pronunciation: [paˈtʃuka] ( listen)), formally known
Pachuca de Soto, is the capital and largest city of the Mexican
state of Hidalgo. It is located in the south-central part of the
Pachuca de Soto is also the name of the municipality of which
the city serves as municipal seat.
Pachuca is located about 90
kilometres (56 mi) from
Mexico City via Mexican Federal Highway
85. There is no consensus about the origin of the name Pachuca. It
has been traced to the word pachoa (strait; opening), Pachoacan (place
of government; place of silver and gold), and patlachuican (place of
factories; place of tears).
The official name of
Pachuca de Soto in honor of
congressman Manuel Fernando Soto, who is given credit for the creation
of Hidalgo state. Its nickname of “La bella airosa” (Beautiful
Airy City) comes from the strong winds that blow into the valley
through the canyons to the north of the city. In the indigenous
Pachuca is known as Nju̱nthe. The area had been
long inhabited, but except for some green obsidian the mining that
Pachuca is famous for began in the mid-16th century, during Spanish
Pachuca remained a major mining center until the mid-20th century,
with the city’s fortunes going up and down with the health of the
mining sector. In the mid-20th century, a major downturn in mining
Pachuca to change the basis of its economy to industry,
resulting in the revamping of the Universidad Autónoma de Hidalgo.
Today mining forms only a fraction of the municipality’s
economy. One cultural aspect that makes
Pachuca stand out is the
influence of the Cornish miners who immigrated here in the 19th
century. Many of their descendants remain in
Pachuca and nearby Real
del Monte, as well as two heritages that define the city, football and
a dish called “pastes.”
3 The city
3.1 City attractions
4 The English/Cornish influence
Municipality of Pachuca
8 Twin towns – sister cities
9 Notable residents
10 See also
12 External links
Closeup of the Reloj Monumental
Evidence of early human habitation in this area is found in Cerro de
las Navajas and Zacualtipán, in the Sierra de Pachuca. Here primitive
mines to extract green obsidian, arrow heads, scraping tools, and
mammoth remains can be traced back as far as 12,000 BCE. An ancient
pre-Hispanic obsidian tool-making center has also been found in the
small town of San Bartolo near the city. Around 2,000 BCE nomadic
groups here began to be replaced by sedentary peoples who formed
farming villages in an area then known as Itzcuincuitlapilco, of which
the municipality of
Pachuca is a part. Later artifacts from between
200 CE and 850 CE show
Teotihuacan influence with platforms and
figurines found in San Bartolo and in Tlapacoya. Development of this
area as a city, however, would lag behind other places in the region
such as Tulancingo, Tula and Atotonilco El Grande, but the
archeological sites here were on the trade routes among these larger
Teotihuacan era, the area was dominated by the Chichimecas
with their capital in Xaltocan, who called the area around Pachuca
Njunthé. Later, the
Chichimecas would found the dominion of
Cuauhtitlán pushing the native Otomis to the Mezquital Valley. These
conquests coalesced into a zone called Cuautlalpan, of which Pachuca
was a part. Fortifications in the area of
Pachuca city and other areas
were built between 1174 and 1181. This dominion would eventually
be overrun by the
Aztec Triple Alliance
Aztec Triple Alliance between 1427 and 1430, with
Pachuca then coming from the city of Tenochtitlan. According
to tradition, it was after this conquest that mineral exploitation
began here and in neighboring Real del Monte, at a site known as Jacal
or San Nicolás. The Aztec governing center was where Plaza Juárez
Pachuca city is now.
The Spanish arrived here in 1528, killing the local Aztec governor,
Ixcóatl. Credit for the Spanish conquest of the
Pachuca area has
been given Francisco Téllez, an artilleryman who came to
Hernán Cortés in 1519. He and Gonzalo Rodriguez were the first
Spaniards here, constructing two feudal estates, and calling the area
Real de Minas de Pachuca. Téllez was also given credit for laying
out the colonial city of
Pachuca on the European model but this story
has been proven false, with no alternative version. Mining
resources were not discovered here until 1552, and there are
several versions of this story. The most probable comes from a work
called “Descripción Anónima de la Minas de Pachuca” (Anonymous
Description of the Mines of Pachuca) written between the end of the
16th century and the beginning of the 17th. This work claims that the
first mineral deposits were found by Alonso Rodríguez de Salgado on
his ranch on the outskirts of
Pachuca in two large hills called
Magdalena and Cristóbal. This discovery would quickly change the
area’s economy from agriculture to one dependent almost completely
As early as 1560 the population of the city had tripled to 2,200, with
most people employed in mining in some way. Because of this rapid
growth and the ruggedness of the terrain, it was impossible to lay out
an orderly set of streets. The first main plaza was placed next to the
Asunción Parish, which is now the Garden of the Constitution. Next to
the Cajas Reales (Royal Safe) was constructed to guard the fifth that
belonged to the king.
