or for that matter, Sanskrit), a Unicode
Unicode
font must contain the following character ranges:

* Basic Latin: U+0000 – U+007F * Latin-1 Supplement: U+0080 – U+00FF * Latin
Latin
Extended-A: U+0100 – U+017F * Latin
Latin
Extended-B: U+0180 – U+024F * Latin
Latin
Extended Additional: U+1E00 – U+1EFF

Some Unicode
Unicode
fonts freely available for typesetting Romanized Pali are as follows:

* The Pali Text Society recommends VU-Times and Gandhari Unicode
Unicode
for Windows and Linux Computers. * The Tibetan so can provide publication quality typesetting. * Libertine Openfont Project provides the Linux Libertine font (4 serif styles and many Opentype features) and Linux Biolinum (4 sans-serif styles) at the Sourceforge. * Junicode (short for Junius-Unicode) is a Unicode
Unicode
font for medievalists, but it provides all diacritics for typing Pali. It has 4 styles and some Opentype features such as Old Style for numerals. * Thryomanes includes all the Roman-alphabet characters available in Unicode
Unicode
along with a subset of the most commonly used Greek and Cyrillic characters, and is available in normal, italic, bold, and bold italic.

* GUST (Polish TeX
TeX
User Group) provides Latin
Latin
Modern and TeX
TeX
Gyre fonts. Each font has 4 styles, with the former finding most acceptance among the La TeX
TeX
users while the latter is a relatively new family. Of the latter, each typeface in the following families has nearly 1250 glyphs and is available in PostScript, TeX
TeX
and OpenType formats.

* The _ TeX
TeX
Gyre Adventor_ family of sans serif fonts is based on the URW Gothic L family. The original font, ITC Avant Garde
ITC Avant Garde
Gothic , was designed by Herb Lubalin and Tom Carnase in 1970. * The _ TeX
TeX
Gyre Bonum_ family of serif fonts is based on the URW Bookman L family. The original font, Bookman or Bookman Old Style, was designed by Alexander Phemister in 1860. * The _ TeX
TeX
Gyre Chorus_ is a font based on the URW Chancery L Medium Italic font. The original, ITC Zapf Chancery , was designed in 1979 by Hermann Zapf. * The _ TeX
TeX
Gyre Cursor_ family of monospace serif fonts is based on the URW Nimbus Mono L family. The original font, Courier , was designed by Howard G. (Bud) Kettler in 1955. * The _ TeX
TeX
Gyre Heros_ family of sans serif fonts is based on the URW Nimbus Sans L family. The original font, Helvetica
Helvetica
, was designed in 1957 by Max Miedinger. * The _ TeX
TeX
Gyre Pagella_ family of serif fonts is based on the URW Palladio L family. The original font, Palatino
Palatino
, was designed by Hermann Zapf in the 1940s. * The _ TeX
TeX
Gyre Schola_ family of serif fonts is based on the URW Century Schoolbook
Century Schoolbook
L family. The original font, Century Schoolbook
Century Schoolbook
, was designed by Morris Fuller Benton in 1919. * The _ TeX
TeX
Gyre Termes_ family of serif fonts is based on the Nimbus Roman No9 L family. The original font, Times Roman , was designed by Stanley Morison together with Starling Burgess and Victor Lardent.

* John Smith provides IndUni Opentype fonts, based upon URW++ fonts. Of them:

* _IndUni-C_ is Courier-lookalike; * _IndUni-H_ is Helvetica-lookalike; * _IndUni-N_ is New Century Schoolbook-lookalike; * _IndUni-P_ is Palatino-lookalike; * _IndUni-T_ is Times-lookalike; * _IndUni-CMono_ is Courier-lookalike but monospaced;

* An English Buddhist monk titled Bhikkhu Pesala provides some Pali OpenType fonts he has designed himself. Of them:

