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The Pacific Ocean
Ocean
is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
in the north to the Southern Ocean
Southern Ocean
(or, depending on definition, to Antarctica) in the south and is bounded by Asia
Asia
and Australia
Australia
in the west and the Americas
Americas
in the east. At 165,250,000 square kilometers (63,800,000 square miles) in area (as defined with an Antarctic
Antarctic
southern border), this largest division of the World Ocean—and, in turn, the hydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined.[1] Both the center of the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere
are in the Pacific Ocean. The equator subdivides it into the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, with two exceptions: the Galápagos and Gilbert Islands, while straddling the equator, are deemed wholly within the South Pacific.[2] Its mean depth is 4,280 meters (14,040 feet). The Mariana Trench
Mariana Trench
in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 meters (35,797 feet).[3] The western Pacific has many peripheral seas. Though the peoples of Asia
Asia
and Oceania
Oceania
have traveled the Pacific Ocean since prehistoric times, the eastern Pacific was first sighted by Europeans in the early 16th century when Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama
Isthmus of Panama
in 1513 and discovered the great "southern sea" which he named Mar del Sur (in Spanish). The ocean's current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favorable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means "peaceful sea".[4]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early migrations 1.2 European exploration 1.3 New Imperialism

2 Geography

2.1 Bordering countries and territories

2.1.1 Sovereign nations 2.1.2 Territories

2.2 Landmasses and islands

3 Water characteristics 4 Climate 5 Geology

5.1 Geological history 5.2 Seamount
Seamount
chains

6 Economy

6.1 Fishing

7 Environmental issues 8 Major ports and harbors 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading

11.1 Historiography

12 External links

History[edit] Early migrations[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (October 2017)

Universalis Cosmographia, the Waldseemüller map
Waldseemüller map
dated 1507, from a time when the nature of the Americas
Americas
was ambiguous, particularly North America, as a possible part of Asia, was the first map to show the Americas
Americas
separating two distinct oceans. South America
South America
was generally considered a "new world" and shows the name "America" for the first time, after Amerigo Vespucci

Made in 1529, the Diogo Ribeiro
Diogo Ribeiro
map was the first to show the Pacific at about its proper size

Maris Pacifici
Maris Pacifici
by Ortelius (1589). One of the first printed maps to show the Pacific Ocean[5]

Important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. About 3000 BC, the Austronesian peoples
Austronesian peoples
on the island of Taiwan
Taiwan
mastered the art of long-distance canoe travel and spread themselves and their languages south to the Philippines, Indonesia, and maritime Southeast Asia; west towards Madagascar; southeast towards New Guinea
New Guinea
and Melanesia
Melanesia
(intermarrying with native Papuans); and east to the islands of Micronesia, Oceania
Oceania
and Polynesia.[6] Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique
Mozambique
to Japan. Trade, and therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but apparently not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of this trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims. In 219 BC Xu Fu
Xu Fu
sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality. From 1404 to 1433 Zheng He
Zheng He
led expeditions into the Indian Ocean. European exploration[edit]

Map of the Pacific Ocean
Ocean
during European Exploration, circa 1702–1707.

Map of the Pacific Ocean
Ocean
during European Exploration, circa 1754.

The first contact of European navigators with the western edge of the Pacific Ocean
Ocean
was made by the Portuguese expeditions of António de Abreu and Francisco Serrão, via the Lesser Sunda Islands, to the Maluku Islands, in 1512,[7][8] and with Jorge Álvares's expedition to southern China
China
in 1513,[9] both ordered by Afonso de Albuquerque
Afonso de Albuquerque
from Malacca. The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama
Panama
and reached a new ocean.[10] He named it Mar del Sur (literally, " Sea
Sea
of the South" or "South Sea") because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific.

Spanish explorations and routes across the Pacific Ocean.

Later, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan
Ferdinand Magellan
sailed the Pacific East to West on a Castilian (Spanish) expedition of world circumnavigation starting in 1519. Magellan called the ocean Pacífico (or "Pacific" meaning, "peaceful") because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters. The ocean was often called the Sea
Sea
of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century.[11] Although Magellan himself died in the Philippines
Philippines
in 1521, Spanish Basque navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano
Juan Sebastián Elcano
led the expedition back to Spain
Spain
across the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
and round the Cape of Good Hope, completing the first world circumnavigation in a single expedition in 1522.[12] Sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands,[13] the Aru Islands,[14] and Papua New Guinea.[15] In 1542–43 the Portuguese also reached Japan.[16] In 1564, five Spanish ships consisting of 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico
Mexico
led by Miguel López de Legazpi
Miguel López de Legazpi
and sailed to the Philippines
Philippines
and Mariana Islands.[17] For the remainder of the 16th century, Spanish influence was paramount, with ships sailing from Mexico
Mexico
and Peru
Peru
across the Pacific Ocean
Ocean
to the Philippines
Philippines
via Guam, and establishing the Spanish East Indies. The Manila
Manila
galleons operated for two and a half centuries linking Manila
Manila
and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history. Spanish expeditions also discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, and the Admiralty Islands
Admiralty Islands
in the South Pacific.[18] Later, in the quest for Terra Australis
Terra Australis
(i.e., "the [great] Southern Land"), Spanish explorations in the 17th century, such as the expedition led by the Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, discovered the Pitcairn and Vanuatu
Vanuatu
archipelagos, and sailed the Torres Strait
Torres Strait
between Australia
Australia
and New Guinea, named after navigator Luís Vaz de Torres. Dutch explorers, sailing around southern Africa, also engaged in discovery and trade; Willem Janszoon, made the first completely documented European landing in Australia (1606), in Cape York Peninsula,[19] and Abel Janszoon Tasman circumnavigated and landed on parts of the Australian continental coast and discovered Tasmania
Tasmania
and New Zealand
New Zealand
in 1642.[20] In the 16th and 17th century Spain
Spain
considered the Pacific Ocean
Ocean
a Mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers. As the only known entrance from the Atlantic the Strait of Magellan
Strait of Magellan
was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western end of the Pacific Ocean
Ocean
the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines.[21] The 18th century marked the beginning of major exploration by the Russians in Alaska
Alaska
and the Aleutian Islands, such as the First Kamchatka expedition and the Great Northern Expedition, led by the Danish Russian navy officer Vitus Bering. Spain
Spain
also sent expeditions to the Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
reaching Vancouver Island
Vancouver Island
in southern Canada, and Alaska. The French explored and settled Polynesia, and the British made three voyages with James Cook
James Cook
to the South Pacific and Australia, Hawaii, and the North American Pacific Northwest. In 1768, Pierre-Antoine Véron, a young astronomer accompanying Louis Antoine de Bougainville on his voyage of exploration, established the width of the Pacific with precision for the first time in history.[22] One of the earliest voyages of scientific exploration was organized by Spain in the Malaspina Expedition
Malaspina Expedition
of 1789–1794. It sailed vast areas of the Pacific, from Cape Horn
Cape Horn
to Alaska, Guam
Guam
and the Philippines, New Zealand, Australia, and the South Pacific.[18] New Imperialism[edit] See also: New Imperialism