The Cajas Reales, built to guard the fifth of miners' finds that
belonged to the king
In 1554, on the Purísima Concepción Hacienda, now the site of a
tennis club, Bartolomé de Medina found the largest mineral deposits
here as well as developed new ways of extracting minerals from ore
using the patio process. This caused
Pachuca to grow even more with
the discovery of new deposits and accelerated extraction processes.
Mining operations spread to nearby areas such as Atotonilco, Actopan,
and Tizayuca. The population of the town continued to grow, leading
Pachuca to be declared a city in 1813.
Mining output had waned by the 18th century due to flooding, but was
revived in 1741 by the first Count of Regla, Pedro Romero de Terreros,
and his business partner Jose Alejandro Bustamante, who invested in
new drainage works. He also discovered new veins of ore, mostly in
nearby Real del Monte. By 1746,
Pachuca had a population of 900
Spanish, mestizo, and mulatto households, plus 120 Indian ones.
During the Mexican War of Independence, the city was taken by Miguel
Serrano and Vicente Beristain de Souza in 1812, which caused the mines
here to be abandoned by owners loyal to Spain. The war left the
Pachuca area in a state of chaos, both politically and economically.
The third Count of Regla brought the first Cornish miners and
technology around 1824. The Cornish took over mines abandoned by
the Spanish, bringing 1,500 tones of more modern equipment from
Cornwall. Cornish companies eventually dominated mining here until
1848, when the
Mexican American War
Mexican American War forced them to sell out to a
Mexican company by the name of Mackintosh, Escondón, Beistegui and
John Rule. Mining operations resumed in 1850, especially in the
Stocks in mining companies of
Pachuca in the Museo de Minería
Mining operations were disrupted again by the
Mexican Revolution in
the early 20th century. The city was first taken by forces loyal to
Francisco I. Madero
Francisco I. Madero in 1911. Roberto Martinez y Martinez, a general
under Pancho Villa, entered the city in 1915. Both incursions were due
to the economic importance of the mines here. During this time
American investors came to Pachuca, again updating the mining
technology used here. From 1906 to 1947 the
United States Smelting,
Refining and Mining Company was the primary producer here, with output
reaching its peak in the 1930s. However, by 1947, mining here had
become too costly, because of political instability, labor disputes
and low prices for silver on the world market. The company sold its
interests to the Mexican government in 1965.
The decline in mining here in the mid-20th century had disastrous
effects on the city. Many of the abandoned houses and other buildings
were in danger of collapse. Under ownership of the Mexican government,
mining came to a near standstill. During this time Pachuca’s economy
began to shift from mining to industry. The old Instituto Científico
Literario Autónomo de Hidalgo was converted to the Universidad
Autónoma del Estado in 1961, which would become one of the impetuses
to the growth of the city in the following years, turning out as it
did a better-educated and more technical workforce in areas such as
law, engineering, business and medicine. In the late 1950s and through
the 1960s, some growth was seen in the way of suburban developments
for workers in newly built factories.
Population growth returned in the 1970s and continued through the
1990s because of the growth of non-mining industries as well as a
development of a large student population for the state university as
well as other educational institutions. Another impetus was the
movement of many government offices to
Pachuca with new government
facilities such as the State Government Palace and the State Supreme
Court built in the 1970s. Much of the city’s growth during this time
was due to new housing projects, but infrastructure projects such as
the new Municipal Market, the remodeling of the Plaza Benito Juárez
and the main bus station also took place.
Pachuca has a semi-arid climate (
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification BSk) .
The climate is cool with high rainfall and occasional hail during the
summer months and dry conditions during the winter. The coldest month
is January, with an average high of 20 °C (68 °F) and an
average low of 3 °C (37 °F). Winter nights are cold and
the temperature can drop below 0 °C (32 °F). The warmest
month is May, with an average high of 24 °C (75 °F) and a
low of 9 °C (48 °F). Due to its high altitude, nighttime
temperatures remain cool throughout the year. The average annual
precipitation is 412 millimetres (16.2 in), mostly concentrated
in the months May through September. In terms of extremes, the record
high was 40 °C (104 °F) and the record low was
−9 °C (16 °F).