* _Akkhara_ has been discontinued. * _Cankama_ is a Gothic, Black Letter script. Regular style only. * "Carita" is a Small Caps font with matching glyphs for Basic Greek. Regular and Bold styles. * _Garava_ was designed for body text with a generous x-height and economical copyfit. It includes Petite Caps (as OpenType Features), and Heavy styles besides the usual four styles (regular, italic, bold, bold italic). * _Guru_ is another font family for body text with OpenType features. Regular, italic, bold and bold italic styles. * _Hattha_ is a hand-writing font. Regular, italic, and bold styles. * _Kabala_ is a distinctive Sans Serif typeface designed for display text or headings. Regular, italic, bold and bold italic styles. * _Lekhana_ is a Zapf Chancery clone, a flowing script that can be used for correspondence or body text. Regular, italic, bold and bold italic styles. * _Mandala_ is designed for display text or headings. Regular, italic, bold and bold italic styles. * _Pali_ is a clone of Hermann Zapf's Palatino. Regular, italic, bold and bold italic styles. * _Odana_ is a calligraphic brush font suitable for headlines, titles, or short texts where a less formal appearance is wanted. Regular style only. * _Talapanna_ and _Talapatta_ are clones of Goudy Bertham, with decorative gothic capitals and extra ligatures in the Private Use Area. These two are different only in decorative gothic capitals in the Private Use Area. Regular and bold styles. * _Veluvana_ is another brush calligraphic font but basic Greek glyphs are taken from _Guru_. Regular style only. * _Verajja_ is derived from Bitstream Vera. Regular, italic, bold and bold italic styles. * _VerajjaPDA_ is a cut-down version of _Verajja_ without symbols. For use on PDA devices. Regular, italic, bold and bold italic styles. * He also provides some Pali
Pali
keyboards for Windows XP.

* The font section of Alanwood's Unicode
Unicode
Resources have links to several general purpose fonts that can be used for Pali
Pali
typing if they cover the character ranges above.

Some of the latest fonts coming with Windows 7 can also be used to type transliterated Pali: _Arial_, _Calibri_, _Cambria_, _Courier New_, _Microsoft Sans Serif_, _Segoe UI_, _Segoe UI Light_, _Segoe UI Semibold_, _Tahoma_, and _Times New Roman_. And some of them have 4 styles each hence usable in professional typesetting: _Arial, Calibri_ and _Segoe UI_ are sans-serif fonts, _Cambria_ and _Times New Roman_ are serif fonts and _Courier New_ is a monospace font.

TEXT IN ASCII

The Velthuis scheme was originally developed in 1991 by Frans Velthuis for use with his "devnag" Devanāgarī
Devanāgarī
font, designed for the TeX
TeX
typesetting system. This system of representing Pali
Pali
diacritical marks has been used in some websites and discussion lists. However, as the Web itself and email software slowly evolve towards the Unicode encoding standard, this system has become almost unnecessary and obsolete.

The following table compares various conventional renderings and shortcut key assignments:

CHARACTER ASCII
ASCII
RENDERING CHARACTER NAME UNICODE NUMBER KEY COMBINATION HTML CODE

ā aa a macron U+0101 Alt+A

ī ii i macron U+012B Alt+I

ū uu u macron U+016B Alt+U

ṃ .m m dot-under U+1E43 Alt Gr+M

ṇ .n n dot-under U+1E47 Alt+N

ñ ~n n tilde U+00F1 Alt+Ctrl+N

ṭ .t t dot-under U+1E6D Alt+T

ḍ .d d dot-under U+1E0D Alt+D

ṅ "n n dot-over U+1E45 Ctrl+N

ḷ .l l dot-under U+1E37 Alt+L

SEE ALSO

* Pali literature * Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit
Sanskrit