The Bathyscaphe Trieste, before her record dive to the bottom of the Mariana Trench, 23 January 1960

Growing imperialism during the 19th century resulted in the occupation of much of Oceania
Oceania
by other European powers, and later, Japan
Japan
and the United States. Significant contributions to oceanographic knowledge were made by the voyages of HMS Beagle
HMS Beagle
in the 1830s, with Charles Darwin aboard;[23] HMS Challenger during the 1870s;[24] the USS Tuscarora (1873–76);[25] and the German Gazelle (1874–76).[26]

Dupetit Thouars taking over Tahiti
Tahiti
on 9 September 1842

In Oceania, France got a leading position as imperial power after making Tahiti
Tahiti
and New Caledonia
New Caledonia
protectorates in 1842 and 1853 respectively.[27] After navy visits to Easter Island
Easter Island
in 1875 and 1887, Chilean navy officer Policarpo Toro
Policarpo Toro
managed to negotiate an incorporation of the island into Chile
Chile
with native Rapanui
Rapanui
in 1888. By occupying Easter Island, Chile
Chile
joined the imperial nations.[28](p53) By 1900 nearly all Pacific islands were in control of Britain, France, United States, Germany, Japan, and Chile.[27] Although the United States
United States
gained control of Guam
Guam
and the Philippines from Spain
Spain
in 1898,[29] Japan
Japan
controlled most of the western Pacific by 1914 and occupied many other islands during World War II. However, by the end of that war, Japan
Japan
was defeated and the U.S. Pacific Fleet was the virtual master of the ocean. Since the end of World War II, many former colonies in the Pacific have become independent states. Geography[edit]

Sunset over the Pacific Ocean
Ocean
as seen from the International Space Station. Anvil tops of thunderclouds are also visible.

The Pacific separates Asia
Asia
and Australia
Australia
from the Americas. It may be further subdivided by the equator into northern (North Pacific) and southern (South Pacific) portions. It extends from the Antarctic region in the South to the Arctic
Arctic
in the north.[1] The Pacific Ocean encompasses approximately one-third of the Earth's surface, having an area of 165,200,000 km2 (63,800,000 sq mi)—significantly larger than Earth's entire landmass of some 150,000,000 km2 (58,000,000 sq mi).[30] Extending approximately 15,500 km (9,600 mi) from the Bering Sea
Sea
in the Arctic
Arctic
to the northern extent of the circumpolar Southern Ocean
Ocean
at 60°S (older definitions extend it to Antarctica's Ross Sea), the Pacific reaches its greatest east-west width at about 5°N latitude, where it stretches approximately 19,800 km (12,300 mi) from Indonesia
Indonesia
to the coast of Colombia—halfway around the world, and more than five times the diameter of the Moon.[31] The lowest known point on Earth—the Mariana Trench—lies 10,911 m (35,797 ft; 5,966 fathoms) below sea level. Its average depth is 4,280 m (14,040 ft; 2,340 fathoms), putting the total water volume at roughly 710,000,000 km3 (170,000,000 cu mi).[1] Due to the effects of plate tectonics, the Pacific Ocean
Ocean
is currently shrinking by roughly 2.5 cm (1 in) per year on three sides, roughly averaging 0.52 km2 (0.20 sq mi) a year. By contrast, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
is increasing in size.[32][33] Along the Pacific Ocean's irregular western margins lie many seas, the largest of which are the Celebes Sea, Coral Sea, East China
China
Sea
Sea
(East Sea), Philippine Sea, Sea
Sea
of Japan
Japan
(East Sea), South China
China
Sea
Sea
(South Sea), Sulu Sea, Tasman Sea, and Yellow Sea
Sea
(West Sea
Sea
of Korea). The Indonesian Seaway (including the Strait of Malacca
Malacca
and Torres Strait) joins the Pacific and the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
to the west, and Drake Passage and the Strait of Magellan
Strait of Magellan
link the Pacific with the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
on the east. To the north, the Bering Strait
Bering Strait
connects the Pacific with the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean.[34] As the Pacific straddles the 180th meridian, the West Pacific (or western Pacific, near Asia) is in the Eastern Hemisphere, while the East Pacific (or eastern Pacific, near the Americas) is in the Western Hemisphere.[35] The Southern Pacific Ocean
Ocean
harbors the Southeast Indian Ridge
Southeast Indian Ridge
crossing from south of Australia
Australia
turning into the Pacific- Antarctic
Antarctic
Ridge (north of the South Pole) and merges with another ridge (south of South America) to form the East Pacific Rise
East Pacific Rise
which also connects with another ridge (south of North America) which overlooks the Juan de Fuca Ridge. For most of Magellan's voyage from the Strait of Magellan
Strait of Magellan
to the Philippines, the explorer indeed found the ocean peaceful. However, the Pacific is not always peaceful. Many tropical storms batter the islands of the Pacific.[36] The lands around the Pacific Rim
Pacific Rim
are full of volcanoes and often affected by earthquakes.[37] Tsunamis, caused by underwater earthquakes, have devastated many islands and in some cases destroyed entire towns.[38] The Martin Waldseemüller map
Waldseemüller map
of 1507 was the first to show the Americas
Americas
separating two distinct oceans.[39] Later, the Diogo Ribeiro map of 1529 was the first to show the Pacific at about its proper size.[40] Bordering countries and territories[edit]