Climate data for
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: Servicio Meteorológico Nacional
Source #2: Colegio de Postgraduados (sun and humidity)
The city occupies a small valley and is almost completely surrounded
by large hills, which are also covered in colorful housing. The
city centre has maintained most of its colonial-era structures, with
narrow winding streets. Away from this centre is the more modern
Pachuca, with warehouses, factories, supermarkets and a large football
stadium called El Huracán (The Hurricane). The local team has won
eight national and international titles here since it was built.
The city proper has a population (2005) of 267,751 which is 97% of the
population of the municipality. The
Pachuca zona metropolitana
(ZM) is one of the 56 officially defined areas for the 2005 Census
(2010 not released) consisting of the municipalities of
Soto, Real del Monte, and
Mineral de la Reforma
Mineral de la Reforma making a total of 7
municipios, with a combined population of 438,692 inhabitants as of
2005[update], up from 375,022 in 2000, covering 1202 km2.
Pachuca was declared the capital of Hidalgo by
Benito Juárez in
The Reloj Monumental—Monumental Clock
Pachuca is center of one of the most important mining areas in Mexico,
and for this reason, most of the city’s attractions are based on the
mining industry. Many of these are located near Hidalgo Street,
which is one of the oldest in
Pachuca and runs alongside the arcade of
the main plaza (Plaza de la Constitución) to Hidalgo Park. The oldest
markets and houses are also located on this street, many of which are
Monumental Clock of Pachuca
Monumental Clock of Pachuca is the icon of the city. Donated by
Cornishman, Francis Rule, it was built to commemorate the
Centennial of Mexico’s Independence, and was inaugurated on 15
September 1910 (Noche de Grito) . The base of the Reloj was made
originally for a kiosk but it was decided to put the clock here
instead. A group from the city had the idea for the clock, and
they, along with Mexican embassador Jesús Zenil arranged to have the
same company that built Big Ben, construct the inner workings. The
outer monument portion is Mexican-made and was supervised by engineers
Francisco Hernández and Luis Carreón. It is a tower with four parts
in Neoclassic style, constructed of white “cantera” stone with a
height of 40 meters. In the middle there are four sculpted faces of
women done in marble by Carrara, which symbolise the Reform, Liberty,
Independence and Constitution.
Church and ex monastery of San Francisco
Church of San Francisco interior
Church and ex monastery of San Francisco
The Church and ex monastery of San Francisco were begun in 1596, and
the church was completed c. 1660. The façade is in the colonial
Spanish Baroque style. The interior conserves aspects of its
16th-century origins, including the groin vault. The church contains
oil paintings by regionally well-known artists of the 18th
century. The sacristy has a beautiful ritual sinks in sculpted
stone, one of which is decorated with Talavera tile from Puebla. It
also has paintings depicting the genealogy and life of Francis of
The adjoining cloister was completed in 1604. It has not been a
monastery for many years, and had a number of subsequent uses. It had
greatly deteriorated, until recently restored to house the Centro
Cultural Hidalgo. Behind the church is the Chapel of Nuestra
Señora de la Luz. Built between the 17th and 18th century, it
contains the only
Churrigueresque altar in the city. This altar also
contains the remains of the Count of Regla, Pedro Romero de
The Museum of Photography and Photographic Library of INAH, and the
Regional Museum, occupy much of the complex now. The
photography museum contains antique photography equipment as well as
works by known photographers such as
Guillermo Kahlo and Tina Modotti.
To the east of the monastery complex is the Bartolomé de Medina Park.
The City Theater and the School of Arts face the park.
The Asunción Church is the oldest in the city, constructed in 1553,
and remodeled several times, with major reconstruction in
1719. The Asunción Chapel has an entrance with two levels.
The lower one contains the door and has a round arch, flanked by two
pilasters and a Baroque architrave. The upper level has a choir
window, with a niche above and topped by a pediment. The bell tower
also has two levels, both with round arches.
Bancomer Building is located at the front of the main plaza. It
was designed in the Neoclassical style, and built in 1902. It was
first occupied by the Mercantil Bank, then by the Hidalgo Bank and
then was converted into the Niágara Hotel. Today it has returned to
being a bank. It has a notable façade of brown cantera stone, lightly
sculpted, with a keystone in the form of a parchment, cornice, Ionic
columns and geometric designed in the upper parts. It is topped by a
pediment which contains the figure of a lion.