REFERENCES

* ^ Nagrajji (2003) " Pali
Pali
language and the Buddhist Canonical Literature". _Agama and Tripitaka_, vol. 2: Language and Literature. * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Pali". _ Glottolog 2.7 _. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ Hazra, Kanai Lal. _Pāli Language and Literature; a systematic survey and historical study._ D.K. Printworld Lrd., New Delhi, 1994, page 19. * ^ _A Dictionary of the Pali
Pali
Language_ By Robert Cæsar Childers * ^ _A_ _B_ Bhikkhu Bodhi, _In the Buddha's Words._ Wisdom Publications, 2005, page 10. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Hirakawa, Akira. Groner, Paul. _A History of Indian Buddhism: From Śākyamuni to Early Mahāyāna._ 2007. p. 119 * ^ Oberlies, Thomas (2001). _Pāli: A Grammar of the Language of the Theravāda Tipiṭaka_. Indian Philology and South Asian Studies, v. 3. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. p. 6. ISBN 3-11-016763-8 . "Pāli as a MIA language is different from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
not so much with regard to the time of its origin than as to its dialectal base, since a number of its morphonological and lexical features betray the fact that it is not a direct continuation of Ṛgvedic Sanskrit; rather it descends from a dialect (or a number of dialects) which was (/were), despite many similarities, different from Ṛgvedic." * ^ "If in "Sanskrit" we include the Vedic language and all dialects of the Old Indian period, then it is true to say that all the Prakrits are derived from Sanskrit. If on the other hand " Sanskrit
Sanskrit
" is used more strictly of the Panini-Patanjali language or "Classical Sanskrit," then it is untrue to say that any Prakrit is derived from Sanskrit, except that S'auraseni, the Midland Prakrit, is derived from the Old Indian dialect". Introduction to Prakrit, by Alfred C Woolner. Baptist Mission Press 1917 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ http://menadoc.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/dmg/periodical/pageview/56372 * ^ http://www.scribd.com/doc/186271058/An-Unpublished-Fragment-of-Paisachi * ^ Buddhist India, ch. 9 Retrieved 14 June 2010. * ^ Hazra, Kanai Lal. _Pāli Language and Literature; a systematic survey and historical study._ D.K. Printworld Lrd., New Delhi, 1994, page 11. * ^ Hazra, Kanai Lal. _Pāli Language and Literature; a systematic survey and historical study._ D.K. Printworld Lrd., New Delhi, 1994, pages 1-44. * ^ Hazra, Kanai Lal. _Pāli Language and Literature; a systematic survey and historical study._ D.K. Printworld Lrd., New Delhi, 1994, page 29. * ^ Hazra, Kanai Lal. _Pāli Language and Literature; a systematic survey and historical study._ D.K. Printworld Lrd., New Delhi, 1994, page 20. * ^ K. R. Norman, _Pāli Literature._ Otto Harrassowitz, 1983, pages 1-7. * ^ _A_ _B_ Warder, A. K. _Indian Buddhism_. 2000. p. 284 * ^ Negi (2000), " Pali
Pali
Language", _Students' Britannica India_, vol. 4 * ^ David Kalupahana , _Nagarjuna: The Philosophy of the Middle Way._ SUNY Press, 1986, page 19. The author refers specifically to the thought of early Buddhism
Buddhism
here. * ^ _Dispeller of Delusion_, Pali
Pali
Text Society, volume II, pages 127f * ^ _A_ _B_ Oberlies, Thomas (2007). "Chapter Five: Aśokan Prakrit and Pāli". In Jain, Danesh; Cardona, George. _The Indo-Aryan Languages_. Routledge. p. 163. ISBN 978-1-135-79711-9 . * ^ _Inscriptions of Aśoka_ by Alexander Cunningham, Eugen Hultzsch. Calcutta: Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing. Calcutta: 1877

SOURCES

* See entries for "Pali" (written by K. R. Norman of the Pali
Pali
Text Society) and "India--Buddhism" in _The Concise Encyclopedia of Language and Religion_, (Sawyer ed.) ISBN 0-08-043167-4 * Müller, Edward (1995) . _Simplified Grammar of the Pali Language_. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-1103-9 . * Silva, Lily de (1994). _ Pali
Pali
Primer_ (first ed.). Vipassana Research Institute Publications. ISBN 81-7414-014-X . * Warder, A. K. (1991). _Introduction to Pali_ (third ed.). Pali Text Society . ISBN 0-86013-197-1 .