The island geography of the Pacific Ocean
Ocean
Basin

Regions, island nations and territories of Oceania

Sovereign nations[edit]

 Australia

 Brunei  Cambodia  Canada  Chile  China1  Colombia  Costa Rica  Ecuador  El Salvador  Federated States of Micronesia  Fiji  Guatemala  Honduras  Indonesia  Japan  Kiribati  North Korea  South Korea  Malaysia  Marshall Islands  Mexico  Nauru  Nicaragua  New Zealand  Palau  Panama  Papua New Guinea  Peru  Philippines  Russia  Samoa  Singapore  Solomon Islands  Taiwan1  Thailand  Timor-Leste  Tonga  Tuvalu  United States  Vanuatu  Vietnam

1 The status of Taiwan
Taiwan
and China
China
is disputed. For more information, see political status of Taiwan. Territories[edit]

 American Samoa
Samoa
(US) Baker Island
Baker Island
(US)   Cook Islands
Cook Islands
(New Zealand) Coral Sea
Sea
Islands (Australia)   Easter Island
Easter Island
(Chile)  French Polynesia
Polynesia
(France)   Guam
Guam
(US)   Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(China) Howland Island
Howland Island
(US) Jarvis Island
Jarvis Island
(US) Johnston Island
Johnston Island
(US) Kingman Reef
Kingman Reef
(US)   Macau
Macau
(China) Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll
(US)   New Caledonia
New Caledonia
(France)   Niue
Niue
(New Zealand)   Norfolk Island
Norfolk Island
(Australia)  Northern Mariana Islands
Mariana Islands
(US) Palmyra Atoll
Palmyra Atoll
(US)   Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
(UK)   Tokelau
Tokelau
(New Zealand)   Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna
(France) Wake Island
Wake Island
(US)

Landmasses and islands[edit] Main article: Pacific Islands This ocean has most of the islands in the world. There are about 25,000 islands in the Pacific Ocean.[41][42][43] The islands entirely within the Pacific Ocean
Ocean
can be divided into three main groups known as Micronesia, Melanesia
Melanesia
and Polynesia. Micronesia, which lies north of the equator and west of the International Date Line, includes the Mariana Islands
Mariana Islands
in the northwest, the Caroline Islands
Caroline Islands
in the center, the Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands
to the west and the islands of Kiribati
Kiribati
in the southeast.[44][45] Melanesia, to the southwest, includes New Guinea, the world's second largest island after Greenland
Greenland
and by far the largest of the Pacific islands. The other main Melanesian groups from north to south are the Bismarck Archipelago, the Solomon Islands, Santa Cruz, Vanuatu, Fiji and New Caledonia.[46] The largest area, Polynesia, stretching from Hawaii
Hawaii
in the north to New Zealand
New Zealand
in the south, also encompasses Tuvalu, Tokelau, Samoa, Tonga
Tonga
and the Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands
to the west, the Cook Islands, Society Islands and Austral Islands
Austral Islands
in the center, and the Marquesas Islands, Tuamotu, Mangareva Islands, and Easter Island
Easter Island
to the east.[47] Islands in the Pacific Ocean
Ocean
are of four basic types: continental islands, high islands, coral reefs and uplifted coral platforms. Continental islands lie outside the andesite line and include New Guinea, the islands of New Zealand, and the Philippines. Some of these islands are structurally associated with nearby continents. High islands are of volcanic origin, and many contain active volcanoes. Among these are Bougainville, Hawaii, and the Solomon Islands.[48] The coral reefs of the South Pacific are low-lying structures that have built up on basaltic lava flows under the ocean's surface. One of the most dramatic is the Great Barrier Reef
Great Barrier Reef
off northeastern Australia with chains of reef patches. A second island type formed of coral is the uplifted coral platform, which is usually slightly larger than the low coral islands. Examples include Banaba (formerly Ocean
Ocean
Island) and Makatea
Makatea
in the Tuamotu
Tuamotu
group of French Polynesia.[49][50]

Pacific Ocean
Ocean
up sun from the rocks

Point Reyes
Point Reyes
headlands, Point Reyes
Point Reyes
National Seashore, California

Tahuna maru islet, French Polynesia

Los Molinos on the coast of Southern Chile

Water characteristics[edit]

Sunset in Monterey County, California, U.S.

The volume of the Pacific Ocean, representing about 50.1 percent of the world's oceanic water, has been estimated at some 714 million cubic kilometers (171 million cubic miles).[51] Surface water temperatures in the Pacific can vary from −1.4 °C (29.5 °F), the freezing point of sea water, in the poleward areas to about 30 °C (86 °F) near the equator.[52] Salinity
Salinity
also varies latitudinally, reaching a maximum of 37 parts per thousand in the southeastern area. The water near the equator, which can have a salinity as low as 34 parts per thousand, is less salty than that found in the mid-latitudes because of abundant equatorial precipitation throughout the year. The lowest counts of less than 32 parts per thousand are found in the far north as less evaporation of seawater takes place in these frigid areas.[53] The motion of Pacific waters is generally clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
(the North Pacific gyre) and counter-clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. The North Equatorial Current, driven westward along latitude 15°N by the trade winds, turns north near the Philippines
Philippines
to become the warm Japan or Kuroshio Current.[54] Turning eastward at about 45°N, the Kuroshio forks and some water moves northward as the Aleutian Current, while the rest turns southward to rejoin the North Equatorial Current.[55] The Aleutian Current branches as it approaches North America
North America
and forms the base of a counter-clockwise circulation in the Bering Sea. Its southern arm becomes the chilled slow, south-flowing California
California
Current.[56] The South Equatorial Current, flowing west along the equator, swings southward east of New Guinea, turns east at about 50°S, and joins the main westerly circulation of the South Pacific, which includes the Earth-circling Antarctic
Antarctic
Circumpolar Current. As it approaches the Chilean coast, the South Equatorial Current
South Equatorial Current
divides; one branch flows around Cape Horn
Cape Horn
and the other turns north to form the Peru
Peru
or Humboldt Current.[57] Climate[edit]