The Cajas Reales was where miners paid a 20% share of their
extractions to the Spanish Crown. It not only collected the taxes,
it was the only place that sold the mercury needed to extract silver
from ore as a monopoly of the state. It was constructed in the
17th century by viceroy Sebastián de Toledo Márquez Mancera. It is a
two-story building with a central patio. The façade contains two
towers that flank the main entrance and the north side to serve as
guard stations for the building. It has housed the offices of the
Real del Monte
Real del Monte y
Pachuca since 1850. Emperor
Maximillian I stayed here when he visited the city in 1865.
Romanesque Revival style Methodist church
The Methodist Church building was built in the early 20th century, and
is distinguished by its locally rare Romanesque Revival style. It is
considered an important building of the Cornish period in the state.
It remains a Protestant church and contains the Julián Villagrán
The Casa Colorado, part of the hacienda of the Conde de Regla, was
built in the 18th century. It has an austere façade of a reddish
colour, which gives the house its name. The building formerly had an
interior courtyard with a Gothic style cloister arcade, but was
demolished when enclosed.
In 1886 Governor Francisco Cravioto acquired this building to house
state judicial offices. The building served the judiciary through the
mid-20th century. Many of the streets connecting from here to nearby
Hidalgo Street are named after former notable lawyers and judges.
Archivo Historico y Museo de Minería
Archivo Historico y Museo de Minería
The Archivo Historico y Museo de Minería—Historic Archive and
Museum of Mining is located on Mina Street in a manor that dates from
the 19th century, called the Cajas de San Rafael. The mansion is
constructed of cantera stone and occupies a space of 950m2.
It contains documents that trace the history of mining here from 1556
to 1967, and the more than a billion ounces of silver and the five
million ounces of gold that have been extracted from the state of
Hidalgo during that time. The museum has three exhibition halls, a
covered courtyard and a garden which contains mining machinery.
such as a steam shovel, a winch and a truck used for transport of
ore. The exhibition halls contain displays relating to how
minerals are found in nature and the tools and processes used to
extract them. It also houses a large collection of documents, a
library and a photography laboratory. The documentation contained here
was rescued starting in 1987. In 1993 the current site was renovated
to house the collection. The collection also includes miners’
personal effects, as well as artworks relating to mining.
Museo de Mineralogía
The Museo de Mineralogía—Museum of
Mineralogy belongs to the
Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo. The mineralogy museum is
housed in the old Hospital de San Juan de Dios. It was built and
operated by monks until 1869, when the state converted the building
into the Instituto Literario y Esuela de Artes y Oficios. The museum
exhibits a large collection of mineral specimens from the
Municipal Palace—Conde Rule House
Municipal Palace— Rule House
The Municipal Palace or Conde Rule House is located on Leandro Valle
Morelos streets. It is a two-story building constructed at the end
of the 19th century. The main entrance is flanked by two pilasters and
topped with a pediment decorated with reliefs made of shells.
It belonged to a rich Cornish miner by the name of Francis Rule, and
later became the Municipal Palace.
Archivo del Estado de Hidalgo
Formerly there was an English/Cornish neighborhood in the central part
of Pachuca. The British Consulate is all that remains there, located
in an "English style" residence built at the beginning of the 20th
Site of Hall of Fame of Football
The Mercado de Barreteros is on the Central Plaza, and considered one
of the most valuable architectural elements in the city. The lower
level is dedicated to services such as cafés, and the upper floor is
dedicated to arts and crafts shops. The Monument of Christ the
King is located on the Santa Apolonia Mountain and is one of the
largest in Mexico.
The Archivo del Estado de Hidalgo—Museum of the State of Hidalgo
located in the Civic Centre of the State Congress. Its collection
focuses on the history of the state of Hidalgo, through archival
photographs and documents. Its collection also includes national
The Museo El Rehilete is an interactive museum for children with
exhibits on archeology, botany, other sciences and the arts.
The Sede del Salón de la Fama del Fútbol—Hall of Fame of Football
is in the shape of a football, and located in Parque David Ben Gurion
of the Zona Plateada district. The Universidad de Fútbol—Football
University is the only training facility of its kind in the Americas,
and one of only a few in the world.
Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo
Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo Central Building
Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo
Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo was constructed over
the old Hospital de San Juan de Dios. It is the oldest educational
institution in Hidalgo, brought into being at the same time as the
state. The school was originally established as the Instituto
Literario y Escuela de Artes y Oficios (Literary Institute and School
of Arts and Letters) in 1869. The school was initially in a rented
house but was moved to the former Hospital of San Juan de Dios in
1875. This building is now the Central Building. The school was based
on positivist philosophy and the University motto of “Amor, orden y
progreso” ("love, order and progress") remains to this day. The
school was renamed the Universidad de Hidalgo in 1925 and again to the
Universidad Autónoma de Hidalgo
Universidad Autónoma de Hidalgo in 1948. The university was
reorganized and expanded in 1961.
A more recently established school opened in 2003 is the Universidad
Pachuca (Polytechnic University of Pachuca), which is
mostly an engineering school. It was temporarily housed in the old
Universidad Pedagógica Nacional buildings, but in 2004 the state of
Hidalgo ceded the university the old Santa Barbara Hacienda, with 231
students studying classes in Mechatronics,
Information technology and
Biotechnology at the new facility. New programs of study in Physical
Therapy, Software engineering, Optomechatronics, Information security,
Information technologies and communications.
The English/Cornish influence
Beginning in 1824, Cornish miners and English investors came to
Pachuca and the neighboring town of
Real del Monte
Real del Monte to invest and work
in the mines here. Some founded the Compañía Real de Monte y
Pachuca. Mexico's remaining Cornish community represents a
largely forgotten immigrant story. In the early 19th century, miners
Cornwall were enduring economic hardships. Ships carrying 125
passengers and some 1,500 tons of equipment sailed out of Falmouth,
Cornwall, landing in
Veracruz three months later. The treacherous
500-kilometre (300 mi) trek inland killed about half of the
miners and their family members, many succumbing to malaria and yellow
fever. Those who made it settled in
Pachuca and Real del Monte.
Old English-style house, in historic central Pachuca
The immigrants brought technology, notably the famous high-pressure
steam pumping engines designed by Cornish engineer Richard Trevithick,
which turned many of the area's water-logged mines into huge silver
producers. The majority of the immigrants to this region came from
Cornish mining areas of Camborne,
Redruth and Gwennap.
Cornish/English workers and their technology revitalized the silver
industry here and miners’ remittances sent back home helped to build
the Wesleyan Chapel in
Redruth in the 1820s.
Historic center of
Pachuca at dusk, with Monumental Clock
Real del Monte
Real del Monte District retains much from its
period of association with
Cornwall and home of one of Mexico’s most
enduring cross cultural pollinations. The miners' influence is
obvious in architecture. Up in the hills around Pachuca, many houses
feature distinctly British characteristics: thicker walls, square
windows and pitched roofs. Some of Pachuca’s landmarks have
English/Cornish influences. The Spanish Baroque style Reloj Monumental
(Monumental Clock) chimes to the tune of Big Ben, and was financed by
Francis Rule. The city’s main Methodist church was built by Cornish
miners. The English mining company’s main office as well as the
Francis Rule of Camborne, the last Cornish manager of the
Real del Monte
Real del Monte mine, still bears his initials. The archives of the
company are part of the "Historic Archive and Museum of Mining in
Pachuca" (Museo de Minería) collections, and contain detailed records
of Cornish employees, especially between 1824 and 1849.
The Cornish immigrants married into Mexican families, and even today
Cornish surnames are not uncommon in this area with hundreds of
Cornish descendants present. One example is Umberto Skewes, who speaks
little English but whose grandfather came to
Mexico from Cornwall.
Skewes is custodian of the English Cemetery, which contains
approximately 600 graves, predominantly of Cornish miners and their
families. The Cornish-Mexican Cultural Society works to build
educational links between
Mexico and the United Kingdom. The group
Real del Monte
Real del Monte as “Mexico’s Little
Cornwall” through the Mexican embassy in London.
Cornish and English miners introduced to
Mexico such things as tennis,
golf, rugby, cricket, and chess. However the two
introductions which have had the greatest influence on Pachuca’s
identity are football and pastes.
In 1900 Cornish miners established the
Pachuca Athletic Club, which
was primarily dedicated to football. Their first game was played in
the same year, a fact that is celebrated annually. The first team from
Pachuca consisted of Charles Dawe, John Dawe, James Bennetts, John
Bennetts, William Blamey, Richard Sobey, William Bragg, William
Thomas, Percy Bunt, Lionel Bunt, Albert Pengelly and William Pengelly.