FURTHER READING

* American National Standards Institute. (1979). _American National Standard system for the romanization of Lao, Khmer, and Pali_. New York: The Institute. * Andersen, Dines (1907). _A Pali
Pali
Reader_ (PDF). Copenhagen: Gyldendalske Boghandel, Nordisk Forlag. p. 310. Retrieved 29 September 2016. * Perniola, V. (1997). _ Pali
Pali
Grammar_, Oxford, The Pali
Pali
Text Society. * Collins, Steven (2006). _A Pali
Pali
Grammar for Students_. Silkworm Press. * Gupta, K. M. (2006). _Linguistic approach to meaning in Pali_. New Delhi: Sundeep Prakashan. ISBN 81-7574-170-8 * Hazra, K. L. (1994). _Pāli language and literature: a systematic survey and historical study_. Emerging perceptions in Buddhist studies, no. 4-5. New Delhi: D.K. Printworld. ISBN 81-246-0004-X * Müller, E. (2003). _The Pali
Pali
language: a simplified grammar_. Trubner's collection of simplified grammars. London: Trubner. ISBN 1-84453-001-9 * Russell Webb (ed.) _An Analysis of the Pali
Pali
Canon_, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy; 1975, 1991 (see http://www.bps.lk/reference.asp) * Soothill, W. E., & Hodous, L. (1937). _A dictionary of Chinese Buddhist terms: with Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and English equivalents and a Sanskrit- Pali
Pali
index_. London: K. Paul, Trench, Trubner ">

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Bodhi
* Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
* Buddhahood
Buddhahood
* Pratyekabuddha

* Four stages of enlightenment

* Sotāpanna * Sakadagami * Anāgāmi * Arhat
Arhat

MONASTICISM

* Bhikkhu * Bhikkhuni
Bhikkhuni
* Śrāmaṇera * Śrāmaṇerī * Anagarika * Ajahn * Sayadaw * Zen master * Rōshi * Lama
Lama
* Rinpoche
Rinpoche
* Geshe * Tulku * Householder * Upāsaka and Upāsikā

* Śrāvaka

* The ten principal disciples
The ten principal disciples

* Shaolin Monastery

MAJOR FIGURES

* Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
* Kaundinya
Kaundinya
* Assaji * Sāriputta * Mahamoggallāna * Mulian * Ānanda * Mahākassapa * Anuruddha * Mahākaccana * Nanda * Subhuti * Punna * Upali * Mahapajapati Gotamī * Khema * Uppalavanna * Asita
Asita
* Channa * Yasa * Buddhaghoṣa * Nagasena
Nagasena
* Angulimala * Bodhidharma * Nagarjuna
Nagarjuna
* Asanga * Vasubandhu
Vasubandhu
* Atiśa
Atiśa
* Padmasambhava * Nichiren
Nichiren
* Songtsen Gampo
Songtsen Gampo
* Emperor Wen of Sui * Dalai Lama
Lama
* Panchen Lama
Lama
* Karmapa * Shamarpa * Naropa * Xuanzang * Zhiyi

TEXTS

* Tripiṭaka * _ Madhyamakālaṃkāra _ * Mahayana sutras * Pāli Canon * Chinese Buddhist canon
Chinese Buddhist canon
* Tibetan Buddhist canon

BRANCHES

* Theravada
Theravada

* Mahayana
Mahayana

* Chan Buddhism
Buddhism

* Zen
Zen
* Seon * Thiền

* Pure Land * Tiantai * Nichiren
Nichiren
* Madhyamaka
Madhyamaka
* Yogachara

* Navayana

* Vajrayana
Vajrayana

* Tibetan * Shingon * Dzogchen

* Early Buddhist schools * Pre-sectarian Buddhism
Buddhism
* Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna

COUNTRIES

* Afghanistan * Bangladesh
Bangladesh
* Bhutan * Cambodia
Cambodia
* China * India * Indonesia * Japan * Korea * Laos
Laos
* Malaysia * Maldives * Mongolia * Myanmar
Myanmar
* Nepal * Pakistan * Philippines

* Russia

* Kalmykia

* Singapore * Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
* Taiwan * Thailand
Thailand
* Tibet * Vietnam