Impact of El Niño
El Niño
and La Niña
La Niña
on North America

Typhoon Tip
Typhoon Tip
at global peak intensity on 12 October 1979

The climate patterns of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres generally mirror each other. The trade winds in the southern and eastern Pacific are remarkably steady while conditions in the North Pacific are far more varied with, for example, cold winter temperatures on the east coast of Russia
Russia
contrasting with the milder weather off British Columbia
British Columbia
during the winter months due to the preferred flow of ocean currents.[58] In the tropical and subtropical Pacific, the El Niño
El Niño
Southern Oscillation (ENSO) affects weather conditions. To determine the phase of ENSO, the most recent three-month sea surface temperature average for the area approximately 3,000 km (1,900 mi) to the southeast of Hawaii
Hawaii
is computed, and if the region is more than 0.5 °C (0.9 °F) above or below normal for that period, then an El Niño
El Niño
or La Niña
La Niña
is considered in progress.[59] In the tropical western Pacific, the monsoon and the related wet season during the summer months contrast with dry winds in the winter which blow over the ocean from the Asian landmass.[60] Worldwide, tropical cyclone activity peaks in late summer, when the difference between temperatures aloft and sea surface temperatures is the greatest. However, each particular basin has its own seasonal patterns. On a worldwide scale, May is the least active month, while September is the most active month. November is the only month in which all the tropical cyclone basins are active.[61] The Pacific hosts the two most active tropical cyclone basins, which are the northwestern Pacific and the eastern Pacific. Pacific hurricanes form south of Mexico, sometimes striking the western Mexican coast and occasionally the southwestern United States
United States
between June and October, while typhoons forming in the northwestern Pacific moving into southeast and east Asia
Asia
from May to December. Tropical cyclones also form in the South Pacific basin, where they occasionally impact island nations. In the arctic, icing from October to May can present a hazard for shipping while persistent fog occurs from June to December.[62] A climatological low in the Gulf of Alaska
Alaska
keeps the southern coast wet and mild during the winter months. The Westerlies
Westerlies
and associated jet stream within the Mid-Latitudes can be particularly strong, especially in the Southern Hemisphere, due to the temperature difference between the tropics and Antarctica,[63] which records the coldest temperature readings on the planet. In the Southern hemisphere, because of the stormy and cloudy conditions associated with extratropical cyclones riding the jet stream, it is usual to refer to the Westerlies
Westerlies
as the Roaring Forties, Furious Fifties and Shrieking Sixties according to the varying degrees of latitude.[64] Geology[edit] Main articles: Geology of the Pacific Ocean
Ocean
and Pacific Plate

Ring of Fire. The Pacific is ringed by many volcanoes and oceanic trenches.

Ulawun
Ulawun
stratovolcano situated on the island of New Britain, Papua New Guinea

The ocean was first mapped by Abraham Ortelius; he called it Maris Pacifici following Ferdinand Magellan's description of it as "a pacific sea" during his circumnavigation from 1519 to 1522. To Magellan, it seemed much more calm (pacific) than the Atlantic.[65] The andesite line is the most significant regional distinction in the Pacific. A petrologic boundary, it separates the deeper, mafic igneous rock of the Central Pacific Basin from the partially submerged continental areas of felsic igneous rock on its margins.[66] The andesite line follows the western edge of the islands off California and passes south of the Aleutian arc, along the eastern edge of the Kamchatka Peninsula, the Kuril Islands, Japan, the Mariana Islands, the Solomon Islands, and New Zealand's North Island.[67][68] The dissimilarity continues northeastward along the western edge of the Andes
Andes
Cordillera along South America
South America
to Mexico, returning then to the islands off California. Indonesia, the Philippines, Japan, New Guinea, and New Zealand
New Zealand
lie outside the andesite line. Within the closed loop of the andesite line are most of the deep troughs, submerged volcanic mountains, and oceanic volcanic islands that characterize the Pacific basin. Here basaltic lavas gently flow out of rifts to build huge dome-shaped volcanic mountains whose eroded summits form island arcs, chains, and clusters. Outside the andesite line, volcanism is of the explosive type, and the Pacific Ring of Fire is the world's foremost belt of explosive volcanism.[44] The Ring of Fire is named after the several hundred active volcanoes that sit above the various subduction zones. The Pacific Ocean
Ocean
is the only ocean which is almost totally bounded by subduction zones. Only the Antarctic
Antarctic
and Australian coasts have no nearby subduction zones. Geological history[edit] The Pacific Ocean
Ocean
was born 750 million years ago at the breakup of Rodinia, although it is generally called the Panthalassic Ocean
Ocean
until the breakup of Pangea, about 200 million years ago.[69] The oldest Pacific Ocean
Ocean
floor is only around 180 Ma old, with older crust subducted by now.[70] Seamount
Seamount
chains[edit] The Pacific Ocean
Ocean
contains several long seamount chains, formed by hotspot volcanism. These include the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain and the Louisville Ridge. Economy[edit] The exploitation of the Pacific's mineral wealth is hampered by the ocean's great depths. In shallow waters of the continental shelves off the coasts of Australia
Australia
and New Zealand, petroleum and natural gas are extracted, and pearls are harvested along the coasts of Australia, Japan, Papua New Guinea, Nicaragua, Panama, and the Philippines, although in sharply declining volume in some cases.[71] Fishing[edit] Fish
Fish
are an important economic asset in the Pacific. The shallower shoreline waters of the continents and the more temperate islands yield herring, salmon, sardines, snapper, swordfish, and tuna, as well as shellfish.[72] Overfishing has become a serious problem in some areas. For example, catches in the rich fishing grounds of the Okhotsk Sea
Sea
off the Russian coast have been reduced by at least half since the 1990s as a result of overfishing.[73] Environmental issues[edit] Main article: Marine pollution See also: Great Pacific garbage patch
Great Pacific garbage patch
and Environmental impact of shipping