Pachuca club encouraged the formation of teams in
Mexico City and
Orizaba, the first championship of the new Liga Mexicana de Fútbol
Asociación was played in 1902. Other clubs, such as the Reform
Athletic Club, El British Club, F. C. and El México
Cricket Club were
also formed by miners. The first Mexican player appears in the ranks
Pachuca club in 1908 and by 1915, most of the team was Mexican.
Pachuca won the Copa Tower in 1908 and 1912, the precedent of the
modern Mexican Cup. The team disbanded in the 1920s but was
re-instituted in 1951.
Pachuca calls itself the “Cradle of
Pastes for sale
Main article: Paste (pasty)
The Mexican Spanish word “paste” (pronounced PAH-steh) come from
the Cornish word pasties, which is basically a semi-circular turnover
made with a pastry crust with sweet or savory fillings. Cornish miners
brought the recipe with them as they made a good way to bring their
midday meal with them to the mines. One feature of both pasties and
pastes is that they have a thick braided edge. Originally, this was
done to provide the miners a way to hold the turnover without getting
the filled portion dirty, as there was no way to wash their hands
before eating. The shape and pastry portion of the turnover have
remained the same but today, the fillings are decidedly Mexican: mole
verde, beans, mole rojo, chicken “tinga,” pineapple, rice pudding
and one seasonal specialty is a lamb paste with poblano chili peppers.
Pastes are a local delicacy strongly identified with both
Real del Monte.
The Feria de
Pachuca is known colloquially by several names such as
the Feria Tradicional/Internacional de San Francisco, the Feria de
Hidalgo and the Feria de Caballo. It is the most important annual
event in the state of Hidalgo, taking place every October in
facilities located in the south of Pachuca. The festival began as a
liturgical event sponsored by monks at the monastery of San Francisco
in the 16th century, which eventually drew dignitaries from
surrounding communities. The festival sponsors a number of events such
as bullfights, cockfights, charreadas, horse shows, rodeos, crafts and
folk dance shows, livestock exhibitions and features regional cuisine.
It also host concerts by well-known Mexican musical
Other notable events in the city include the Ramón Noble Guitar
Festival and the Feria Hidaltur. The first presents concerts by
guitarists of various genres from countries such as Brazil, Spain, the
U.S., Israel, England and Mexico. There are classes and workshops by
renowned artists as well as a national level competition for classical
guitar. The Feria Hidaltur is held in March and April with the
purpose of promoting the arts and crafts of Hidalgo state. The
festival also has equestrian events, hot-air balloons and other
La Victoria del Viento
La Victoria del Viento in Bicentennial Plaza
Despite its decline in the 20th century, mining still continues to be
an important element of Pachuca’s economy.
Pachuca still produces
more than 60% of the state’s gold and more than 50% of its silver.
Mexican Geological Survey
Mexican Geological Survey is headquartered in the city.
The manufacturing sector was established in the 1950s and has been
steadily growing, changing the city’s traditional mining image. Some
of the major industrial employers are Applied Power de México
(automotive parts), BARROMEX (machinery), Herramientas Cleveland
(machinery and tools) and Embotelladora la Minera (soft drinks). The
city also contains over 800 smaller manufacturing enterprises.
The municipality’s economy also has a large commercial sector, with
numerous stores and thirteen public markets. It is also the wholesale
center for foodstuffs for most of the state.
Despite all the changes in the 20th century, the center of
maintained its provincial feel. This has led the city to promote it as
a tourist attraction.
Municipality of Pachuca
Municipality of Pachuca
The main article for this category is
Pachuca is increasingly co-extensive with the
city, as the city's metro area development grows to cover over 60% of
the available open space. The municipality contains fifteen other
communities, with all but two having less than 1500 people according
to the 2005 INEGI census. Only three percent of the municipality
population of 275,578 lives outside the city boundaries.
Twin towns – sister cities
Little Rock, Arkansas, United States
Camborne, Cornwall, UK
Eagle Pass, Texas, United States
Berta Zerón (1924 - 2000)
^ a b c Aldama, Antonio. "Tips viajero
Pachuca (Hidalgo)" [Travelers
Pachuca (Hidalgo)] (in Spanish).
Archived from the original on 2009-04-16. Retrieved 2009-10-08.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae
af "Estado de Hidalgo
Pachuca de Soto" (in Spanish). Enciclopedia de
los Municipios de México. Archived from the original on 2011-05-17.
^ a b c d e "Donde ir en Pachuca, Hidalgo" [Where to go in Pachuca,
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^ "Diccionario del hñähñu (otomí): Valle del Mezquital, Hidalgo"
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