* Middle East

* Iran

* Western countries

* Argentina * Australia * Brazil * France * United Kingdom * United States * Venezuela

HISTORY

* Timeline * Ashoka
Ashoka
* Buddhist councils
Buddhist councils

* History of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

* Decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

* Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution * Greco- Buddhism
Buddhism
* Buddhism
Buddhism
and the Roman world * Buddhism
Buddhism
in the West * Silk Road transmission of Buddhism
Buddhism
* Persecution of Buddhists * Banishment of Buddhist monks from Nepal * Buddhist crisis
Buddhist crisis
* Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism * Buddhist modernism * Vipassana movement * 969 Movement * Women in Buddhism
Buddhism

PHILOSOPHY

* Abhidharma
Abhidharma
* Atomism * Buddhology * Creator * Economics * Eight Consciousnesses * Engaged Buddhism
Buddhism
* Eschatology * Ethics * Evolution * Humanism * Logic * Reality * Secular Buddhism
Buddhism
* Socialism * The unanswered questions

CULTURE

* Architecture

* Temple * Vihara
Vihara
* Wat
Wat
* Stupa
Stupa
* Pagoda
Pagoda
* Candi * Dzong architecture * Japanese Buddhist architecture * Korean Buddhist temples * Thai temple art and architecture * Tibetan Buddhist architecture

* Art

* Greco-Buddhist

* Bodhi
Bodhi
Tree * Budai
Budai
* Buddharupa * Calendar * Cuisine * Funeral

* Holidays

* Vesak
Vesak
* Uposatha
Uposatha
* Magha Puja * Asalha Puja * Vassa

* Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi
Bodhi
* Kasaya * Mahabodhi Temple
Mahabodhi Temple

* Mantra

* Om mani padme hum
Om mani padme hum

* Mudra
Mudra
* Music

* Pilgrimage

* Lumbini
Lumbini
* Maya Devi Temple * Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
* Sarnath
Sarnath
* Kushinagar

* Poetry * Prayer beads * Prayer wheel
Prayer wheel

* Symbolism

* Dharmachakra * Flag * Bhavacakra
Bhavacakra
* Swastika
Swastika
* Thangka
Thangka

* Temple of the Tooth * Vegetarianism

MISCELLANEOUS

* Abhijñā * Amitābha

* Avalokiteśvara
Avalokiteśvara

* Guanyin
Guanyin

* Brahmā * _ Dhammapada _ * Dharma
Dharma
talk * Hinayana * Kalpa * Koliya * Lineage * Maitreya
Maitreya
* Māra * Ṛddhi

* Sacred languages

* Pali * Sanskrit
Sanskrit

* Siddhi * Sutra
Sutra
* Vinaya

COMPARISON

* Bahá\'í Faith

* Christianity

* Influences * Comparison

* East Asian religions * Gnosticism * Hinduism * Jainism * Judaism * Psychology * Science * Theosophy * Violence * Western philosophy

LISTS

* Bodhisattvas * Books

* Buddhas

* named

* Buddhists * Suttas * Temples

* Category
Category
* Portal
Portal

* v * t * e

Languages of Bangladesh
Bangladesh

OFFICIAL LANGUAGE

* Bengali

SEMIOFFICIAL LANGUAGE

* English

INDO-EUROPEAN

* Assamese * Bengali * Bihari * Bishnupriya * Chakma * Chittagonian * Pali * Rangpuri * Rohingya * Sadri * Sylheti * Hajong

SINO-TIBETAN

* Shö * A\'Tong * Bawm * Sak * Kukish * Falam * Garo * Haka * Khumi * Koch * Kokborok * Megam * Meitei Manipuri * Mizo * Mru * Pangkhu * Rakhine * Marma * Riang * Tanchangya * Tippera * Usoi

AUSTROASIATIC

* Khasi * Koda * Mundari * Pnar * Santali * War-Jaintia

DRAVIDIAN

* Kurukh * Sauria Paharia

* v * t * e

Languages of Myanmar
Myanmar

OFFICIAL LANGUAGE

* Burmese

SEMIOFFICIAL LANGUAGE

* English

Indigenous languages (by state or region )