Marine debris
Marine debris
on a Hawaiian coast

The quantity of small plastic fragments floating in the north-east Pacific Ocean
Ocean
increased a hundredfold between 1972 and 2012.[74] Marine pollution
Marine pollution
is a generic term for the harmful entry into the ocean of chemicals or particles. The main culprits are those using the rivers for disposing of their waste.[75] The rivers then empty into the ocean, often also bringing chemicals used as fertilizers in agriculture. The excess of oxygen-depleting chemicals in the water leads to hypoxia and the creation of a dead zone.[76] Marine debris, also known as marine litter, is human-created waste that has ended up floating in a lake, sea, ocean, or waterway. Oceanic debris tends to accumulate at the center of gyres and coastlines, frequently washing aground where it is known as beach litter.[75] In addition, the Pacific Ocean
Ocean
has served as the crash site of satellites, including Mars 96, Fobos-Grunt, and Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. Major ports and harbors[edit] Main article: List of ports and harbors of the Pacific Ocean See also[edit]

Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
Economic Cooperation Pacific Alliance Pacific- Antarctic
Antarctic
Ridge Pacific coast Pacific hurricane Pacific Time Zone Pacific War Seven Seas Trans-Pacific Partnership Typhoon War of the Pacific

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References[edit]

^ a b c "Pacific Ocean". Britannica Concise. 2006. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ^ International Hydrographic Organization (1953). "Limits of Oceans and Seas" (PDF) (3rd ed.). Monte Carlo, Monaco: International Hydrographic Organization. Retrieved 12 June 2010.  ^ " Japan
Japan
Atlas: Japan
Japan
Marine Science and Technology Center". Retrieved 4 July 2007.  ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Ferdinand Magellan". Newadvent.org. 1 October 1910. Retrieved 31 October 2010.  ^ "Library Acquires Copy of 1507 Waldseemüller World Map – News Releases (Library of Congress)". Loc.gov. Retrieved 20 April 2013.  ^ Stanley, David (2004). South Pacific. David Stanley. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-56691-411-6. Retrieved 13 June 2013.  ^ Hannard (1991), page 7 ^ Milton, Giles (1999). Nathaniel's Nutmeg. London: Sceptre. pp. 5, 7. ISBN 978-0-340-69676-7.  ^ Porter, Jonathan. [1996] (1996). Macau, the Imaginary City: Culture and Society, 1557 to the Present. Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-3749-6 ^ Ober, Frederick Albion. Vasco Nuñez de Balboa. Library of Alexandria. p. 129. ISBN 978-1-4655-7034-5. Retrieved 12 June 2013.  ^ Camino, Mercedes Maroto. Producing the Pacific: Maps and Narratives of Spanish Exploration (1567–1606), p.76. 2005. ^ "Life in the sea: Pacific Ocean", Oceanário de Lisboa. Retrieved 9 June 2013. ^ Galvano, Antonio (2004) [1563]. The Discoveries of the World from Their First Original Unto the Year of Our Lord 1555, issued by the Hakluyt Society. Kessinger Publishing. p. 168. ISBN 0-7661-9022-6. Retrieved 16 June 2011.  ^ Kratoska, Paul H. (2001). South East Asia, Colonial History: Imperialism
Imperialism
before 1800, Volume 1 de South East Asia, Colonial History. Taylor & Francis. pp. 52–56. [1] ^ Whiteway, Richard Stephen (1899). The rise of Portuguese power in India, 1497–1550. Westminster: A. Constable.  ^ Steven Thomas, "Portuguese in Japan". Steven's Balagan. Retrieved 22 May 2015.  ^ Henderson, James D.; Delpar, Helen; Brungardt, Maurice Philip; Weldon, Richard N. (January 2000). A Reference Guide to Latin American History. M.E. Sharpe. p. 28. ISBN 978-1-56324-744-6. Retrieved 12 June 2013.  ^ a b Fernandez-Armesto, Felipe (2006). Pathfinders: A Global History of Exploration. W.W. Norton & Company. pp. 305–307. ISBN 0-393-06259-7.  ^ J.P. Sigmond and L.H. Zuiderbaan (1979) Dutch Discoveries of Australia.Rigby Ltd, Australia. pp. 19–30 ISBN 0-7270-0800-5 ^ Primary Australian History: Book
Book
F [B6] Ages 10–11. R.I.C. Publications. 2008. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-74126-688-7. Retrieved 12 June 2013.  ^ Lytle Schurz, William (1922), "The Spanish Lake", The Hispanic American Historical Review, 5 (2): 181–194, JSTOR 2506024  ^ Williams, Glyndwr (2004). Captain Cook: Explorations And Reassessments. Boydell Press. p. 143. ISBN 978-1-84383-100-6. Retrieved 12 June 2013.  ^ Marty, Christoph. "Charles Darwin's Travels on the HMS Beagle". Scientific American. Retrieved 2018-03-23.  ^ "The Voyage of the HMS Challenger". www.interactiveoceans.washington.edu. Retrieved 2018-03-23.  ^ A Synopsis of the Cruise of the U.S.S. "Tuscarora": From the Date of Her Commission to Her Arrival in San Francisco, Cal. Sept. 2d, 1874. Cosmopolitan printing Company. 1874.  ^ Johnston, Keith (1881). A Physical, Historical, Political, & Descriptive Geography. E. Stanford.  ^ a b Bernard Eccleston, Michael Dawson. 1998. The Asia-Pacific Profile. Routledge. p. 250. ^ William Sater, Chile
Chile
and the United States: Empires in Conflict, 1990 by the University of Georgia Press, ISBN 0-8203-1249-5 ^ Tewari, Nita; Alvarez, Alvin N. (17 September 2008). Asian American Psychology: Current Perspectives. CRC Press. p. 161. ISBN 978-1-84169-749-9. Retrieved 12 June 2013.  ^ "Area of Earth's Land Surface", The Physics Factbook. Retrieved 9 June 2013. ^ Nuttall, Mark (2005). Encyclopedia of the Arctic: A-F. Routledge. p. 1461. ISBN 978-1-57958-436-8. Retrieved 10 June 2013.  ^ "Plate Tectonics", Bucknell University. Retrieved 9 June 2013. ^ Young, Greg (2009). Plate Tectonics. Capstone. pp. 9–. ISBN 978-0-7565-4232-0. Retrieved 9 June 2013.  ^ International Hydrographic Organization (1953). Limits of Oceans and Seas. International Hydrographic Organization. Retrieved 9 June 2013.  ^ Agno, Lydia (1998). Basic Geography. Goodwill Trading Co., Inc. pp. 25–. ISBN 978-971-11-0165-7. Retrieved 9 June 2013.  ^ "Pacific Ocean: The trade winds", Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 9 June 2013. ^ Shirley Rousseau Murphy (1979). The Ring of Fire. Avon. ISBN 978-0-380-47191-1.  ^ Bryant, Edward (2008). Tsunami: The Underrated Hazard. Springer. pp. 26–. ISBN 978-3-540-74274-6. Retrieved 9 June 2013.  ^ "The Map That Named America". www.loc.gov. Retrieved 3 December 2014.  ^ Ribero, Diego (London : W. Griggs, [1887?]), Carta universal en que se contiene todo lo que del mundo se ha descubierto fasta agora / hizola Diego Ribero cosmographo de su magestad, ano de 1529, e[n] Sevilla, W. Griggs, retrieved 30 September 2017  Check date values in: date= (help) ^ K, Harsh (19 March 2017). "This ocean has most of the islands in the world". Mysticalroads. Archived from the original on 2 August 2017. Retrieved 6 April 2017.  ^ Ishihara, Masahide; Hoshino, Eiichi; Fujita, Yoko (2016). Self-determinable Development of Small Islands. Springer. p. 180. ISBN 9789811001321.  ^ United States. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council
Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council
(2009). Toward an Ecosystem Approach for the Western Pacific Region: from Species-based Fishery Management Plans to Place-based Fishery Ecosystem Plans: Environmental Impact Statement. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University. p. 60.  ^ a b Academic American encyclopedia. Grolier Incorporated. 1997. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-7172-2068-7. Retrieved 12 June 2013.  ^ Lal, Brij Vilash; Fortune, Kate (2000). The Pacific Islands: An Encyclopedia. University of Hawaii
Hawaii
Press. pp. 63–. ISBN 978-0-8248-2265-1. Retrieved 14 June 2013.  ^ West, Barbara A. (2009). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia
Asia
and Oceania. Infobase Publishing. pp. 521–. ISBN 978-1-4381-1913-7. Retrieved 14 June 2013.  ^ Dunford, Betty; Ridgell, Reilly (1996). Pacific Neighbors: The Islands of Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia. Bess Press. pp. 125–. ISBN 978-1-57306-022-6. Retrieved 14 June 2013.  ^ Gillespie, Rosemary G.; Clague, David A. (2009). Encyclopedia of Islands. University of California
California
Press. p. 706. ISBN 978-0-520-25649-1. Retrieved 12 June 2013.  ^ "Coral island", Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 22 June 2013. ^ "Nauru", Charting the Pacific. Retrieved 22 June 2013. ^ "PWLF.org – The Pacific WildLife Foundation – The Pacific Ocean". Archived from the original on 21 April 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2013.  ^ Mongillo, John F. (2000). Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. University Rochester Press. pp. 255–. ISBN 978-1-57356-147-1. Retrieved 9 June 2013.  ^ "Pacific Ocean: Salinity", Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 9 June 2013. ^ "Wind Driven Surface Currents: Equatorial Currents Background", Ocean
Ocean
Motion. Retrieved 9 June 2013. ^ "Kuroshio", Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 9 June 2013. ^ "Aleutian Current", Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 9 June 2013. ^ "South Equatorial Current", Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 9 June 2013. ^ "Pacific Ocean: Islands", Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 13 June 2013. ^ Climate Prediction Center
Climate Prediction Center
(30 June 2014). "ENSO: Recent Evolution, Current Status and Predictions" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. pp. 5, 19–20. Retrieved 30 June 2014.  ^ Glossary of Meteorology (2009). Monsoon. Archived 22 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine. American Meteorological Society. Retrieved on 16 January 2009. ^ Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory
Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory
– Hurricane Research Division. "Frequently Asked Questions: When is hurricane season?". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 25 July 2006.  ^ "Pacific Ocean", World Factbook, CIA. Retrieved 13 June 2013. ^ John P. Stimac. Air pressure and wind. Retrieved on 8 May 2008. ^ Walker, Stuart (1998). The sailor's wind. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 91. ISBN 9780393045550.  ^ Turnbull, Alexander (15 December 2006). Map New Zealand: 100 Magnificent Maps from the Collection of the Alexander Turnbull Library. Godwit. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-86962-126-1. Retrieved 10 June 2013.  ^ Trent, D. D.; Hazlett, Richard; Bierman, Paul (2010). Geology and the Environment. Cengage Learning. p. 133. ISBN 978-0-538-73755-5. Retrieved 10 June 2013.  ^ Lal, Brij Vilash; Fortune, Kate (January 2000). The Pacific Islands: An Encyclopedia. University of Hawaii
Hawaii
Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-8248-2265-1. Retrieved 10 June 2013.  ^ Mueller-Dombois, Dieter (1998). Vegetation of the Tropical Pacific Islands. Springer. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-387-98313-4. Retrieved 10 June 2013.  ^ "GEOL 102 The Proterozoic Eon II: Rodinia
Rodinia
and Pannotia". Geol.umd.edu. 5 January 2010. Retrieved 31 October 2010.  ^ Mussett, Alan E.; Khan, M. Aftab (23 October 2000). Looking Into the Earth: An Introduction to Geological Geophysics. Cambridge University Press. p. 332. ISBN 978-0-521-78574-7. Retrieved 10 June 2013.  ^ "Pacific Ocean: Fisheries", Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 12 June 2013. ^ "Pacific Ocean: Commerce and Shipping", The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th edition. Retrieved 14 June 2013. ^ "Pacific Ocean
Ocean
Threats & Impacts: Overfishing and Exploitation" Archived 12 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine., Center for Ocean Solutions. Retrieved 14 June 2013. ^ Plastic waste in the North Pacific is an ongoing concern BBC 9 May 2012 ^ a b "PHOTOS: Giant Ocean-Trash Vortex Documented-A First". News.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved 31 October 2010.  ^ Gerlach: Marine Pollution, Springer, Berlin (1975)