CHIN

KUKISH

NORTHERN

* Falam * Siyin * Tedim * Thado * Zo

CENTRAL

* Bawm * Hakha Chin * Mizo * Ngawn * Tawr

MARAIC

* Lautu * Mara * Senthang * Zotung * Zyphe

SOUTHERN

* Daai * Kaang * Khumi * Müün * Nga La * Shö * Songlai * Sumtu * Thaiphum * Welaung

OTHER

* Anu-Hkongso * Long Phuri

KACHIN

SINO-TIBETAN

* Achang * Drung * Hpon * Jingpho * Lashi * Lhao Vo * Lisu * Nusu * Rawang * Zaiwa

OTHER

* Khamti * Nung * Palaung * Tai Laing

KAYAH

* Kayaw * Red Karen

KAYIN

* Bwe Karen * Geba Karen

* Pwo

* Eastern * Western

* S’gaw Karen

MAGWAY

* Rungtu

MON

* Mon

RAKHINE

* Arakanese * Chakma * Laitu * Mro-Khimi * Mru * Rohingya * Sak

SAGAING

SAL

* Htangan * Khiamniungan * Konyak * Makyan * Ponyo * Sak * Tangsa

OTHER

* Akyaung Ari * Anal * Koki Naga * Makuri * Para * Tangkhul

SHAN

AUSTROASIATIC

* Blang * Danau * Palaung * Riang * Tai Loi * Wa

SINO-TIBETAN

* Akeu * Akha * Danu * Geko Karen * Intha * Lahta * Lahu * Pa’o * Padaung * Pyen * Taungyo

TAI-KADAI

* Khün * Tai Lü * Shan * Tai Nüa

OTHER

* Hmong Njua

TANINTHARYI

* Moken * S’gaw * Tavoyan

SIGN LANGUAGES

* Burmese sign language

* v * t * e

_ Languages of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka

OFFICIAL LANGUAGES

* Sinhalese * Tamil

SEMIOFFICIAL LANGUAGE

* English

OTHERS

* Malay * Pali1 * Portuguese Creole * Vedda * Gypsy Telugu * Sri Lankan sign languages

FORMERLY SPOKEN AND EXTINCT

* Arwi * Ceylon Dutch * Rodiya 2

1a liturgical language_ 2_a dialect of Sinhala_

* v * t * e

Sinhalese language

* Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
* Sinhalese people

STAGES

* Elu * Proto-Sinhala * Medieval Sinhala * Modern Sinhala

DIALECTS

* Central * Southern * Maldivian * Rodiya dialect * Vedda language

ACADEMIC

* Literature * Literary Sinhala * Sinhala name * Pali

Sinhala and other languages

INFLUENCED BY

* Dutch * English * Portuguese * Sanskrit
Sanskrit
* Tamil

INFLUENCED

* Macanese Patois

WRITING SYSTEM

* Alphabet * Braille * Numerals * Archaic numbers * Romanization (transliteration) * Keyboard * Typewriter * Unicode
Unicode
block

Grammar and vocabulary

* Grammar * Spoken Sinhalese * Gender differences * Honorifics * Slang * Dictionaries

PHONOLOGY

* Phonology

EVENTS

* Hela Havula * Sinhala Only Act
Sinhala Only Act
* Software

* v * t * e

Major languages of South Asia

MAIN ARTICLES

* Languages of India

* list by number of speakers * scheduled

* Languages of Pakistan * Languages of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
* Languages of Bhutan
Languages of Bhutan
* Languages of the Maldives
Languages of the Maldives
* Languages of Nepal * Languages of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka

Contemporary languages

AUSTRONESIAN

* Sri Lankan Creole Malay

DRAVIDIAN

* Brahui * Jeseri * Kannada
Kannada
* Malayalam
Malayalam
* Tamil * Telugu * Tulu

INDO-ARYAN

* Angika * Assamese * Bhojpuri * Bengali * Chakma * Chittagonian * Dhivehi * Dogri * Gujarati * Hindi * Hindko * Kashmiri * Konkani * Kumaoni * Magahi * Mahal * Maithili * Marathi * Nepali * Odia * Punjabi * Sanskrit
Sanskrit
* Saraiki * Sindhi * Sinhala * Rajasthani language * Urdu
Urdu

IRANIAN

* Balochi * Pashto * Wakhi

ISOLATES

* Great Andamanese * Burushaski * Nihali * Kusunda

MON–KHMER

* Khasi * Nicobarese

MUNDA

* Ho * Korku * Mundari * Santali * Sora

ONGAN

* Önge * Jarawa

TIBETO-BURMAN

* Ao * Bodo * Dzongkha
Dzongkha
* Garo * Meithei * Mizo * Nepal Bhasa * Sikkimese * Tenyidie * Tibetan * Tripuri

EUROPEAN INFLUENCE

* English

* Indian English * Pakistani English * Sri Lankan English

* French * Portuguese

SCRIPTS

HISTORICAL

* Indus (Undeciphered) * Brahmi (Abugida) * Kharosthi
Kharosthi

BRAHMIC

* Devanagari
Devanagari
* Bengali * Gujarati * Gurmukhī * Malayalam
Malayalam
* Kannada
Kannada
* Odia * Ranjana * Sinhala * Tamil * Telugu

EUROPEAN

* Latin
Latin
alphabet

ARABIC

* Arwi * Nastaʿlīq * Shahmukhi * Arabi Malayalam
Malayalam

Language activism

* Hela Havula * Bengali Language Movement * Sanskrit
Sanskrit
revival * Pure Tamil movement * Nepal Bhasa movement * Punjabi Language Movement * Urdu
Urdu
movement

* v * t * e

Indo-Iranian languages

INDO-ARYAN (INDIC)

OLD / MIDDLE

OLD

* Vedic

* Sanskrit
Sanskrit

* Classical * Buddhist

* Mitanni-Aryan

MIDDLE

* Abahatta * Apabhraṃśa

* Dramatic Prakrits

* Magadhi * Maharashtri * Shauraseni

* Elu * Gāndhārī * Paisaci * Pāli * Prakrit

MODERN

CENTRAL

HINDI

* Awadhi * Bagheli * Bhojpuri * Bombay Hindi * Braj Bhasha * Bundeli * Caribbean Hindi * Chhattisgarhi * Fiji Hindi * Haflong Hindi * Haryanvi * Kannauji * Khari Boli * Sansi Boli

URDU

* Dakhini
Dakhini
* Hyderabadi Urdu
Urdu
* Rekhta (early form)

OTHERS

* Danwar * Parya

EASTERN

BENGALI–ASSAMESE

* Assamese * Bengali * Bishnupriya Manipuri * Chakma * Chittagonian * Hajong * Kayort * Kharia Thar * Nahari * Rajbanshi * Rohingya * Sylheti

BIHARI

* Angika * Vajjika * Magahi * Maithili * Majhi * Sadri

ODIA

* Halbi * Odia

OTHERS

* Mal Paharia

NORTHERN

* Garhwali * Kumaoni

* Nepali

* Palpa

North western

* Aer * Dogri * Hindko * Kangri * Kutchi * Punjabi * Sindhi * Saraiki

SOUTHERN

MARATHI–KONKANI

* Konkani * Marathi

INSULAR

* Maldivian * Sinhala

WESTERN

BHIL

* Bhili * Gamit

RAJASTHANI

* Bagri * Goaria * Gojri * Jaipuri * Malvi * Marwari * Mewari * Dhatki (sociolect)

OTHERS

* Domari * Gujarati * Kalto * Khandeshi * Parkari Koli * Romani * Saurashtra

OTHERS

DARDIC

* Dameli * Domaaki * Gawar-Bati * Kalami * Kalash * Kashmiri * Khowar * Kohistani * Nangalami * Palula * Pashayi * Shina * Shumashti * Torwali * Ushoji

IRANIAN

OLD / MIDDLE

OLD

WESTERN