Further reading[edit]

Barkley, Richard A. (1968). Oceanographic Atlas of the Pacific Ocean. Honolulu: University of Hawaii
Hawaii
Press.  prepared by the Special
Special
Publications Division, National Geographic Society. (1985). Blue Horizons: Paradise Isles of the Pacific. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society. ISBN 0-87044-544-8.  Cameron, Ian (1987). Lost Paradise: The Exploration of the Pacific. Topsfield, Mass.: Salem House. ISBN 0-88162-275-3.  Couper, A. D. (ed.) (1989). Development and Social Change in the Pacific Islands. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-00917-0. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Gilbert, John (1971). Charting the Vast Pacific. London: Aldus. ISBN 0-490-00226-9.  Lower, J. Arthur (1978). Ocean
Ocean
of Destiny: A Concise History of the North Pacific, 1500–1978. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. ISBN 0-7748-0101-8.  Napier, W.; Gilbert, J.; Holland, J. (1973). Pacific Voyages. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-04335-X.  Nunn, Patrick D. (1998). Pacific Island Landscapes: Landscape and Geological Development of Southwest Pacific Islands, Especially Fiji, Samoa
Samoa
and Tonga. editorips@usp.ac.fj. ISBN 978-982-02-0129-3.  Oliver, Douglas L. (1989). The Pacific Islands
Pacific Islands
(3rd ed.). Honolulu: University of Hawaii
Hawaii
Press. ISBN 0-8248-1233-6.  Paine, Lincoln. The Sea
Sea
and Civilization: A Maritime History of the World (2015). Ridgell, Reilly (1988). Pacific Nations and Territories: The Islands of Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia
Polynesia
(2nd ed.). Honolulu: Bess Press. ISBN 0-935848-50-9.  Samson, Jane. British imperial strategies in the Pacific, 1750–1900 (Ashgate Publishing, 2003). Soule, Gardner (1970). The Greatest Depths: Probing the Seas to 20,000 feet (6,100 m) and Below. Philadelphia: Macrae Smith. ISBN 0-8255-8350-0.  Spate, O. H. K. (1988). Paradise Found and Lost. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-1715-5.  Terrell, John (1986). Prehistory in the Pacific Islands: A Study of Variation in Language, Customs, and Human Biology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-30604-3. 

Historiography[edit]

Davidson, James Wightman. "Problems of Pacific history." Journal of Pacific History 1#1 (1966): 5–21. Gulliver, Katrina. "Finding the Pacific world." Journal of World History 22#1 (2011): 83–100. online[dead link] Igler, David (2013). The Great Ocean: Pacific Worlds from Captain Cook to the Gold Rush. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-991495-8.  Munro, Doug. The Ivory Tower and Beyond: Participant Historians of the Pacific (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009). Routledge, David. "Pacific history as seen from the Pacific Islands." Pacific Studies 8#2 (1985): 81+ online Samson, Jane. "Pacific/Oceanic History" in Kelly Boyd, ed. (1999). Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing vol 2. Taylor & Francis. pp. 901–2. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pacific Ocean.

Look up pacific ocean in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

EPIC Pacific Ocean
Ocean
Data Collection Viewable on-line collection of observational data NOAA In-situ Ocean
Ocean
Data Viewer plot and download ocean observations NOAA PMEL Argo profiling floats Realtime Pacific Ocean
Ocean
data NOAA TAO El Niño
El Niño
data Realtime Pacific Ocean
Ocean
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El Niño
buoy data NOAA Ocean
Ocean
Surface Current Analyses—Realtime (OSCAR) Near-realtime Pacific Ocean
Ocean
Surface Currents derived from satellite altimeter and scatterometer data

v t e

Regions of the world

v t e

Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland

Mbaise

Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
islands

Comoros Islands

North Africa

Maghreb

Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains

Nile Valley

Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile Delta Nuba Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt

Western Sahara

West Africa

Pepper Coast Gold Coast Slave Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Niger Basin Guinean Forests of West Africa Niger Delta Inner Niger Delta

Southern Africa

Madagascar

Central Highlands (Madagascar) Northern Highlands

Rhodesia

North South

Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay

Macro-regions

Aethiopia Arab world Commonwealth realm East African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic is an official language Mediterranean Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan (region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountains Tropical Africa

v t e

Regions of Asia

Central

Greater Middle East Aral Sea

Aralkum Desert Caspian Sea Dead Sea Sea
Sea
of Galilee

Transoxiana

Turan

Greater Khorasan Ariana Khwarezm Sistan Kazakhstania Eurasian Steppe

Asian Steppe Kazakh Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe

Mongolian-Manchurian grassland Wild Fields

Yedisan Muravsky Trail

Ural

Ural Mountains

Volga region Idel-Ural Kolyma Transbaikal Pryazovia Bjarmaland Kuban Zalesye Ingria Novorossiya Gornaya Shoriya Tulgas Iranian Plateau Altai Mountains Pamir Mountains Tian Shan Badakhshan Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Mount Imeon Mongolian Plateau Western Regions Taklamakan Desert Karakoram

Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract

Siachen Glacier

North

Inner Asia Northeast Far East

Russian Far East Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

Extreme North Siberia

Baikalia
Baikalia
(Lake Baikal) Transbaikal Khatanga Gulf Baraba steppe

Kamchatka Peninsula Amur Basin Yenisei Gulf Yenisei Basin Beringia Sikhote-Alin

East

Japanese archipelago

Northeastern Japan
Japan
Arc Sakhalin Island Arc

Korean Peninsula Gobi Desert Taklamakan Desert Greater Khingan Mongolian Plateau Inner Asia Inner Mongolia Outer Mongolia China
China
proper Manchuria

Outer Manchuria Inner Manchuria Northeast China
China
Plain Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

North China
China
Plain

Yan Mountains

Kunlun Mountains Liaodong Peninsula Himalayas Tibetan Plateau

Tibet

Tarim Basin Northern Silk Road Hexi Corridor Nanzhong Lingnan Liangguang Jiangnan Jianghuai Guanzhong Huizhou Wu Jiaozhou Zhongyuan Shaannan Ordos Loop

Loess Plateau Shaanbei

Hamgyong Mountains Central Mountain Range Japanese Alps Suzuka Mountains Leizhou Peninsula Gulf of Tonkin Yangtze River Delta Pearl
Pearl
River Delta Yenisei Basin Altai Mountains Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass

West

Greater Middle East

MENA MENASA Middle East

Red Sea Caspian Sea Mediterranean Sea Zagros Mountains Persian Gulf

Pirate Coast Strait of Hormuz Greater and Lesser Tunbs

Al-Faw Peninsula Gulf of Oman Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Aden Balochistan Arabian Peninsula

Najd Hejaz Tihamah Eastern Arabia South Arabia

Hadhramaut Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
coastal fog desert

Tigris–Euphrates Mesopotamia

Upper Mesopotamia Lower Mesopotamia Sawad Nineveh plains Akkad (region) Babylonia

Canaan Aram Eber-Nari Suhum Eastern Mediterranean Mashriq Kurdistan Levant

Southern Levant Transjordan Jordan Rift Valley

Israel Levantine Sea Golan Heights Hula Valley Galilee Gilead Judea Samaria Arabah Anti-Lebanon Mountains Sinai Peninsula Arabian Desert Syrian Desert Fertile Crescent Azerbaijan Syria Palestine Iranian Plateau Armenian Highlands Caucasus

Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains

Greater Caucasus Lesser Caucasus

North Caucasus South Caucasus

Kur-Araz Lowland Lankaran Lowland Alborz Absheron Peninsula

Anatolia Cilicia Cappadocia Alpide belt

South

Greater India Indian subcontinent Himalayas Hindu Kush Western Ghats Eastern Ghats Ganges Basin Ganges Delta Pashtunistan Punjab Balochistan Kashmir

Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley Pir Panjal Range

Thar Desert Indus Valley Indus River
Indus River
Delta Indus Valley Desert Indo-Gangetic Plain Eastern coastal plains Western Coastal Plains Meghalaya subtropical forests MENASA Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Doab Bagar tract Great Rann of Kutch Little Rann of Kutch Deccan Plateau Coromandel Coast Konkan False Divi Point Hindi Belt Ladakh Aksai Chin Gilgit-Baltistan

Baltistan Shigar Valley

Karakoram

Saltoro Mountains

Siachen Glacier Bay of Bengal Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Mannar Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman Islands Nicobar Islands

Maldive Islands Alpide belt

Southeast

Mainland

Indochina Malay Peninsula

Maritime

Peninsular Malaysia Sunda Islands Greater Sunda Islands Lesser Sunda Islands

Indonesian Archipelago Timor New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

Philippine Archipelago

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Leyte Gulf Gulf of Thailand East Indies Nanyang Alpide belt

Asia-Pacific Tropical Asia Ring of Fire

v t e

Regions of Europe

North

Nordic Northwestern Scandinavia Scandinavian Peninsula Fennoscandia Baltoscandia Sápmi West Nordic Baltic Baltic Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Iceland Faroe Islands

East

Danubian countries Prussia Galicia Volhynia Donbass Sloboda Ukraine Sambia Peninsula

Amber Coast

Curonian Spit Izyum Trail Lithuania Minor Nemunas Delta Baltic Baltic Sea Vyborg Bay Karelia

East Karelia Karelian Isthmus

Lokhaniemi Southeastern

Balkans Aegean Islands Gulf of Chania North Caucasus Greater Caucasus Kabardia European Russia

Southern Russia

Central

Baltic Baltic Sea Alpine states Alpide belt Mitteleuropa Visegrád Group

West

Benelux Low Countries Northwest British Isles English Channel Channel Islands Cotentin Peninsula Normandy Brittany Gulf of Lion Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Pyrenees Alpide belt

South

Italian Peninsula Insular Italy Tuscan Archipelago Aegadian Islands Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Gibraltar Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Crimea Alpide belt

Germanic Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin

Great Hungarian Plain Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Slovak Lowland

v t e

Regions of North America

Northern

Eastern Canada Western Canada Canadian Prairies Central Canada Northern Canada Atlantic Canada The Maritimes French Canada English Canada Acadia

Acadian Peninsula

Quebec City–Windsor Corridor Peace River Country Cypress Hills Palliser's Triangle Canadian Shield Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Newfoundland (island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait of Georgia Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Labrador Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula

Bay de Verde Peninsula

Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay Greenland Pacific Northwest Inland Northwest Northeast

New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth

West

Midwest Upper Midwest Mountain States Intermountain West Basin and Range Province

Oregon Trail Mormon Corridor Calumet Region Southwest

Old Southwest

Llano Estacado Central United States

Tallgrass prairie

South

South Central Deep South Upland South

Four Corners East Coast West Coast Gulf Coast Third Coast Coastal states Eastern United States

Appalachia

Trans-Mississippi Great North Woods Great Plains Interior Plains Great Lakes Great Basin

Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert

Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald Triangle San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area

San Francisco Bay North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) East Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River Delta Columbia River Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula of Michigan Lower Peninsula of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska
Alaska
Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

Bible Belt Black Belt Corn Belt Cotton Belt Frost Belt Rice Belt Rust Belt Sun Belt Snow Belt

Latin

Northern Mexico Baja California
California
Peninsula Gulf of California

Colorado River Delta

Gulf of Mexico Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Basin and Range Province Western Caribbean Zone Isthmus of Panama Gulf of Panama

Pearl
Pearl
Islands

Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast West Indies Antilles

Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward

Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Northern Middle Anglo Latin

French Hispanic

American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

v t e

Regions of Oceania

Australasia

Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
(archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia

Maralinga

Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula

Melanesia

Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu

Micronesia

Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

Polynesia

Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

v t e

Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

Caribbean South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta

South

Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula

West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

v t e

Polar regions

Antarctic

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands

Arctic

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

v t e

Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea
Sea
of Åland Sea
Sea
of Azov Sea
Sea
of Crete Sea
Sea
of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique
Mozambique
Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China
China
Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea
Sea
of Japan Sea
Sea
of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China
China
Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

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